Girraween National Park
Girraween National Park is an area of the Granite Belt in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia reserved as a national park. Girraween is known for dramatic landscapes and unique wildlife. Bushwalking and rock climbing are the most popular activities in the park; the park is situated 40 km south of Stanthorpe. The southern boundary of the park is the state border between New South Wales, it is a twin park with Bald Rock National Park, which lies across the border in New South Wales, features Bald Rock, the second-largest monolith on the continent. Curiously, South Bald Rock and West Bald Rock lie in Girraween National Park in Queensland, not in Bald Rock National Park in New South Wales, it features granite landscapes, balancing boulders, clear streams, wetlands and open forest. The granite outcroppings, such as the Pyramids and Castle Rock at 1112 m, dominate the local scenery; the park contains many kilometres of graded walking trails to the park's major features like the First Pyramid, Second Pyramid, The Sphinx, Turtle Rock, Underground Creek, the Eye of the Needle and Mount Norman - the highest point in the park at 1267 metres.
Fire trails can be followed when venturing into the eastern sections of the park. The park has a temperate climate. During winter snow can fall in the area. Girraween is an Aboriginal word meaning'place of flowers' and the best time to see the local flora is late in July when the Golden Wattle blooms; the park has abundant fauna, including some that are seen elsewhere in Queensland, such as the common wombat, spotted quoll and the turquoise parrot. The area is noted for its diverse flora; the eucalypt forests and heathlands provide habitat for abundant birdlife. In spring, many wildflowers bloom, this led to its being called "place of flowers" in the indigenous language; the area is the only place. In 1992, Taronga Park Zoo staff discovered the rare Bald Rock Creek turtle; the species has only been found within a ten km stretch of the creek. Camping facilities are provided by the Queensland Department of National Parks at Bald Rock Creek and Castle Rock. Both sites have toilets and showers available, the latter is suitable for caravans and has disabled access to the amenities block.
Protected areas of Queensland C. R. Twidale. Landforms and Geology of Granitic Terrains. CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-36435-3. Queensland Government and Resource Management, Official site for Girraween National Park Girraween National Park, Australia Girraween National Park QLD www.exploroz.com
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Taunton National Park
Taunton National Park is situated near the town of Dingo 135 km inland from Rockhampton in eastern Central Queensland, Australia. The park encompasses an area of 11,626 ha within the Northern Brigalow Belt bioregion of Queensland. Taunton National Park is designated as a scientific nature reserve due to its importance in ensuring the ongoing survival and protection of the endangered bridled nail-tail wallaby; the wallabies protection has facilitated natural regeneration processes within reserve boundaries, protected ecosystem communities from further agricultural disturbances in the surrounding landscape, provided habitats for native fauna and helped conserve a wide range of biodiversity. Cracking clay soils and brigalow vegetation species are dominant in the northern region of the park, while texture-contrast soils in combination with Eucalypt communities dominate the western region; the parks topography is reasonably with a gradual slope from the north and western ends of the park towards the eastern and southern margins.
The regions climate is described as semi-arid. The distribution of rainfall over such a condensed period leaves the area prone to droughts; the most recent drought of significance occurred between 1991 and 1995 with detrimental impacts on the surviving bridled nailtail wallaby population. As is typical of the tropical savannah in the Northern Brigalow Belt, a combination of open, grassy Eucalypt woodlands, transitional zones and regrowing Acacia shrub-lands and forests comprise Taunton National Parks main vegetation zones; the most common vegetation associations within the park and surrounding areas, tend to be dominated by either brigalow or poplar box species, which occur along with other Acacia and Ecualyptus spp. Water-bodies present within the park boundaries consist of a small number of creeks; the region in which Taunton National Park is located, was subject to long-term, wide-scale agricultural development and associated disturbances. During the 1950s and 1960s extensive clearance of brigalow scrub began to take place in order to establish pastoral grasses for grazing domestic sheep and cattle.
Buffel grass was sowed for fodder in the cleared areas, became irreversibly established. A governmental initiative called the'Brigalow Development Scheme' provided great incentive for increasing agricultural development in the Brigalow region and accelerated the rate and scale of vegetation clearance for conversion to buffel grass; the success of this scheme resulted in agricultural system adjustments so that more intensive land use practices became common, with smaller properties and higher stock numbers. The cumulative effects of this land use change resulted in a considerable reduction in remnant vegetation patch size and occurrence; this in turn reduced the availability of habitat and shelter for native fauna, altered the natural vegetation composition. In 1973 a bridled nail-tail wallaby was sighted on a cattle property named'Taunton' and reported by a fencing contractor. There had been reports of a significant decline in the wallabies population numbers during the early 1900s with no recorded sightings since the 1930s, subsequently the species had been presumed extinct.
Following this sighting, Taunton was purchased in 1979 and established as a scientific reserve to ensure the protection and survival of the endangered wallaby. In 1984, another cattle property'Red Hill', situated adjacent to Taunton, was added to the reserve and the whole area became named'Taunton National Park'; the park occurs in the Northern Brigalow'Tropical Savannah' ecoregion, so named for the predominant flora species of the region. Vegetation clearance throughout this district and in fact the whole Brigalow Belt, has resulted in an extensive loss of biodiversity and overall ecosystem degradation. Despite considerable regional agricultural and pastoral development, a large proportion of the park's vegetation remained intact or was exposed to minimal disturbance prior to the reserve being established; the park has high regional significance today as only 17% of vegetation within the park had been removed by 1975, thereby conserving once prevalent, regionally representative ecosystems and vegetation communities, which are now restricted to bush fragments and reserves.
The region that the park is located in has been demonstrated to have one of the highest rate of annual clearance, when compared with other subregions within Queensland. This high clearance rate has contributed to a number of Brigalow-typical ecosystems becoming otherwise at risk or endangered, which highlights the importance of the parks biodiversity, as 12 of the regions ecosystems are represented within the reserve. Endangered open forest or woodland ecosystems in the park include. Brigalow shrubland/forest assemblages of A. harpophylla with yellow-wood and false sandalwood, are endangered, having undergone wide-scale clearing throughout the 1900s. Ecosystem communities represented within the park which are considered to be'of concern' include.
Mount Etna Caves National Park
Mount Etna Caves is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 544 km northwest of Brisbane. The park's caves are the roosting site for more than 80 percent of Australia's breeding population of little bent-wing bats, it is one of the few places in Australia supporting a colony of the endangered Ghost Bat. Protected areas of Queensland
Deepwater National Park
Deepwater is a coastal national park in Queensland, Australia, 375 km north of Brisbane. It protects coastal heaths in the Deepwater Creek catchment; the area is one of the few remaining pristine freshwater catchments on Queensland's east coast. Deepwater National Park covers 4,090 ha; the north of the park is dominated by a 70 m high sand dune, covered in vegetation. There are some scattered rocky outcrops of volcanic origin including a number of rocky headlands along the park's 9 km of beach frontage. Vegetation in the park is varied between the landward side of the high dune. To the east are typical beach plants, on the exposed higher areas the plants appear wind-sheared and to the west in more protected area taller vegetation has formed up to three canopy levels of forest and woodlands. Beaches in the park are used for nesting by leatherback turtles. Flatback and green turtles nest on the park's beaches; this location is the only mainland site where leatherbacks return to lay eggs. Rose-crowned fruit doves, fairy gerygones and grey fantails are found in the canopies to the west.
Along the beaches pied oystercatcher, bar-tailed godwits and crested terns are seen. Emus and brahminy kites can be found in the park. Queensland's largest cockroach Macro-panesthia sp. is found in the park. Camping facilities, pit toilets and picnic tables are located at Wreck Rock, 5.5 km north of the park's southern boundary. A second camp site is located further north at Middle Rock, however there are no facilities here. Picnic facilities for day visitors is provided at Flat Rock. No domestic animals or open fires are permitted in the park; the park is accessible from the south through Wartburg. Conventional vehicle access possible in the dry season only. Alternative access is possible from the north through Agnes Water. A 4WD vehicle is recommended for this route due to the slope. Protected areas of Queensland
Bunya Mountains National Park
Bunya Mountains is a national park in the South Burnett Region, Australia. The park includes much of the mountain range called the Bunya Mountains; the park are encompasses the most westerly area of subtropical rainforest in southern Queensland and the largest population of bunya pines remaining in the world. It is situated 63 km northeast of 58 km southwest of Kingaroy; the park is known for permanent waterfalls and its views. The mild climate of the range means evening temperatures are low; the park is accessed by a steep and winding roads and is serviced with camping grounds, a network of walking tracks and several picnic grounds. The Wakka Wakka and Barrumgum tribes are the traditional owners for the bunya mountains and have inhabited and managed the mountains through traditional land-use management for thousands of years which included the cultural significant'Bunya Feasts' which would see thousands of people from surrounding tribes from Queensland and New South Wales come to the bunya mountains for these gatherings.
The Bunya grasslands are unique relics of a much cooler climate and have existed since the last ice age and have persisted due to regular burning by Indigenous people over many thousands of years. The balds are considered a cultural landscape and an enduring symbol of indigenous land management which still hold significance to Indigenous people today; the arrival of European settlers saw the removal of indigenous communities off the Bunya Mountains ending active fire management by indigenous people from 1860s onwards. During the 1860s the park was logged for red cedar, bunya pine and hoop pine and the Aboriginals were pushed out. European settlers began to enjoy the scenery in the same decade; the Bunya Sawmill opened in 1883. As the 9,112 hectare national park was declared in 1908, it makes it the second oldest national park in Queensland. A further addition to the park was donated by WA Russell MLA in 1927. Timber was still removed from the national park until about 1917; the last sawmill on the mountains closed in 1945.
The first walking tracks were constructed in 1939. Carbine's chute was the first of many trenches built to assist the removal of logs off the mountains, it can be accessed by a 1.5 km track from Munros camp. The last sawmill in the area was at Wengenville, which closed in 1961. In a successful attempt to reduce the splintering and damage to logs from falling down the steep trenches the owner of the Wengenville sawmill, Lars Anderson, used a combination of tramway, winches and flying foxes to transport logs; some of the parks bunya pines are estimated to be up to 600 years old and 25 metres high. The forests contain wild raspberry, many vines and pockets of ferns. Other trees species in the park include white silky oaks. Grass trees on Mount Kiangarow grow nearly 5 m tall and some are least several hundred years old. Scattered throughout the mountain forests are many natural clearings known as'grassy balds'; these clearings are a few hectares in area and are caused by bushfires and geological conditions.
Where there a slabs of unfractured basalt soil formation and root penetration is impossible, leaving a patch in the forest. There are about 100 balds, although those caused by fire are being lost due to a lack of recent fires; the grassy balds have a higher biodiversity than the dense rainforests, because they are home to birds and rodents not found elsewhere in the forest. The park is home to more than 200 frogs and reptiles as well as marsupials such as pademelons, rock wallabies, swamp wallabies and an endemic subspecies of ringtail possum found only on the mountain peaks. Reptile species include the blue-tongued skink, land mullet, carpet snake, red bellied black snake and brown tree snake; the mountains are part of the Bunya Mountains and Yarraman Important Bird Area which contains what is thought to be the largest population of the black-breasted button-quail. In the park, 120 species of bird have been recorded. Significant species include the wedge-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon, grey goshawk, brown cuckoo-dove, rose robin, eastern yellow robin, large-billed gerygone, Australian golden whistler.
The Bunya Mountains support the most westerly populations of many rainforest dwelling species, including green catbirds, regent bowerbirds, paradise riflebirds, eastern whipbirds, noisy pittas and the Australian logrunner. Some of the more seen species include pied currawongs, laughing kookaburras, Australian king parrots, crimson rosellas, sulphur-crested cockatoos, red-browed finches, white-browed scrubwrens, satin bowerbirds, wonga pigeons and brush turkeys; the park contains a number of waterfalls including Mcgrory Falls. The national park is managed by the department of national parks, recreation and racing, There has been an integrated program of burning the unique grassland balds by Queensland Parks and Wildlife in the Bunya Mountains since the late 1990s with 27% of unburnt balds being burnt for the first time in many years. There have been difficulties in recovering a number of balds which have well established forest canopies due to decades of non-burning, these balds may be too far gone to recover.
Some balds which have had significant forest species invasion have had mechanical removal and coppicing of trees to aid recovery of the balds through burning. Proactive fire management is a priority within the current management plan for the Bunya Mountains National Park with additional importance given to partnerships with traditional owners using traditional fire techniques in restoring and maintaining the grasslands. Australian Government initiatives such as the ‘Working on Country’ Program has been active on the mountain since 2009 allowing gre