Yan Fu was a Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for introducing western ideas, including Darwin's "natural selection", to China in the late 19th century. On January 8, 1854, Yan Fu was born in what is modern day Fuzhou, Fujian Province to a respectable scholar-gentry family in the trade of Chinese medicine. In his early years, Yan Fu’s father encouraged Yan Fu to obtain a high education and prepare for the Imperial examination. However, the death of his father in 1866 caused an abrupt change to these plans. A year Yan Fu entered the Fujian Arsenal Academy in Fuzhou, a Western school where he studied a variety of subjects including English, geometry, trigonometry, chemistry and navigation; this was a turning point in young Yan Fu’s life as he was able to experience first-hand contact with Western science, thus inspiring the enthusiasm that carried him through the rest of his career. After graduating with high honors in 1871, Yan Fu went on to spend the next five years at sea, he first served aboard the training ship Jianwei and on the battle cruiser Yangwu.
In 1877–79 he studied at the Royal Naval College, England. During his years there, he became acquainted with China’s first ambassador Guo Songtao, despite their age difference and status gap developed a strong friendship. Benjamin Schwartz mentions in his biography that "they spent whole days and nights discussing differences and similarities in Chinese and Western thought and political institutions", his return to China, did not bring him the immediate success he was hoping for. Though he was unable to pass the Imperial Civil Service Examination, he was able to obtain a teaching position at the Fujian Arsenal Academy and Beiyang Naval Officers' School at Tianjin. During this time, Yan Fu succumbed to the opium addiction, it was not until after the Chinese defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War. He is celebrated for his translations, including Thomas Huxley's Evolution and Ethics, Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, John Stuart Mill's On Liberty and Herbert Spencer's Study of Sociology. Yan critiqued the ideas of others, offering his own interpretations.
The ideas of "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest" were introduced to Chinese readers through Huxley's work. The former idea was famously rendered by Yan Fu into Chinese as tiānzé. Yan Fu served as an editor of the newspaper Guowen Bao, he became politically active, in 1895, he was involved in the Gongche Shangshu movement, which opposed the Treaty of Shimonoseki ending the First Sino-Japanese War. In 1909 he was given an honorary Jinshi degree. In 1912 he became the first principal of National Peking University. Today the university holds an annual academic conference in his honor, he became a royalist and conservative who supported Yuan Shikai and Zhang Xun to proclaim themselves emperor in his life. He participated the foundation of Chouanhui, an organization which supported restoring monarchy, he laughed at "New Literature Revolutionaries" such as Hu Shi. On October 27, 1921, after returning to his home in Fuzhou only a year earlier to recuperate from his recurring asthma, Yan Fu died at the age of 67.
Yan stated in the preface to his translation of Evolution and Ethics that "there are three difficulties in translation: faithfulness and elegance". He did not set them as general standards for translation and did not say that they were independent of each other. However, since the publication of that work, the phrase "faithfulness and elegance" has been attributed to Yan Fu as a standard for any good translation and has become a cliché in Chinese academic circles, giving rise to numerous debates and theses; some scholars argue that this dictum derived from Scottish theoretician of translation, Alexander Fraser Tytler. Though Yan Fu's classical prose did its best to meet the standards of "faithfulness and elegance", there were those who criticized his works for not being accessible to the younger generations. In particular, a famous liberal from the May Fourth Movement, Cai Yuanpei, stated in an article written in 1924: "......seem to be old-fashioned and his literary style is difficult to comprehend, but the standard with which he selected books and the way he translated them are admirable today".
Other critiques of his work arose. Yan Fu one of the most influential scholars of his generation as he worked to introduce Western social and political ideas to China. Previous translation efforts had been focused on religion and technology. Yan Fu was one of the first scholars to have personal experiences in Western culture, whereas many prior scholars were students in Japan who translated Western works from Japanese to Chinese. Yan Fu played an important role in the standardization of science terminology in China during his time serving as the Head of the State Terminology Bureau. In 1895 he published Zhibao 直報, a Chinese newspaper founded in Tianjin by the German Constantin von Hannecken, which contains several of his most famous essays: Lun shi bian zhi ji 論世變之亟 Yuan qiang 原強 Pi Han 辟韓 Jiuwang jue lun 救亡決論 Later, from 1898 to 1909, Yan Fu went on to translate the following major works of Western liberal thou
Sino-Burmese War (1765–69)
The Sino-Burmese War known as the Qing invasions of Burma or the Myanmar campaign of the Qing dynasty, was a war fought between the Qing dynasty of China and the Konbaung dynasty of Burma. China under the Qianlong Emperor launched four invasions of Burma between 1765 and 1769, which were considered as one of his Ten Great Campaigns. Nonetheless, the war, which claimed the lives of over 70,000 Chinese soldiers and four commanders, is sometimes described as "the most disastrous frontier war that the Qing dynasty had waged", one that "assured Burmese independence". Burma's successful defense laid the foundation for the present-day boundary between the two countries. At first, the Emperor envisaged an easy war, sent in only the Green Standard troops stationed in Yunnan; the Qing invasion came as the majority of Burmese forces were deployed in their latest invasion of Siam. Nonetheless, battle-hardened Burmese troops defeated the first two invasions of 1765–1766 and 1766–1767 at the border; the regional conflict now escalated to a major war that involved military maneuvers nationwide in both countries.
The third invasion led by the elite Manchu Bannermen nearly succeeded, penetrating deep into central Burma within a few days' march from the capital, Ava. But the bannermen of northern China could not cope with unfamiliar tropical terrains and lethal endemic diseases, were driven back with heavy losses. After the close-call, King Hsinbyushin redeployed his armies from Siam to the Chinese front; the fourth and largest invasion got bogged down at the frontier. With the Qing forces encircled, a truce was reached between the field commanders of the two sides in December 1769; the Qing kept a heavy military lineup in the border areas of Yunnan for about one decade in an attempt to wage another war while imposing a ban on inter-border trade for two decades. The Burmese, were preoccupied with the Chinese threat, kept a series of garrisons along the border. Twenty years when Burma and China resumed a diplomatic relationship in 1790, the Qing unilaterally viewed the act as Burmese submission, claimed victory.
The main beneficiaries of this war were the Siamese, who reclaimed most of their territories in the next three years after having lost their capital Ayutthaya to the Burmese in 1767. The long border between Burma and China had long been vaguely defined; the Ming dynasty first conquered Yunnan borderlands between 1380 and 1388, stamped out local resistance by the mid-1440s. The Burmese control of the Shan States came in 1557 when King Bayinnaung of the Toungoo dynasty conquered all of the Shan States; the border was never demarcated in the modern sense, with local Shan sawbwas at the border regions paying tribute to both sides. The situation turned to China's favor in the 1730s when the Qing decided to impose a tighter control of Yunnan's border regions while the Burmese authority dissipated with the rapid decline of the Toungoo dynasty; the Qing attempts for tighter control of the border were met with fierce resistance by the local chiefs. In 1732, the Yunnan government's demand of higher taxes led to several Shan revolts at the border.
Shan resistance leaders united people by saying "The lands and water are our properties. We could eat our own produces. There is not a need to pay tributes to foreign government". In July 1732, a Shan army consisted of native mountaineers, laid siege to the Qing garrison at Pu'er for ninety days; the Yunnan government responded with an overwhelming force numbered around 5,000 and lifted the siege. The Qing army could not put down persistent local resistance; the Qing field commanders changed their tactics by allying with neutral sawbwas, granting Qing titles and powers, including Green Standard captainships and regional commanderships. To complete the agreements, the third ranking officer of Yunnan traveled to Simao and held a ceremony of allegiance. By the mid-1730s, the sawbwas of the border who used to pay dual tributes, were siding with the more powerful Qing. By 1735, the year which the Qianlong Emperor ascended the Chinese throne, ten sawbwas had sided with the Qing; the annexed border states ranged from Mogaung and Bhamo in present-day Kachin State to Hsenwi State and Kengtung State in present-day Shan State to Sipsongpanna in present-day Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan.
While the Qing were consolidating their hold at the border, the Toungoo dynasty was faced with multiple external raids and internal rebellions and could not take any reciprocal action. Throughout the 1730s, the dynasty faced Meitei raids that reached deeper parts of Upper Burma. In 1740, the Mon of Lower Burma founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. By the mid-1740s, the authority of the Burmese king had dissipated. In 1752, the Toungoo dynasty was toppled by the forces of Restored Hanthawaddy. By the Qing control of the former borderlands was unquestioned. In 1752, the Emperor issued a manuscript, Qing Imperial Illustration of Tributaries, saying that all "barbarian" tribes under his rule must be studied and reported their natures and cultures back to Beijing. In 1752, a new dynasty called Konbaung rose to challenge Restored Hanthawaddy, went on to reunite much of the kingdom by 1758. In 1758–59, King Alaungpaya, the founder of the dynasty, sent an expedition to the farther Shan States, annexed by the Qing over two decades earlier, to reestablish Burmese authority.
Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa
The Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa known as Victory of Kỷ Dậu, was fought between the forces of the Tây Sơn dynasty of Vietnam and the Qing dynasty of China in Ngọc Hồi and Đống Đa in northern Vietnam from 1788 to 1789. It is considered one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history. Since the 17th century Vietnam was divided into two parts: the southern part was Đàng Trong or Cochinchina, ruled by the Nguyễn lords and the northern part was Đàng Ngoài or Tonkin, ruled by the Trịnh lords under the puppet Lê emperors. In 1771 the Tây Sơn rebellion broke out in southern Vietnam, led by the brothers Nguyễn Nhạc, Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Lữ, who removed the local Nguyễn lord from power. After the capture of Phú Xuân, Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh, a traitor of Trịnh's general, encouraged Nguyễn Huệ to overthrow the Trịnh lord. Huệ marched north and captured Thăng Long. In 1788, Lê Chiêu Thống was installed the new Lê emperor by Huệ. Huệ retreated to Phú Xuân. However, Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh became the new regent just like the Trịnh lords before.
After learning about the actions of Chỉnh, an army under Vũ Văn Nhậm was sent by Huệ to attack Thăng Long. Chỉnh was swiftly executed. Lê Chiêu Thống hid in the mountains. Nhậm could not find the emperor, so he installed Lê Duy Cận as a puppet prince regent. Not long after Huệ executed Nhậm, he replaced him with Phan Văn Lân. Meanwhile, Lê Chiêu Thống never abandoned his attempt to regain the throne. Lê Quýnh, Empress Dowager Mẫn and the eldest son of Lê Chiêu Thống, fled to Longzhou, Guangxi, to seek support from Qing China. A large Qing army invaded Vietnam to restore Lê Chiêu Thống to the throne. What motivated the Qing imperial government to interfere in Vietnam's domestic affairs has always been disputed. Chinese scholars claimed that the Qianlong Emperor wanted to restore the Lê emperor and rule all Vietnam, seeking no territorial gains. Vietnamese scholars on the other hand have argued. China would install Lê Chiêu Thống as its puppet king. Two army contingents invaded Vietnam in October of the year Mậu Thân.
The Liangguang army under Sun Shiyi and Xu Shiheng marched across the South Suppressing Pass and the Yungui army under Wu Dajing marched across the Horse Pass. The two armies aimed to attack Thăng Long directly. According to the Draft History of Qing, a navy had been dispatched from Qinzhou to attack Hải Dương, however is not mentioned in Vietnamese records. A sizeable force under Sun Shiyi approached Lạng Sơn and in order to put pressure on the Tây Sơn forces, Sun announced that there was a much larger Qing army yet to come, he promised that who helped the Chinese army, would be installed the future regent just like the Trịnh lords before. As a consequence Lê dynasty supporters took up arms against the Tây Sơn army; the Chinese defeated the Tây Sơn army in Lạng Sơn and Nguyễn Văn Diễm fled, while Phan Khải Đức surrendered. The Chinese swiftly pushed further towards the south, threatening the unprepared Tây Sơn army, which dispersed in all directions. Nguyễn Văn Hòa rallied the remnants of the army and occupied Tam Giang, Yên Phong District to confront the Chinese.
Having assessed the situation Ngô Văn Sở ordered Lê Duy Cận to write a letter to Sun Shiyi. Cận described himself as a popular ruler and tried to persuade Sun to retreat, rejected by Sun. Realizing the Tây Sơn army could not stop the Chinese army from marching towards Thăng Long, Ngô Thì Nhậm suggested that the Tây Sơn army should retreat to Tam Điệp and seek aid from Phú Xuân. Sở accepted his idea. Troops in Sơn Nam, Sơn Tây and Kinh Bắc retreated to Thăng Long. Sở gathered them abandoned Thăng Long and orderly retreated to Tam Điệp. However, Phan Văn Lân did not agree. Lân led a troop to attack the Chinese army at the Nguyệt Đức River, but was utterly beaten by Zhang Chaolong and fled back. Sở concealed the fact. In Tam Điệp, Ngô Văn Sở sent Nguyễn Văn Tuyết to Phú Xuân to ask for aid. On November 29, the Chinese army marched across the Nhị River, they occupied Thăng Long the next morning without meeting any resistant. On November 24, Sun Shiyi installed Lê Chiêu Thống as "king of Annam" in Thăng Long.
Sun looked down upon Lê Chiêu Thống. It was whispered among the Vietnamese. Lê Chiêu Thống disappointed his supporters as he was narrow-minded and exceptionally cruel, who had cut off the legs of his three uncles, whom had surrendered to Tây Sơn army before, he had cut open the wombs of pregnant princesses alive, who had married Tây Sơn generals. On November 24, Nguyễn Văn Tuyết arrived in Phú Xuân. Nguyễn Huệ declared. On the next day, Huệ proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung. After the coronation he marched north with 60,000 soldiers, recruited volunteers while in the Nghệ An Province thereby increasing his force to 100,000 troops. In Thọ Hạc he inspired his soldiers with an epic address: His men, expressed their approval and marched on. Meanwhile, the Chinese generals had after a few facile victories become overconfident and looked down upon the Tây Sơn army. Huệ, who had noticed it sent an envoy to sue for peace. Sun ordered Huệ to retreat to Phú Xuân. Huệ arrived in Tam Điệp on December 20
The Self-Strengthening Movement known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement or Tongzhi Reforms, c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following the military disasters of the Opium Wars against the British Empire and the vast internal devastation of the Taiping and other concurrent rebellions. To make peace with the Western powers in China, Prince Gong was made regent, Grand Councilor, head of the newly formed Zongli Yamen, he would be assisted by a new generation of leaders. The majority of the ruling elite still subscribed to a conservative Confucian worldview, but following China's serious defeats in the First and Second Opium Wars, several officials now argued that in order to strengthen itself against the West, it was necessary to adopt Western military technology and armaments; this could be achieved by establishing shipyards and arsenals, by hiring foreign advisers to train Chinese artisans to manufacture such wares in China.
As such, the "self-strengtheners" were by and large uninterested in any social reform beyond the scope of economic and military modernization. However, the scholarly class of China became militarized, career soldiers of non-scholarly background grew to overshadow them, leading to the Warlord era; the interpretation of Confucian teaching was radically altered, turning toward pragmatic approaches to governance. The Self-Strengthening Movement succeeded in securing the revival of the dynasty from the brink of eradication, sustaining it for another half-century; the original use of the phrase "self-strengthening" is the ancient I Ching, the Book of Changes, where it is written, "The superior man makes himself strong". The same phrase is encountered in use by the Southern Song dynasty in reference to dealing with the crisis of Jurchen invasion, again by the Qianlong Emperor, writing that self strengthening was requisite for warding off foreign aspirations; as the eighteenth century drew to a close, the gradual decline of the Chinese bureaucracy became apparent, there was a rapid shift in the ideology of the Chinese Confucian Scholars towards the "School of Practical Learning" that argued for a practical approach to government and did not shy away from urging institutional reforms.
These scholars came to co-opt ideas from the ancient Legalist philosophy such as fu-chi'ang, the focus on the wealth and power of the state. The concern with the "self-strengthening" of China was expressed by Feng Guifen in a series of essays presented by him to Zeng Guofan in 1861. Feng obtained expertise in warfare commanding a volunteer corps in Qing government's campaign against the Taiping rebels. In 1860 he moved to Shanghai. In his diaries, Zeng mentioned his self-strengthening rhetoric directed at technological modernization. Li Hongzhang uses the term in an 1864 letter whereby he identifies the Western strength as lying in technology and advocates learning to construct such machines, first military and subsequently - in a memorial the following year - civilian. Other terms used to refer to the movement are the Westernization Movement or Western Affairs Movement. Scholar official Wei Yuan, writing on behalf of Commissioner Lin Zexu at the close of the First Opium War, expressed advocacy for production of Western armament and warships.
By the 1830s and 1840s, proposals emerged urging the use of Western military technology for defence against foreign powers, as well as specific reforms to traditional institutions such as the Imperial Examinations to assist the propagation of the new technology. The Taiping rebellion was not relatively. An growing number of Western weapons dealers and blackmarketeers sold Western weapons such as modern muskets and cannons to the rebels. Taiping leadership advocated the adoption of railways and steamships among other Western developments. Zeng Guofan, official in Hunan province, begun recruitment for his managed militia, the Xiang Army, sourcing funds from local merchants, to combat the rebels, using Western weapons and training. Imperial forces encompassed the Ever Victorious Army, consisting of Chinese soldiers led by a European officer corps, backed by British arms companies like Willoughbe & Ponsonby. By 1860, the overwhelming bulk of the Chinese scholarly class had became cognizant of the enormity of changes that were taking place due to the skyrocketing Western presence in China.
They now proclaimed that change was irresistible and advocated for deeper studies of Western technology. In July 1861, Prince Gong declared that he had received Imperial approbation for the purchase of foreign weapons for self-strengthening, initiating the reform movement; the movement can be divided into three phases. The first lasted from 1861 to 1872, emphasized the adoption of Western firearms, scientific knowledge and training of technical and diplomatic personnel through the establishment of a diplomatic office and a college; the Tongwen Guan was established in 1862 by the joint advocacy of Prince Gong and Wenxiang, offering classes in English, French and German, in order to train diplomats to engage with Westerners. Li Hongzhang founded a similar language school in Shanghai in 1862, another such school was established at Guangzhou in 1863 and Fuzhou in 1866; these schools became the pioneering vehicles of Western studies.
First Opium War
The First Opium War known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over diplomatic relations and the administration of justice in China. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the demand for Chinese goods in Europe created a trade imbalance between Qing Imperial China and Great Britain. European silver flowed into China through the Canton System, which confined incoming foreign trade to the southern port city of Canton. To counter this imbalance, the British East India Company began to grow opium in India and smuggle them into China illegally; the influx of narcotics reversed the Chinese trade surplus, drained the economy of silver, increased the numbers of opium addicts inside the country, outcomes that worried Chinese officials. In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor, rejecting proposals to legalize and tax opium, appointed viceroy Lin Zexu to go to Canton to halt the opium trade completely. Lin wrote to Queen Victoria an open letter in an appeal to her moral responsibility to stop the opium trade.
When he failed to get a response, he attempted to get foreign companies to forfeit their opium stores in exchange for tea, but this failed too. Lin resorted to using force in the western merchants' enclave, he confiscated all supplies and ordered a blockade of foreign ships to get them to surrender their opium supply. Lin confiscated 20,283 chests of opium; the British government responded by dispatching a military force to China and in the ensuing conflict, the Royal Navy used its naval and gunnery power to inflict a series of decisive defeats on the Chinese Empire, a tactic referred to as gunboat diplomacy. In 1842, the Qing dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese called the unequal treaties—which granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, opened five treaty ports to foreign merchants, ceded Hong Kong Island to the British Empire; the failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War, the perceived weakness of the Qing dynasty resulted in social unrest within China, namely the Taiping Rebellion, which the Qing dynasty fought against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
In China, the war is considered the beginning of modern Chinese history. Direct maritime trade between Europe and China began in 1557 when the Portuguese leased an outpost from the Ming dynasty at Macau. Other European nations soon followed the Portuguese lead, inserting themselves into the existing Asian maritime trade network to compete with Arab, Chinese and Japanese merchants in intra-regional commerce. After the Spanish conquest of the Philippines the exchange of goods between China and Europe accelerated dramatically. From 1565 on, the Manila Galleons brought silver into the Asian trade network from mines in South America. China was a primary destination for the precious metal, as the imperial government mandated that Chinese goods could only be exported in exchange for silver bullion. British ships began to appear sporadically around the coasts of China from 1635 on. Without establishing formal relations through the Chinese tributary system, by which most Asian nations were able to negotiate with China, British merchants were only allowed to trade at the ports of Zhoushan and Guangzhou.
Official British trade was conducted through the auspices of the British East India Company, which held a royal charter for trade with the Far East. The East India Company came to dominate Sino-European trade from its position in India and due to the strength of the Royal Navy. Trade benefited. Taiwan came under Qing control in 1683 and rhetoric regarding the tributary status of Europeans was muted. Guangzhou became the port of preference for incoming foreign trade. Ships did try to call at other ports, but these locations could not match the benefits of Canton's geographic position at the mouth of the Pearl River, nor did they have the city's long experience in balancing the demands of Beijing with those of Chinese and foreign merchants. From 1700 onward Canton was the center of maritime trade with China, this market process was formulated by Qing authorities into the "Canton System". From the system's inception in 1757, trading in China was lucrative for European and Chinese merchants alike as goods such as tea and silk were valued enough in Europe to justify the expenses of traveling to Asia.
The system was regulated by the Qing government. Foreign traders were only permitted to do business through a body of Chinese merchants known as the Cohong and were forbidden to learn Chinese. Foreigners could only live in one of the Thirteen Factories and were not allowed to enter or trade in any other part of China. Only low level government officials could be dealt with, the imperial court could not be lobbied for any reason excepting official diplomatic missions; the Imperial laws that upheld the system were collectively known as the Prevention Barbarian Ordinances. The Cohong were powerful in the Old China Trade, as they were tasked with appraising the value of foreign products, purchasing or rebuffing said imports, charged with selling Chinese exports at an appropriate price; the Cohong was made up of between 6 to 20 merchant families. Most of the merchant houses these families ruled had been established by low-ranking mandarins, but
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Revolt of the Three Feudatories
The Revolt of the Three Feudatories was a rebellion lasting from 1673 to 1681 in the Qing dynasty during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor. The revolt was led by the three lords of the fiefdoms in Yunnan and Fujian provinces against the Qing central government. In the early years of the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, central government authority was not strong and the rulers were unable to control the provinces in southern China directly; the government initiated a policy of "letting the Han Chinese govern the Han Chinese", which allowed some generals of the former Ming Dynasty who had surrendered them to help them govern the provinces in the south. This originated from the crucial contributions these generals had made in the decisive moments during the conquest of China. For instance, navy of Geng Zhongming and Shang Kexi brought about quick capitulation of Joseon in 1636, allowing rapid advance into Ming territories without worrying about what is behind. Defection and subsequent cooperation of Wu Sangui allowed swift capture and settlement of the Ming capital Beijing.
In return, the Qing government had to reward their achievements and acknowledge their military and political influence. In 1655, Wu Sangui was granted the title of "Pingxi Prince" and granted governorship of the provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou. Shang Kexi and Geng Zhongming were granted the titles of "Pingnan Prince" and "Jingnan Prince" and were put in charge of the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian; the three lords had great influence over their lands and wielded far greater power than any other regional or provincial governors. They had the authority to alter tax rates in their fiefs. In Yunnan and Guizhou, Wu Sangui was granted permission by the Shunzhi Emperor to appoint and promote his own personal group of officials, as well as the privilege of choosing warhorses first before the Qing armies. Wu Sangui's forces took up several million taels of silver in military pay, taking up a third of the Qing government's revenue from taxes. Wu was in charge of handling the Qing government's diplomatic relationships with the Dalai Lama and Tibet.
Most of Wu's troops were Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong's forces and they were well-versed in warfare. In Fujian province, Geng Jingzhong ruled as a tyrant over his fief, allowing his subordinates to extort food supplies and money from the common people. After Geng's death, his son Geng Jimao inherited his father's title and fiefdom, Geng Jimao was succeeded by his son Geng Jingzhong. In Guangdong province, Shang Kexi ruled his fief in a similar fashion to Geng Jingzhong. In total, much of the central government's revenue and reserves were spent on the Three Feudatories and their expenditure emptied half of the imperial treasury; when the Kangxi Emperor came to the throne, he felt that the Three Feudatories posed a great threat to his sovereignty and wanted to reduce their power. In 1667, Wu Sangui submitted a request to the Kangxi Emperor, asking for permission to be relieved of his duties in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, on the premise that he was ill, but Kangxi, not yet ready for a trial of strength with him, refused.
In 1673, Shang Kexi asked for permission to retire, in July, Wu Sangui and Geng Jingzhong followed suit. Kangxi received divided responses; some thought that the Three Feudatories should be left as they were, while others supported the idea of reducing the three lords' powers. Kangxi went against the views of the majority in the council and accepted the three lords' requests for retirement, ordering them to leave their respective fiefs and resettle in Manchuria. In December 1673, Wu Sangui ended his connection to the Qing empire and declared his new dynasty, the Zhou, he instigated the rebellion under the banner of "opposing Qing and restoring Ming". Wu's forces captured Sichuan provinces. Geng Jingzhong followed suit in Fujian. At the same time, Sun Yanling and Wang Fuchen rose in revolt in Guangxi and Shaanxi provinces. Zheng Jing, ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning, led a 150,000 strong army from Taiwan and landed in Fujian to join the rebel forces; the Qing forces were defeated by Wu in 1673-1674.
Manchu Generals and Bannermen were put to shame by the performance of the Han Chinese Green Standard Army, who fought better than them against the rebels. The Qing had the support of the majority of Han Chinese soldiers and the Han elite, as they did not join the Three Feudatories. Different sources offer different account of the Manchu forces deployed against the rebels. According to one, 400,000 Green Standard Army soldiers and 150,000 Bannermen served on the Qing side during the war. According to another, 213 Han Chinese Banner companies, 527 companies of Mongol and Manchu Banners were mobilized by the Qing. According to a third, mustered the Qing a massive army of more than 900,000 Han Chinese to fight the Three Feudatories. Fighting in northwestern China against Wang Fuchen, the Qing put Bannermen in the rear as reserves while they used Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers and Han Chinese Generals like Zhang Liangdong, Wang Jinbao, Zhang Yong as their main military force; the Qing thought that Han Chinese soldiers were superior at fighting other Han people and so used the Green Standard Army as their main army against the rebels instead of Bannermen.
As a result, after 1676, the tide turned in favor of the Qing forces. In the northwest, Wang Fuchen surrendered after a three-year-long stalemate, while Geng Jingzhong and Shang Zhixin surrendered in turn as their forces weakened. In the south, Wu