Atienza is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara, Spain. According to the 2006 census, the municipality had a population of 437 inhabitants. There were ancient Celtiberian settlements in the Cerro del Padrastro. Atienza, as well as the area surrounding it, is located in the transition zone between the Sistema Ibérico and the Sistema Central. Juan Bravo was born in Atienza. Ayuntamiento de Atienza Villa de Atienza
Oviedo is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. It is the name of the municipality that contains the city. Oviedo is located 24 km southwest of Gijón and 23 km south of Avilés, both of which lie on the shoreline of the Bay of Biscay, its proximity to the ocean causes Oviedo to have a maritime climate, in spite of it not being located on the shoreline itself. The Kingdom of Asturias began in 720, with the Visigothic aristocrat Pelagius's revolt against the Muslims who at the time were occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Moorish invasion that began in 711 had taken control of most of the peninsula, until the revolt in the northern mountains by Pelagius. The resulting Kingdom of Asturias, located in an economically poor region of Iberia, was ignored by the Muslims. In 720, the area where Oviedo is now located was still uninhabited, it is said that two monks, Máximo and Fromestano, founded the city in 761.
That settlement was soon to be completed with the construction of a small church dedicated to Saint Vincent. Oviedo was established on an uninhabited hillside, with no Visigothic or Roman foundation before it became an Asturian city. Following Pelagius, who died in 737, Alfonso I founded a dynasty that would last until 1037; the Asturian Kingdom was on hostile terms with southern Moorish Spain. In 794, Oviedo was sacked and pillaged by Caliph Hisham I in one of his numerous campaigns against the Christian kingdoms. King Alfonso I is said to have "set in place the whole order of the Goths, as it had been in Toledo, as much in the church as in the palace." The intention with Oviedo was to shape it into a city similar to that of Visigothic Toledo. Once kings had settled in Oviedo, they adopted as much of the architectural style and imagery of Toledo. With this in mind, Oviedo did not resemble the old Visigothic capital in Toledo; the churches and buildings of Oviedo follow instead late provincial Roman tradition.
Since Asturias at the time was an agriculturally poor area of Spain the scale of the buildings is quite impressive. Oviedo’s rich architectural tradition began with King Fruela I. King Fruela I of Asturias, the fourth of the Asturian monarchs, was the first decided promoter of the city as may be witnessed by his construction of both a palace and a nearby church; this church was restored by Alfonso II. Oviedo owes to a king, Alfonso II The Chaste, its establishment as a capital city and ruling seat as a result of the moving of the court from Pravia and the creation of the Pilgrim’s Route to Santiago de Compostela, a major event in the history of Oviedo, a church dedicated to The Saviour, the Cathedral of San Salvador, a royal palace formed the nucleus of Oviedo. Constructed during Alfonso II's reign was the San Julian de los Prados church, one of the best preserved Asturian churches. Alfonso II's successor, Ramiro I, continued Alfonso II's construction streak. Ramiro I constructed the Church Santa Maria del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo.
The Church Santa Maria de Naranco was to be Ramiro I's palace and changed into a church. By this time the Court of the Palace was centered in Oviedo, the main royal residence; this court was controlled by member of the Austurian nobility. Ramiro I's eight-year tenure was uneasy, he faced rebellions from the Counts of the Palace; the first rebellion against Ramiro I was led by Alroitus, the second rebellion was led by Piniolus. Both of these rebellions were unsuccessful in removing Ramiro I; these rebellions may have been why Ramiro I built his palace in the mountains surrounding Oviedo away from the violence. During the 9th century in Oviedo, Roman style property law is common. 9th century documents indicate small scale aristocracies across the kingdom, as well as a large presence of a landowning peasantry. Following Ramiro I's reign, Ordoño I came into power and began the Asturian king’s father-son succession. Ordoño I was the first king to push southwards into Arab territory. Following Ordoño I's death on May 27, 866, usurpers attempted to take the throne.
The following king Alfonso III, thirteen at the time, took refuge in Castile until his followers had killed the usurper. Alfonso III's contributions to building construction are not nearly as well documented as Ramiro I's or Alfonso II's contributions; the Chronicle of Alfonso III does not mention any buildings created by Alfonso III, neither does the Chronicle of Albelda. In 882, the body of the Cordoban martyr Eulogius was sent to Oviedo; this was meant a diplomatic gift from Emir Muhammad I. Eulogius was executed in 859; the body was accompanied by Eulogius's book collection. In the 16th century, the only manuscript of Eulogius's writings was discovered in the Oviedo Cathedral Library. Here it was copied once before it disappeared from the library. Following an offensive in 881 against an Umayyad army, Alfsonso III returned to Oviedo to rebuild churches, it was at this time. The Chronicle of Albelda and the Chronicle of Sampiro tie Alfonso III's victories in battle to his program of church building in Oviedo.
In 908, Alfonso III commissioned a gold and jewelled cross to contain the cross carried by Pelagius I at Covadonga. This "Cross of Victory" is located in the Camara Sancta in the Oviedo Cathedral. However, recent Carbon14 analysis of the wooden cross indicates that it was no older than the golden casing created to surround the cross; the commission of the casing shows us Alfonso III’s interest in
Aguilar de Campoo
Aguilar de Campoo is a town in the province of Palencia, autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. It is close to the River Pisuerga, its 2011 population is 7741. In 1255 Alfonso X the Wise declared it Villa Realenga; the town maintained that privilege until 1332. Monastery of Santa María la Real Collegiate Church of San Miguel Church of Olleros de Pisuerga Hermitage of Santa Cecilia Church of San Andrés Monastery of Santa Clara Medieval castle Major Square Palace of the Manrique Palace of the Villalobos-Solorzano Palace of the Marquises of Villatorre House of the Priest House of Santa Mª La Real House of the Marcos Gutierrez House of the Seven Linajes House of the Velardes Medieval walls and gates Major Bridge Bridge of Portazgo Bridge of Turruntero Mill Bridge of la Teja Bridges of Paseo de la Cascajera Bridges of Tenerias In Aguilar is Galletas Gullón factory, the largest manufacturer of biscuits in Spain and one of the largest in Europe. Official website Información, fiestas y fotografias de Aguilar de Campoo
Alfonso VII of León and Castile
Alfonso VII, called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. Alfonso, born Alfonso Raimúndez, first used the title Emperor of All Spain, alongside his mother Urraca, once she vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116. Alfonso held another investiture in 1135 in a grand ceremony reasserting his claims to the imperial title, he was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Ivrea to rule in the Iberian peninsula. Alfonso was a somewhat enigmatic figure, his rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Iberia over the eastern after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. Though he sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice to both Christian and Muslim populations, his hegemonic intentions never saw fruition. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143, he was a patron of poets, including the troubadour Marcabru.
In 1111, Diego Gelmírez, Bishop of Compostela and the count of Traba and anointed Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. He was a child, but his mother had succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the Muslim Kingdom of Toledo. On 10 March 1126, after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile, under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile; the territory in the far east of his dominion, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons; when Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón, died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders. The aristocracy of both kingdoms rejected this.
García Ramírez, Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II. Alfonso responded by reclaiming La Rioja and "attempted to annex the district around Zaragoza and Tarazona". In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage, he had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees, who held lands as far as the River Rhône. In the end, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica. A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it; such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire.
But though appearing in charters, claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric. On 26 May 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of Spain" in the Cathedral of León. By this, he wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista, he appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Spain had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together; the weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective. After Afonso Henriques recognised him as liege in 1137, Alfonso VII lost the Battle of Valdevez in 1141 thereby affirming Portugal's independence in the Treaty of Zamora. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV, a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon. Alfonso was a pious prince.
He introduced the Cistercians to Iberia by founding a monastery at Fitero. He adopted a militant attitude towards the Moors of Al-Andalus the Almoravids. From 1138, when he besieged Coria, Alfonso led a series of crusades subjugating the Almoravids. After a seven-month siege, he took the fortress of Oreja near Toledo and, as the Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris tells it:... early in the morning the castle was surrendered and the towers were filled with Christian knights, the royal standards were raised above a high tower. Those who held the standards shouted out loud and proclaimed "Long live Alfonso, emperor of León and Toledo!" In 1142, Alfonso besieged took it. In 1144, he advanced as far as Córdoba. Two years the Almohads invaded and he was forced to refortify his southern frontier and come to an agreement with the Almoravid Ibn Ganiya for their mutual defence; when Pope Eugene III preached the Second Crusade, Alfonso VII, with García Ramírez of Navarre and Ramon Berenguer IV, led a mixed army of Catalans and Franks, with a Genoese–Pisan navy, in a crusade against the rich port city of Almería, occupied in October 1147.
A third of the city was granted to Genoa and subsequently leased out to Otto de Bonvillano, a Genoese citizen. It was Castile's first Mediterranean seaport. In 1151, Alfonso signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramon Berenguer; the treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia in order to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Six years Almería entered into Almohad possession. Alfonso was r
Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso I, called the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragon and Pamplona from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the second son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. With his marriage to Urraca, queen regnant of Castile, León and Galicia, in 1109, he began to use, with some justification, the grandiose title Emperor of Spain employed by his father-in-law, Alfonso VI. Alfonso the Battler earned his sobriquet in the Reconquista, he won his greatest military successes in the middle Ebro, where he conquered Zaragoza in 1118 and took Ejea, Calatayud, Tarazona and Monreal del Campo. He died in September 1134 after an unsuccessful battle with the Muslims at the Battle of Fraga, his nickname comes from the Aragonese version of the Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña, which says that "they called him lord Alfonso the battler because in Spain there wasn't as good a knight who won twenty-nine battles". His earliest years were passed in the monastery of Siresa, learning to read and write and to practice the military arts under the tutelage of Lope Garcés the Pilgrim, repaid for his services by his former charge with the county of Pedrola when Alfonso came to the throne.
During his brother's reign, he participated in the taking of Huesca, which became the largest city in the kingdom and the new capital. He joined El Cid's expeditions in Valencia, his father gave him the lordships of Biel, Luna and Bailo. A series of deaths put Alfonso directly in line for the throne, his brother's children and Peter, died in 1103 and 1104 respectively. A passionate fighting-man, he was married in 1109 to the ambitious Queen Urraca of León, widow of Raymond of Burgundy, a passionate woman unsuited for a subordinate role; the marriage had been arranged by her father Alfonso VI of León in 1106 to unite the two chief Christian states against the Almoravids, to supply them with a capable military leader. But Urraca was tenacious of her right as queen regnant and had not learnt chastity in the polygamous household of her father. Husband and wife quarrelled with the brutality of the age and came to open war placing Urraca under siege at Astorga in 1112. Alfonso had the support of one section of the nobles.
Being a much better soldier than any of his opponents he won the Battle of Candespina and the Battle of Viadangos, but his only trustworthy supporters were his Aragonese, who were not numerous enough to keep Castile and León subjugated. The marriage of Alfonso and Urraca was declared null by the Pope, as they were second cousins, in 1110, but he ignored the papal nuncio and clung to his liaison with Urraca until 1114. During his marriage, he had called himself "King and Emperor of Castile, Aragón, Pamplona and Ribagorza" in recognition of his rights as Urraca's husband, he inserted the title of imperator on the basis. Alfonso's late marriage and his failure to remarry and produce the essential legitimate heir that should have been a dynastic linchpin of his aggressive territorial policies have been adduced as a lack of interest in women. Ibn al-Athir describes Alfonso as a tireless soldier who would sleep in his armor without benefit of cover, whom when asked why he did not take his pleasure from one of the captives of Muslim chiefs, responded that the man devoted to war needs the companionship of men not women.
The king quarrelled with the church, the Cistercians as violently as with his wife. As he defeated her, so he expelled the monks of Sahagún, he was compelled to give way in Castile and León to his stepson, Alfonso VII of Castile, son of Urraca and her first husband. The intervention of Pope Calixtus II brought about an arrangement between the old man and his young namesake. In 1122 in Belchite, he founded a confraternity of knights to fight against the Almoravids, it was the start of the military orders in Aragon. Years he organised a branch of the Militia Christi of the Holy Land at Monreal del Campo. Alfonso spent his first four years as king in near-constant war with the Muslims. In 1105, he refortified Castellar and Juslibol. In 1106, he defeated Ahmad II al-Musta'in of Zaragoza at Valtierra. In 1107, he took Esteban de la Litera. Followed a period dominated by his relations with Castile and León through his wife, Urraca, he resumed his conquest in 1117 by conquering Fitero, Cintruénigo, Murchante and Cascante.
In 1118, the Council of Toulouse declared a crusade to assist in the conquest of Zaragoza. Many Frenchmen joined Alfonso at Ayerbe, they took Almudévar, Gurrea de Gállego, Zuera, besieging Zaragoza itself by the end of May. The city fell on 18 December, the forces of Alfonso occupied the Azuda, the government tower; the great palace of the city was given to the monks of Bernard. Promptly, the city was made Alfonso's capital. Two years in 1120, he defeated a Muslim army intent on reconquering his new capital at the Battle of Cutanda, he promulgated the fuero of tortum per tortum, facilitating taking the law into one's own hands, which among others reassumed the Muslim r
Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The municipality had a population of 78,892 in 2017. Palencia lies in the north of the central Spanish plateau, the Meseta Central, in the middle of the Carrión river valley, near the river's confluence with the Pisuerga, which flows through the town and creating four small islands, Dos Aguas and Sotillo being the largest. Palencia is located 190 km north of Madrid, some 40 km north of Valladolid, capital of Castile and León. Two hills surround the city in its north-east area. On the closest stands the 30-metre high statue of Christ known as the Cristo del Otero, the fourth-tallest statue of Christ in the world. Palencia has a substantial forest of 1,438 hectares 6 km away on a plateau above the city, known locally as the "Monte el Viejo"; this park is a popular amusement area for the locals. The Canal de Castilla runs close to the city.
Palencia's municipality includes the village of Paredes de Monte, 14 km away. The region of Palencia has a Continental Mediterranean climate with cool winters, due to altitude and isolation from maritime influences, chilly winds, including some days of snow in the winter and minimum temperatures below 0 °C. Fogs are frequent because of the Carrion river. Summer tends to be warm with temperatures that surpass 30 °C in July and that can reach 38 °C. Due to Palencia's altitude, nightly temperatures tend to be cooler, leading to a lower average in the summer months. Precipitation levels are moderated. Summer and winter are the driest seasons, with most rainfall occurring in the spring. Light rains are frequent in winter, with infrequent rain and heavy thunderstorms in the summer. Snow is an infrequent occurrence, with only a few days of snowfall each year in December and February, snowfall can occur in November or March; the fortified Celtiberian settlement is mentioned as Pallantia by Strabo and Ptolemy, a version of an Indo-European root pala.
It was the chief town of the Vaccaei. The city was starved into submission by the Romans in the 2nd century BC and incorporated into the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the jurisdiction of Colonia Clunia Sulpicia. Though the little Roman garrison city was an active mint, it was insignificant compared to the Roman villas of Late Antiquity in the surrounding territory. Archeologists have uncovered the remains of Roman villas at La Olmeda and at the "Quintanilla de la Cueza", where the fragments of mosaic floors are spectacularly refined. According to the 5th-century Galician chronicler Idatius, the city of Palencia was all but destroyed in the Visigothic wars against the Suevi: the date falls in the reign of Theodoric II, whose power centre still lay far to the east, in Aquitania; when the Visigoths conquered the territory, they retained the Roman rural villa system in establishing the Campos Góticos. The Catholic bishopric of Palencia was founded in the 3rd century or earlier, assuming that its bishop was among those assembled in the 3rd century to depose Basilides, bishop of Astorga.
The Priscillianists which originated in Egypt but came to Spain was declared a heresy by the emperor Gratian. It was mix of Gnostic/Montanist teachings. Priscillian was ordained priest and consecrated bishop of Avila. The'heresy' was strongest in northwestern Spain; the declaration of it as a heresy was a political move by the Catholic usurper emperor Maximus to curry favor with the Catholic emperors Valentinian II and Theodosius I. After the establishment of effective Visigothic power Catholics disputed the bishopric of Palencia with the Arian Visigoths. Maurila, an Arian bishop established in Palencia by Leovigild, followed King Reccared's conversion to Catholicism, in 589 he assisted at the Third Council of Toledo. Bishop Conantius, the biographer of Saint Ildephonsus, assisted at synods and councils in Toledo and composed music and a book of prayers from the Psalms; when the Moors arrived in the early 8th century, resistance was fragmented among bishops in control of the small walled towns and the territorial magnates in their fortified villas.
A concerted resistance seems to have been ineffective, the fragmented system crumbled villa by villa. Palencia was insignificant: Moorish writers only once cite the border city in the division of the provinces previous to the Umayyad dynasty; the diocese of Palencia was but a name— a "titular see"— until Froila, Count of Villafruela, succeeded in retaking the area of the see in 921, but the true restorer of Christian power was Sancho III of Navarre. At Palencia El Cid The first prelate of the restored see is said to have been Bernardo, whom Sancho gave feudal command over the city and its lands, with the various castles and the few abbeys. Bernardo was born in France or Navarre, devoted himself to the reconstruction of the original cathedral built over the crypt of the local Saint Antolín, the patron saint of Palencia, venerated here alone, with his Ferias, a moveable feast in September; the cathedral was rebuilt again three centuries later. Its principal treasures were relics of Antoninus venerated in Aquitania, whence they had been brought.
Alfonso VI conferred many privileges on Raimundo. Pedro of Agen in France