The Inbetweeners is a British coming-of-age sitcom television series, which aired on E4 from 2008–2010, created and written by Damon Beesley and Iain Morris. The series follows the misadventures of suburban teenager Will and his friends Simon and Jay at the fictional Rudge Park Comprehensive; the programme involves situations of school life, uncaring school staff, male bonding, lad culture and failed sexual encounters. The programme was nominated for Best Situation Comedy at BAFTA twice, in 2009 and 2010. At the British Academy Television Awards 2010, it won the Audience Award, in 2010 the programme won the Best Sitcom award. In the 2011 British Comedy Awards, the programme won the award for Outstanding Contribution to British Comedy; the Inbetweeners Movie was released on 17 August 2011 to box office success, a sequel followed on 6 August 2014. An American version was broadcast on MTV, but axed after low ratings and poor critical reception. Damon Beesley and Iain Morris met. Following posts as commissioners at Channel 4, where Morris shepherded Peep Show, the two launched their own company, Bwark Productions, in 2004 and landed their first series with The Inbetweeners.
A pilot for the programme was produced in 2006 under the direction of James Bobin titled "Baggy Trousers". E4 aired the first series in May 2008, Channel 4 broadcast it in November that year; the second series began screening in the UK on 2 April 2009 and finished on 7 May 2009. A third series was commissioned by E4, commencing on 13 September 2010 and ending on 18 October 2010; the first episode of the third series had the highest-ever audience for an E4 original commission. Following the conclusion of the third series, the cast and crew of the programme indicated that there would be no fourth series as the programme had run its course, but that an Inbetweeners movie would be produced, set some time after the third series and following the cast on a holiday in Malia, Greece. For Red Nose Day 2011, the stars of the programme travelled around the UK in the yellow Fiat Cinquecento Hawaii featured in the programme in a special named The Inbetweeners: Rude Road Trip; the aim was to try to find the 50 rudest place names in the country.
In November 2018, it was announced that a special retrospective programme featuring the cast would be aired to mark the 10 year anniversary of the programme's first airing in 2008. It was called Fwends Reunited and was broadcast on 1 January 2019; the four main characters are seen in every episode as well as the 2014 films. They consist of: Will McKenzie is the programme's central character, with his voiceover introducing and concluding each episode. In the first episode, he has been transferred from a private school, following his parents' divorce, to Rudge Park Comprehensive, where he befriends the others, he is an unconventional hero – although he is the wittiest and most level-headed of the group, he is prone to making bad choices and his sarcasm leads to him making outrageous and offensive remarks. Will is intelligent and eager to get into a good university. However, he is shown to be romantically frustrated, pessimistic about his chances, due to his awareness of his lack of any kind of suave or social grace.
Simon Cooper is the most cynical and grumpy of the group, being prone to bouts of hysterical swearing at the slightest provocation – such as gentle goading, family rules, or well-meaning advice – from his family or peers. However, he is shown in several scenes to be the friendliest and the everyman of the group, he maintains a closer relationship with Will than any of the others. Simon considers himself to be the most romantic of the boys, his on-off relationship with Carli propelling many of the plots. Jay Cartwright is the most arrogant of the boys, he is the most vulgar and harbours a misogynistic outlook. He is obsessed with sex, with all his comments being about the subject, he falsely claims to be the most sexually experienced of the group. He tells wild and fictitious stories about his experiences, hands out ridiculous advice, which demonstrates that in reality he has little understanding of the subject discussed substituting crude nicknames for the vagina. In fact, he is the least sexually experienced of the group relying on pornography to attain gratification, as he finds it difficult to engage with girls.
In addition to his sexual stories, Jay compulsively lies about just about anything to make himself seem interesting, no matter how unbelievable. Neil Sutherland is known to be the dim-witted and gullible "nice guy" member of the group, he fails to appreciate that he is responsible for the bad situations he causes, fails to pick up on sarcasm taking comments and believes Jay's compulsive and blatant lies. Neil's simpler mind means he is happy and positive and he displays less of the selfishness and obsession with sex as the others, he tends to be the most sexually experienced member of the group. Carli D'Amato is Simon's main love interest, she demonstrates a good deal including school bullies. She and Simon have been friends since the age of eight, this accounts for Simon being able to approach a girl in such a different social circle. Carli is quite shallow and has little romantic interest in Simon but uses his obvious in
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Parlophone Records Limited is a German-British record label founded in Germany in 1896 by the Carl Lindström Company as Parlophon. The British branch of the company was founded in 8 August 1923 as The Parlophone Company Limited, which developed a reputation in the 1920s as a jazz record label. On 5 October 1926, the Columbia Graphophone Company acquired Parlophone's business, name and release library, merged with the Gramophone Company on 31 March 1931 to become Electric & Musical Industries Limited. George Martin joined EMI in 1950 as assistant label manager, taking over as manager in 1955. Martin produced and released a mix of product, including comedy recordings of the Goons, pianist Mrs Mills, teen idol Adam Faith. In 1962, Martin signed the Beatles, at the time a struggling rock band from Liverpool. During the 1960s, when Cilla Black, Billy J. Kramer, the Fourmost, the Hollies signed, Parlophone became one of the world's most famous labels. For several years, Parlophone claimed the best-selling UK single, "She Loves You", the best-selling UK album, Sgt.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, both by the Beatles. The label placed seven singles at No. 1 during 1964, when it claimed top spot on the UK Albums Chart for 40 weeks. Parlophone continued as a division of EMI until it was merged into the Gramophone Co. on 1 July 1965. On 1 July 1973, the Gramophone Co. was renamed EMI Records Limited. On 28 September 2012, regulators approved Universal Music Group's planned acquisition of EMI on condition that its EMI Records group would be divested from the combined group. EMI Records Ltd. included Parlophone and other labels to be divested and were for a short time operated in a single entity known as the Parlophone Label Group, while UMG pended their sale. Warner Music Group acquired Parlophone and PLG in 7 February 2013, making Parlophone their third flagship label alongside Warner Bros. and Atlantic. PLG was renamed Parlophone Records Limited in May 2013. Parlophone is the oldest of WMG's "flagship" record labels. Parlophone was founded "Parlophon" by Carl Lindström Company in 1896.
The name Parlophon was used for gramophones. The label's ₤ trademark is a German L. On 8 August 1923, the British branch of "Parlophone" was established, led by artists and repertoire manager Oscar Preuss. In its early years, Parlophone established itself as a leading jazz label in Britain. In 1927, the Columbia Graphophone Company acquired a controlling interest in the Carl Lindström Company, including Parlophone. Parlophone became a subsidiary of Electric & Musical Industries, after Columbia Graphophone merged with the Gramophone Company in 1931. In 1950, Oscar Preuss hired record producer George Martin as his assistant; when Preuss retired in 1955, Martin succeeded him as Parlophone's manager. Parlophone specialized in classical music, cast recordings, regional British music. Musicians signed to the labels include the Vipers Skiffle Group. One of the label's successful acts was teen idol Adam Faith, signed to the label in 1959; the label gained significant popularity in 1962. Parlophone gained more attention after signing the Hollies, Ella Fitzgerald, Gerry and the Pacemakers in the 1960s.
Martin left to form Associated Independent Recording Studios in 1965. Parlophone became dormant in 1973 when most of EMI's heritage labels were phased out in favor of EMI. Parlophone was revived in 1980. During the next decades the label signed Pet Shop Boys, Duran Duran, Radiohead, Guy Berryman, the Chemical Brothers, Coldplay, Kylie Minogue, Damon Albarn, Conor Maynard, Gabrielle Aplin, Gorillaz. On 23 April 2008, Miles Leonard was confirmed as the label's president. On 28 September 2012, regulators approved Universal Music Group's planned acquisition of Parlophone's parent group EMI for £1.2 billion, subject to conditions imposed by the European Commission requiring that UMG sell off a number of labels, including Parlophone itself, Ensign, Virgin Classics, EMI Classics, EMI's operations in Portugal, France, Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic and Poland. These labels and catalogues were operated independently from Universal as Parlophone Label Group to prepare for a transaction early in 2013.
UMG received several offers for PLG, including those from Island founder Chris Blackwell, Simon Fuller, a Sony/BMG consortium, Warner Music Group, MacAndrews & Forbes. On 7 February 2013, it was confirmed that Warner Music Group would acquire Parlophone Label Group for US$765 million; the deal was approved in May 2013 by the European Union, which saw no concerns about the deal because of WMG's smaller reach compared to the merged UMG and Sony. Warner Music closed the deal on July 1. Parlophone Label Group was the old EMI Records company that included both the Parlophone and the eponymous EMI labels; the EMI name was retained by Universal. Soon after acquiring Parlophone, WMG signed an agreement with IMPALA and the Merlin Network to divest $200 million worth of artists to independent labels in order to help offset the consolidation triggered by the merger. In April 2016, the back catalog
Wilderness Is Paradise Now
Wilderness Is Paradise Now was the debut and only album by Reading based English rock band Morning Runner. Preceded by the release of single "Burning Benches", the album was released on 6 March 2006, despite failing to make a significant impact commercially, it gained favourable reviews. All tracks written by Tom Derrett, Matthew Greener and Chris Wheatcroft. "It's Not Like Everyone's My Friend" – 4:09 "Have a Good Time" – 3:44 "Gone Up in Flames" – 2:53 "Burning Benches" – 4:07 "Hold Your Breath" – 4:01 "Oceans" – 3:42 "The Great Escape" – 3:51 "Be All You Want Me to Be" – 4:41 "Punching Walls" – 4:04 "Work" – 4:02 "Best For You" – 3:33 "Can't Get It Right" "Them Folk" "Burning Benches" "Gone up in Flames" contains three narratives: a racetrack loser, a devastated mourner, a possessive consumer. "They are all pictures of desperation," explained lead singer Matthew Greener, "I got told this story about a woman so obsessed with this pearl that she sold all her possessions just to own it." "Burning Benches" was according to the band, not so much about love.
Greener said, "It sounded a bit too lovely, why we made it louder towards the end, we wanted to mess it up a bit." It was inspired by the surreal David Lynch horror film Eraserhead, in which the main character Henry Spencer watches and listens to the Lady in the Radiator sing about finding happiness in heaven. "Be All You Want Me to Be" was credited by Chris Martin as being inspiration for Coldplay's third album, X&Y. He said in NME, "I heard one of their songs called'Be All You Want Me To Be' and I said,'Fuck, that's better than most, no all, of our songs', it made us write a whole bunch of new tunes." Morning Runner supported Coldplay on some of their Twisted Logic Tour dates. The song was at one point considered not to be album material. "It's quite full-on and bold", stated pianist Chris "Fields" Wheatcroft, "We did struggle with where to put it on the album." However, it was decided that the song would be on the album "to bring it back up again", following the track "The Great Escape". "Punching Walls" was the first song.
A demo version of the song was a B-side to 2006 single "Oceans". "Work" was written following Greener's father being made redundant. The name of the album came from a romantic rhyme by Edward FitzGerald, translated from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam: Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough, A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse - and Thou Beside me singing in the Wilderness - And Wilderness is Paradise now. Ali Clewer, the band's drummer, read the poem and believed it corresponded well with the album: "The poem describes a place, a wilderness becoming paradise because of the person, keeping you company," Clewer explained, "a kind of optimism that seemed to resonate with many of the ideas on the album." The album's cover art was designed by Tappin Gofton, who created the cover for Coldplay's third album, X&Y, The Chemical Brothers' Push the Button. The artwork was inspired by a small collection of Victorian book illustrations; the kind of imagery that Tappin Gofton were looking at in these old volumes was noticeably decorative, with many of the pieces displaying strong narrative themes, it was these two distinct elements that formed the foundations for their ideas.
Once they had agreed on the overall thematic look for the covers and a set of ideas for each release, they commissioned the illustrator Kam Tang, who they collaborated with to produce the drawings for the artwork. The album was seen as a strong debut by critics on release. On the negative side, the band suffered occasional accusations that they were too similar to other piano-driven bands, such as Coldplay and Keane. However, some critics refuted these, with NME's Paul McNamee saying "they're a band that could knock 10 bells out of Keane" and Phil Mongredien of Q stating that a Coldplay comparison "would be doing Morning Runner a disservice." Mike Pattenden from The Times said that it was the band's slower tracks which suggested that "Morning Runner are in it for the long haul." The group disbanded in October 2007, before they could release a second album. Official artist website Morning Runner Download Booklet
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
Be All You Want Me to Be
"Be All You Want Me to Be" is a song by English rock band Morning Runner and was featured on their debut album, Wilderness Is Paradise Now. It was released 24 October 2005 as the band's second single, charting at #44 in the UK Singles Chart; the song has been credited by Chris Martin as being inspiration for Coldplay's third album, X&Y. He said in NME, "I heard one of their songs called'Be All You Want Me To Be' and I said,'Fuck, that's better than most, no all, of our songs', it made us write a whole bunch of new tunes." 7" R6674"Be All You Want Me to Be" - 3:50 "You Tell Me I'm Awake"7" R6674X, CD CDR6674"Be All You Want Me to Be" - 3:50 "Frayed Edges" - 3:02 Be All You Want Me to Be Music Video AngryApe single review Gigwise single review
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem