A train is a form of transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers. The word "train" comes from the Old French trahiner, derived from the Latin trahere meaning "to pull" or "to draw". Motive power for a train is provided by a separate locomotive or individual motors in a self-propelled multiple unit. Although steam propulsion dominated, the most common types of locomotive are diesel and electric, the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Trains can be hauled by horses, pulled by engine or water-driven cable or wire winch, run downhill using gravity, or powered by pneumatics, gas turbines or batteries. Train tracks consist of two running rails, sometimes supplemented by additional rails such as electric conducting rails and rack rails. Monorails and maglev guideways are used occasionally. A passenger train includes passenger-carrying vehicles and can be long and fast. One notable and growing long-distance train.
In order to achieve much faster operation at speeds of over 500 km/h, innovative maglev technology has been the subject of research for many years. The term "light rail" is sometimes used to refer to a modern tram system, but it may mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to a heavy rail rapid transit system. In most countries, the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. A freight train uses freight cars to transport materials, it is possible to carry passengers and freight in the same train using a mixed consist. Rail cars and machinery that are used for the maintenance and repair of tracks, are termed "maintenance of way" equipment. Dedicated trains may be used to provide support services to stations along a train line, such as garbage or revenue collection. There are various types of train. A train can consist of a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit, or a single or articulated powered coach called a railcar.
Special kinds of train running on corresponding purpose-built "railways" are monorails, high-speed railways, atmospheric railways, rubber-tired underground and cog railways. A passenger train consists of several coaches. Alternatively, a train may consist of passenger-carrying coaches, some or all of which are powered. In many parts of the world the Far East and Europe, high-speed rail is used extensively for passenger travel. Freight trains consist of wagons or trucks rather than carriages, though some parcel and mail trains appear outwardly to be more like passenger trains. Trains can have mixed consist, with both passenger accommodation and freight vehicles; these mixed trains are most to be used for services that run infrequently, where the provision of separate passenger and freight trains would not be cost-effective, but the disparate needs of passengers and freight means that this is avoided where possible. Special trains are used for track maintenance. In the United Kingdom, a train hauled using two locomotives is known as a "double-headed" train.
In Canada and the United States, it is quite common for a long freight train to be headed by three or more locomotives. A train with a locomotive attached at both ends is described as "top and tailed", this practice being used when there are no reversing facilities available. Where a second locomotive is attached temporarily to assist a train when ascending steep banks or gradients, this is referred to as "banking" in the UK. Many loaded trains in the US are assembled using one or more locomotives in the middle or at the rear of the train, which are operated remotely from the lead cab; this is referred to as "DP" or "Distributed Power." The railway terminology, used to describe a train varies between countries. In the United Kingdom, the interchangeable terms set and unit are used to refer to a group of permanently or semi-permanently coupled vehicles, such as those of a multiple unit. While when referring to a train made up of a variety of vehicles, or of several sets/units, the term formation is used.
The word rake is used for a group of coaches or wagons. Section 83 of the UK's Railways Act 1993 defines "train" as follows: a) two or more items of rolling stock coupled together, at least one of, a locomotive. In the United States, the term consist is used to describe the group of rail vehicles that make up a train; when referring to motive power, consist refers to the group of locomotives powering the train. The term trainset refers to a group of rolling stock, permanently or semi-permanently coupled together to form a unified set of equipment. There are three types of locomotive: electric and steam; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway's 1948 operating rules define a train as: "An engine or more than one engine coupled, with or without cars, displaying markers." A bogie is trolley. In mechanics terms, a bogie is a framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle, it can be fixed in place, as on a cargo truck, mounted on a swivel, as on a railway carriage or locomotive, o
Glossary of rail transport terms
Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology. The difference between the American term railroad and the international term railway is the most significant difference in rail terminology. There are others, due to the parallel development of rail transport systems in different parts of the world. Various global terms are presented here; the abbreviation "UIC" refers to standard terms adopted by the International Union of Railways in its official publications and thesaurus. Adhesion railway The most common type of railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the wheels of the locomotive Adhesive weight The weight on the driving wheels of a locomotive, which determines the frictional grip between wheels and rail, hence the drawbar pull a locomotive can exert Air brake A power braking system with compressed air as the operating medium Alerter or watchdog Similar to the dead man's switch other than it does not require the operator's constant interaction. Instead, an alarm is sounded at a preset interval in which the operator must respond by pressing a button to reset the alarm and timer if no other controls are operated.
If the operator does not respond within a preset time, the prime mover is automatically throttled back to idle and the brakes are automatically applied. All weather adhesion The adhesion available during traction mode with 99% reliability in all weather conditions Alternator An electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current American Locomotive Company The second largest builder of steam locomotives in the United States American type A steam locomotive with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement Angle cock A valve affixed to each end of a piece of rolling stock that, when opened, admits compressed air to the brake pipe Articulated locomotive A steam locomotive with one or more engine units that can move relative to the main frame Articulation The sharing of one truck by adjacent ends of two rail vehicles Ashpan A feature of a locomotive with the same form and purpose as the domestic variety; the only significant difference is the size, measured in feet rather than inches.
Asynchronous An alternating current electric motor whose speed varies with load and has no fixed relation to the frequency of the supply Atlantic type A steam locomotive with a 4-4-2 wheel arrangement Automatic block signaling A system that consists of a series of signals that divide a railway line into a series of blocks and functions to control the movement of trains between them through automatic signals Automatic train control A system that applies an emergency brake if the driver does not react to certain signals or speed restrictions Automatic train operation An operational safety enhancement device used to help automate operations of trains Automatic train protection A system that enforces obedience to signals and speed restrictions by speed supervision, including automatic stop at signals Autotrain A branch-line train consisting of a steam locomotive and passenger carriages that can be driven from either end by means of rodding to the regulator and an additional vacuum brake valve.
The fireman remains with the locomotive and, when the driver is at the other end, the fireman controls the cut off and vacuum ejectors in addition to his usual duties. See also: Push-pull train. Axlebox or axle box The housing that holds the axle bearings on a rail vehicle The housing that attaches to the end of the axle to the bogie and contains the bearing on which the axle rotates See journal box below. Backhead The cab-side rear panel of a steam locomotive boiler through which the firebox is accessed. Bad order A note applied to a defective piece of equipment. Equipment tagged as bad order must not be used until repaired and approved for use. Bail off To release the locomotive brakes while the train brakes are applied, to permit smoother handling and prevent excessive slack, wheel slide and flat wheels Balancing The reciprocation and revolving masses of any steam, diesel or electric locomotive need balancing, if it is to work smoothly. Revolving masses can be balanced by counterweights, but the balancing of reciprocating parts is a matter of compromise and judgement.
Balise A transponder, used as a intermittent data point in an automatic train protection system or as reference point for train location in radio-based train control Ballast Aggregate stone, gravel, or cinders forming the track bed on which sleepers and track are laid to ensure stability and proper drainage Ballast tamper See Tamping machine. Balloon A looped length of track at the end of a spur or branch, which trains use to turn around for the return trip without reversing or shunting. Can be used as part of a freight installation to allow the loading or unloading of bulk materials without the need to stop the train. Bay platform A platform and track arrangement where the train pulls into a siding, or dead-end, when serving the platform Beep A one-of-a-kind switcher locomotive built by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in 1970 Bellmouth A widening of an underground rail tunnel, in preparation for future connection or expansion of service. Used in subway nomenclature. Berkshire type A steam locomotive with a 2-8-4 wheel arrangement Blastpipe A part of a steam locomotive that discharges exhaust steam from the cylinders into the smokebox beneath the chimney to increase draught through the fire Block section A section
A chaldron was an English measure of dry volume used for coal. It was used from the 13th century onwards, nominally until 1963 when it was abolished by the Weights and Measures Act 1963 but in practice until the end of 1835 when the Weights and Measures Act of that year specified that thenceforth coal could only be sold by weight; the chaldron was used as the measure for coal from the 13th century, measuring by volume being much more practical than weighing low-value, high-bulk commodities like coal. It was not standardized, there were many different regional chaldrons, the two most important being the Newcastle and London chaldrons; the Newcastle chaldron was used to measure all coal shipped from Northumberland and Durham, the London chaldron became the standard measure for coal in the east and south of England. Many attempts have been made to calculate the weight of a Newcastle chaldron as used in medieval and early modern times. Coal industry historian John Nef has estimated that in 1421 it weighed 2,000 lb, that its weight was increased by coal traders due to the taxes on coal until 1678 when its weight was fixed by law at 52 1⁄2 long hundredweight increased in 1694 to 53 long hundredweight.
A London chaldron, on the other hand, was defined as "36 bushels heaped up, each bushel to contain a Winchester bushel and 1 imperial quart, to be 19 1⁄2 inches in diameter". This approximated a weight in coal of 3,140 lb or 1,420 kg; the chaldron was the legal limit for horse-drawn coal wagons travelling by road as it was considered that heavier loads would cause too much damage to the roadways. Railways had standard "chauldron wagons" and around 6 ft 3 in high; the value of a chaldron of coal depended on the size of the lumps of coal and their water content. Unscrupulous merchants would purchase their coal in lumps as large as possible sell them in smaller sizes; this was abolished by the Weights and Measures Act of 1835, which legislated that from January 1836 coal was only to be sold by weight. Chalder Mine car Minecart Quarry tub Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed.. "article name needed". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences.
James and John Knapton, et al
Track ballast forms the trackbed upon which railroad ties are laid. It is packed between and around the ties, it is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate drainage of water, to keep down vegetation that might interfere with the track structure. This serves to hold the track in place as the trains roll by, it is made of crushed stone, although ballast has sometimes consisted of other, less suitable materials, for example burnt clay. The term "ballast" comes from a nautical term for the stones used to stabilize a ship; the appropriate thickness of a layer of track ballast depends on the size and spacing of the ties, the amount of traffic on the line, various other factors. Track ballast should never be laid down less than 150 mm thick. An insufficient depth of ballast causes overloading of the underlying soil, in unfavourable conditions overloading the soil causes the track to sink unevenly. Ballast less than 300 mm thick can lead to vibrations. However, increasing the depth beyond 300 mm adds no extra benefit in reducing vibration.
In turn, track ballast rests on a layer of small crushed stones: the sub-ballast. The sub-ballast layer gives a solid support for the top ballast, reduces the seepage of water from the underlying ground. Sometimes an elastic mat is placed on the layer of sub-ballast and beneath the ballast, thereby reducing vibration, it is essential for ballast to be piled as high as the ties, for a substantial "shoulder" to be placed at their ends. The ballast shoulder always should be at least 150 mm wide, may be as wide as 450 mm; the shape of the ballast is important. Stones must be irregularly cut, with sharp edges, so that they properly interlock and grip the ties in order to secure them against movement. In order to let the stones settle and interlock, speed limits are lowered on sections of track for a period of time after new ballast has been laid. If ballast is badly fouled, the clogging will reduce its ability to drain properly. Therefore, keeping the ballast clean is essential. Bioremediation can be used to clean ballast.
It is not always necessary to replace the ballast if it is fouled, nor must all the ballast be removed if it is to be cleaned. Removing and cleaning the ballast from the shoulder is sufficient, if shoulder ballast is removed to the correct depth. While this job was done by manual labour, this process is now, like many other railway maintenance tasks, a mechanised one, with a chain of specially-designed railroad cars handling the task. One wagon cuts the ballast and passes it via a conveyor belt to a cleaning machine the cleaning wagon washes the ballast, deposits the dirt and ballast into other wagons for disposal and re-use, respectively; such machines can clean up to two kilometres of ballast in an hour. Cleaning, can only be done a certain number of times before the ballast is damaged to the point that it cannot be re-used. In such cases, it is necessary to replace the ballast altogether. One method of "replacing" ballast, if necessity demands, is to dump fresh ballast on the track, jack the whole track on top of it, tamp it down.
The dump and jack method cannot be used through tunnels, under overbridges, where there are platforms. Where the track is laid over a swamp, such as the Hexham swamp in Australia, the ballast continuously sinks, needs to be topped up to maintain its line and level. After 150 years of topping up, there appears to be 10 m of sunken ballast under the tracks. Chat Moss in the United Kingdom is similar. Regular inspection of the ballast shoulder is important; the shoulder acquires some amount of stability over time, being compacted by traffic. After performing these tasks, it is necessary for either trains to run at reduced speed on the repaired routes, or to employ machinery to compact the shoulder again. If the trackbed becomes uneven, it is necessary to pack ballast underneath sunk ties to level the track out again; this is, in the mechanized age done by a ballast tamping machine. A more recent, better, technique is to lift the rails and ties, to force stones, smaller than the track ballast particles and all of the same size, into the gap.
This has the advantage of not disturbing the well-compacted ballast on the trackbed, as tamping is to do. This technique is called pneumatic ballast injection, or, less formally, "stoneblowing". However, this technique is not as effective with fresh ballast, as the smaller stones tend to move down between the larger pieces of ballast; the quantity of ballast tends to vary with gauge, with the wider gauges tending to have wider formations. The depth of ballast tends to vary with the density of traffic, as faster and heavier traffic requires greater stability; the quantity of ballast tends to increase over the years as more and more ballast is piled on. Some figures from an 1897 report are: first class line – 6
Rochelle is a city in Ogle County, United States. The population was 9,574 at the 2010 census, up from 9,424 at the 2000 census. Rochelle is 80 miles west of Chicago and 25 miles south of Rockford. Named Hickory Grove, the town sits at the intersection of two rail lines. Having a number of granaries holding corn and other crops for shipping eastward, the town was an important rail link for farmers. During the Civil War, an arsonist burned some of the granaries, he was hanged him from a tree. The town was called Hang Town by locals and travelers. In the local pharmacy, some of the city fathers were discussing the problem of lack of people coming to reside in the town, it was agreed. One of the men reached up on a shelf and picked up a bottle of Rochelle Salts, saying Rochelle would be a good name for the town. After World War II, Rochelle grew, becoming a center for Swift Meat Packing and Del Monte canned vegetables such as asparagus, green beans, peas. Now the town hosts Nippon Sharyo, a Japanese maker of railroad passenger cars for commuter lines and regional corridor routes operated by Amtrak, as well as a meat packing plant owned by Hormel Foods.
On April 9, 2015, parts of the city suffered damage. Rochelle is located along the Kyte River, it is located near the junction of Interstates 39 and 88. According to the 2010 census, Rochelle has a total area of 12.919 square miles, of which 12.9 square miles is land and 0.019 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,424 people, 3,688 households, 2,415 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,260.9 people per square mile. There were 3,895 housing units at an average density of 521.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.81% White, 1.14% African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.92% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 8.69% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.16% of the population. There were 3,688 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families.
Of all households 29.3% were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,984, the median income for a family was $46,563. Males had a median income of $35,890 versus $25,058 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,139. About 7.6% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. Rochelle is served by two separate school districts. Rochelle Community Consolidated District 231 serves limited areas just outside town. District 231 has four elementary schools serving grades K–5: Abraham Lincoln Elementary, Central Elementary, Floyd J. Tilton Elementary, Phillip May Elementary.
The district operates one middle school, Rochelle Middle School, serving grades 6–8. Rochelle Township High School District 212 operates Rochelle Township High School. About half of the high school's students come from Rochelle and District 231. There is a private school named, St. Paul Lutheran School which enrolls children from the age of three, up through the eighth grade. Rochelle Railroad Park has spawned many imitators, such as the Railroad Platform in Folkston, Georgia. For many years the Whitcomb Locomotive Works, founded by George Dexter Whitcomb, manufactured industrial locomotives as well as the Partin Palmer automobile, in Rochelle. Rochelle is home to Union Pacific’s Global III Intermodal Facility. At the time it opened. Construction on the state-of-the-art facility was completed in 2003; the Illinois River Energy ethanol plant is located in Rochelle. Rochelle operates Rochelle Municipal Airport. Rochelle is known as the "Hub City" because of its location at the intersection of several major transportation routes.
The first transcontinental highway in the United States, the Lincoln Highway, passed through Rochelle, as did US-51, one of the first highways to go the full north-south length of the United States. Both these roads have diminished in importance, but Rochelle continues to be crossed by major highways Interstates 88 and 39. Besides roadways, Rochelle is crossed by two major rail lines; the effect, as seen on a map, was one of the spokes of an old wagon wheel meeting at the "hub", thus the nickname was born. Today dozens of businesses carry the moniker "Hub City", including furniture stores, shopping centers, realty firms, dry cleaners, many others; the local high school's teams are known as the "Hubs". Rochelle was once a stop for passenger trains operated by the Chicago, Burlington & Q
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver