Resurrection of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus from the dead after his crucifixion. According to the Apostle Paul, as stated by Newbigin, "in the ministry and resurrection of Jesus God has acted decisively to reveal and effect his purpose of redemption for the whole world." According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God", will return again to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God. The earliest surviving Christian writings are the letters of Paul, written between 50-57 AD. In one of these, his First Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes on what he has been told of how, after his death and burial, the resurrected Jesus appeared to Peter to "the Twelve," to five hundred followers to James to "all the Apostles." He claims that Jesus subsequently appeared to him in the same way he did to the others, in 2 Corinthians 12 he tells of "a man in Christ who... was caught up to the third heaven", while the language is obscure it is plausible that he saw Jesus enthroned at the right hand of God.
In the Epistle to the Philippians he describes how the body of the resurrected Christ is utterly different to the one he wore when he had "the appearance of a man," and holds out a similar glorified state, when Christ "will transform our lowly body," as the goal of the Christian life - "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God," and Christians entering the kingdom will be "putting off the body of the flesh". According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection, he stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans. Habermas argues three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body: Paul is a Pharisee and therefore believes in a physical resurrection. In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up". In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma to be like unto his soma".
According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma. According to Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."Many scholars have contended that in discussion on the resurrection, the apostle Paul refers to a rabbinic style transmission of an early authoritative tradition that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth. For this and other reasons, it is believed that this creed is of pre-Pauline origin. Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death and resurrection of Jesus"; the creed's ultimate origins are within the Jerusalem apostolic community having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection. Paul Barnett writes that this creedal formula, others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 " after his conversion.
All four gospels climax with the resurrection, preparing the reader by having Jesus predict it, or through allusions that only the reader will understand. The moment of resurrection is not described; the body of Jesus was buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea in accordance with Mosaic Law, which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown. When women followers of Jesus came to the tomb early on the third day they found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty. An angel told them that they should inform the remaining disciples. In Matthew and John, although not in Mark, the resurrection announcement is followed by post-resurrection appearances of Jesus to his followers - the number and location of these varies, from a single appearance in Galilee in Matthew to several appearances in Jerusalem in Luke to appearances in both Jerusalem and Galillee in John; the Apostle Paul records a series of post-resurrection appearances, the last being to himself - an appearance to Paul is recorded in detail in Acts, but it differs from that in the Pauline epistles.
These end with the ascension of Jesus to heaven - this is assumed in all the gospels and in other New Testament literature but described only in Acts, where it prepares the reader for the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and for the missionary task of the early church. Paul's proof of the resurrection is the appearances of the risen Lord to himself. At some point such appearances ceased - after a single day according to Luke, after forty according to Acts, although the Paul's experience was many years after that. In any event, the end of personal appearances meant that for the gospel-authors alternative proofs were needed; these were found in the narratives of the empty tomb, angelic announcement, witnesses to post-resurrection appearances on Earth rather than in heaven. In the process they moved from a Jewish to a Hellenistic and Roman paradigm in which Jesus dies and is buried, his body disappears, he returns in an immortalised physical body, able to appear and disappear at will like a
The word "Alleluia" or "Hallelujah", which means "Praise ye Yah", a short form of "Praise Yahweh" and rendered as "praise the Lord". From the 14th century; the form "Alleluia" is used to refer to a liturgical chant in which that word is combined with verses of Scripture from the Psalms. This chant is used before the proclamation of the Gospel; the Hebrew word Halleluya as an expression of praise to God was preserved, untranslated, by the Early Christians as a superlative expression of thanksgiving and triumph. Thus it appears in the ancient Greek Liturgy of St. James, still used to this day by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and, in its Syriac recension is the prototype of that used by the Maronites. In the Liturgy of St. Mark the most ancient of all, we find this rubric: "Then follow Let us attend, the Apostle, the Prologue of the Alleluia."—the "Apostle" is the usual ancient Eastern title for the Epistle reading, the "Prologue of the Alleluia" would seem to be a prayer or verse before Alleluia was sung by the choir.
In the Roman Rite the word "Alleluia" is associated with joy and is favoured in Paschal time, the time between Easter and Pentecost because of the association of the Hallel chanted at Passover. During this time, the word is added to verses and responses associated with prayers, to antiphons of psalms, during the Octave of Easter and on Pentecost Sunday, to the dismissal at the end of Mass. On the other hand, the word "Alleluia" is excluded from the Roman liturgy during Lent euphemistically referred to during this time as the "A-word". In pre-1970 forms of the Roman Rite it is excluded in the pre-Lenten Septuagesima period and in Masses for the Dead; the same word, which follows the Gloria Patri at the beginning of each hour of the Liturgy of the Hours and which in the present ordinary form of the Roman Rite is omitted during Lent, is replaced in pre-1970 forms by the phrase Laus tibi, rex aeternae gloriae in Lent and the Septuagesima period. The term "Alleluia" is used to designate a chant beginning and ending with this word and including a verse of Scripture, in particular a chant to greet and welcome the Lord whose word will be proclaimed in the Gospel reading.
The choir or a cantor sings "Alleluia". The congregation repeats this; the choir or cantor sings a verse taken from the Mass Lectionary or the Roman Gradual, after which the congregation again sings "Alleluia". In Lent the verse alone is sung or the word "Alleluia" is replaced by a different acclamation taken from the Gradual. If singing is not used, the Alleluia and its verse may be omitted at any season; the complex plainchant setting in the Roman Gradual requires a high degree of skill and is used only in monasteries and seminaries. This melismatic Gregorian chant opens with the cantor singing "Alleluia"; the choir repeats it. The cantor sings the main part of the verse, the choir joins in on the final line; the cantor repeats the opening Alleluia, the choir repeats only the jubilus. The music is ornate, but within a narrow range; the Alleluia for Christmas Eve, for instance, has an ambitus of only a perfect fifth, a rather extreme example. Alleluias were troped, both with added music and text.
It is believed that some early Sequences derived from syllabic text being added to the jubilus, may be named after the opening words of the Alleluia verse. Alleluias were among the more used chants to create early organa, such as in the Winchester Troper. In the pre-1970 form of the Roman-Rite Mass the Alleluia and its verse is replaced during Lent and Septuagesima time by a Tract. On the other hand, during Eastertide the Gradual is replaced with an Alleluia chant, thus putting two such chants before the Gospel reading. In the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, after reading the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy, the Reader announces which of the Eight Tones the Alleluia is to be chanted in; the response of the choir is always the same: "Alleluia, alleluia." What differs is the tone in which it is sung, the stichera which are intoned by the Reader. The Alleluia is paired with the Prokeimenon. There may be two Alleluias, depending upon the number of Prokeimena. In the Russian/Slavic order, the Alleluia is intoned in one of the two following manners, depending upon the number of Prokeimena: Deacon: "Let us attend."
Reader: "Alleluia in the ____ Tone." Choir: "Alleluia, alleluia." The Reader chants the first sticheron of the Alleluia. Choir: "Alleluia, alleluia." The Reader chants the second sticheron of the Alleluia. Choir: "Alleluia, alleluia." Deacon: "Let us attend." Reader: "Alleluia in the ____ Tone:" Then he chants the first sticheron of the first Alleluia. Choir: "Alleluia, alleluia." The Reader chants the second sticheron of the first Alleluia. Choir: "Alleluia, alleluia." Reader: "In the ____ Tone:" And he chants the first sticheron of the second Alleluia. Choir: "Alleluia, alleluia." Among the Orthodox, the chanting of Alleluia does not cease during Lent. This is in accordance with the Orthodox approach to fasting, one of sober joy. During the weekdays of Great Le
Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music, lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. It formed as those affected by the 1960s Jesus movement revival began to express themselves in a more contemporary style of music than the hymns and Southern gospel music, prevalent in the church at the time. Today, the term is used to refer to pop, rock, or praise & worship styles, it has representation on several music charts including Billboard's Christian Albums, Christian Songs, Hot Christian AC, Christian CHR, Soft AC/Inspirational, Christian Digital Songs as well as the UK's Official Christian & Gospel Albums Chart. Top-selling CCM artists will appear on the Billboard 200. In the iTunes Store, the genre is represented as part of the Christian and gospel genre while the Google Play Music system labels it as Christian/Gospel; the growing popularity in the styles of Rock'n'Roll music in the 1950s was dismissed by the church because it was believed to encourage sinfulness.
Yet as evangelical churches adapted to appeal to more people, the musical styles used in worship changed as well by adopting the sounds of this popular style. The genre became known as contemporary Christian music as a result of the Jesus movement revival in the latter 1960s and early 1970s, was called Jesus music. "About that time, many young people from the sixties' counterculture professed to believe in Jesus. Convinced of the bareness of a lifestyle based on drugs, free sex, radical politics,'hippies' became'Jesus people'". However, there were people who felt that Jesus was another "trip", it was during the 1970s Jesus movement that Christian music started to become an industry within itself. "Jesus Music" started by playing instruments and singing songs about love and peace, which translated into love of God. Paul Wohlegemuth, who wrote the book Rethinking Church Music, said " 1970s will see a marked acceptance of rock-influenced music in all levels of church music; the rock style will become more familiar to all people, its rhythmic excesses will become refined, its earlier secular associations will be less remembered."Larry Norman is remembered as the "father of Christian rock", because of his early contributions to the developing new genre that mixed rock rhythms with the Christian messages.
Though his style was not well received by many in the Christian community of the time, he continued throughout his career to create controversial hard-rock songs such as "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". He is remembered as the artist "who first combined rock'n' roll with Christian lyrics" in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Though there were Christian albums in the 1960s that contained contemporary-sounding songs, there were two albums recorded in 1969 that are considered to be the first complete albums of "Jesus rock": Upon This Rock by Larry Norman released on Capitol Records, Mylon – We Believe by Mylon LeFevre, released by Cotillion, LeFevre's attempt at blending gospel music with southern rock. Unlike traditional or southern gospel music, this new Jesus music was birthed out of rock and folk music. Pioneers of this movement included Keith Green, 2nd Chapter of Acts, Barry McGuire, Andraé Crouch and the Disciples, Benny Hester, The Imperials, among others; the small Jesus music culture had expanded into a multimillion-dollar industry by the 1980s.
Many CCM artists such as Benny Hester, Amy Grant, DC Talk, Michael W. Smith and Jars of Clay found crossover success with Top 40 mainstream radio play; the genre became prevalent in the 1970s and 1980s. Beginning in July 1978, CCM Magazine began covering "Contemporary Christian Music" artists and a wide range of spiritual themes until it launched online publications in 2009, it has certain themes and messages behind the songs and their lyrics including Praise and worship, faith and prayer. These songs focus on themes of devotion, redemption and renewal. Many people listen to contemporary Christian music for comfort through tough times; the lyrics and messages conveyed in CCM songs are aimed to worship Jesus. One of the earliest goals of CCM was to spread the news of Jesus to non-Christians. In addition, contemporary Christian music strengthens the faith of believers. Contemporary Christian music has influences from folk, gospel and rock music. Genres of music such as soft rock, folk rock, hip-hop, etc. have played a large influence on CCM.
Charismatic churches have had a large influence on contemporary Christian music and are one of the largest producers of CCM. Hillsong Church is one of the many prominent CCM artists. Contemporary Christian music has expanded into many subgenres. Christian punk, Christian hardcore, Christian metal, Christian hip hop, although not considered CCM, can come under the genre's umbrella. Contemporary worship music is incorporated in modern CCM. Contemporary worship is both performed during church services; some prominent artists who assisted CCM to become popular include Amy Grant, Michael W. Smith, Phil Keaggy and John Elefante. Several mainstream artists, such as The Byrds, Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, Elvis Presley, Lifehouse and U2, have dealt with Christian themes in their music, yet are not part of the CCM industry. Other artists representing the genre include MercyMe, Casting Crowns, Jeremy Camp, Third Day, Matthew West, tobyMac, Chris Tomlin, Brandon Heath, Aaron Shust, Lauren Daigle. Jars of Clay, dc Talk, Steven Curtis Chapman and Newsboys have belonged to this genre.
The term "ecumenism" refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings. The term is often used to refer to efforts towards the visible and organic unity of different Christian denominations in some form; the adjective ecumenical can be applied to any interdenominational initiative that encourages greater cooperation among Christians and their churches, whether or not the specific aim of that effort is full, visible unity. The terms ecumenism and ecumenical come from the Greek οἰκουμένη, which means "the whole inhabited world", was used with specific reference to the Roman Empire; the ecumenical vision comprises both the search for the visible unity of the Church and the "whole inhabited earth" as the concern of all Christians. In Christianity the qualification ecumenical is used in terms such as "ecumenical council" and "Ecumenical Patriarch" in the meaning of pertaining to the totality of the larger Church rather than being restricted to one of its constituent local churches or dioceses.
Used in this original sense, the term carries no connotation of re-uniting the separated Christian denominations, but presumes a unity of local congregations in a worldwide communion. The word was used in the context of large ecumenical councils that were organized under the auspices of Roman Emperors to clarify matters of Christian theology and doctrine; these "Ecumenical Councils" brought together bishops from around the inhabited world as they knew it at the time. There were a total of seven ecumenical councils accepted by both Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism held before the Great Schism. Thus, the modern meaning of the words ecumenical and ecumenism derives from this pre-modern sense of Christian unity, the impulse to recreate this unity again. There are a variety of different expectations of what that Christian unity looks like, how it is brought about, what ecumenical methods ought to be engaged, what both short- and long-term objectives of the ecumenical movement should be. Ecumenism and nondenominational or post denominational movements are not the same thing.
If ecumenism is the quest for Christian unity, it must be understood what the divisions are which must be overcome. Christianity has not been a monolithic faith since the first century or Apostolic Age, if and today there exists a large variety of groups that share a common history and tradition within and without mainstream Christianity. Christianity is the largest religion in the world and the various divisions have commonalities and differences in tradition, church government and language; the world's 2.2 billion Christians are visibly divided into different communions or denominations, groupings of Christians and their churches that are in full communion with one another, but to some degree exclusive of other Christians. The exact number of these denominations is disputed, based on differing definitions used; the largest number quoted is "approximately 45,000" from the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. The World Christian Encyclopedia lists "approximately 33,000" in 2001.
Yet, at the same time, the World Council of Churches counts only 348 member churches, representing more than half a billion members. This, with the Catholic Church's 1.25 billion Christians, indicates that 349 churches/denominations account for nearly 80% of the world's Christian population. One problem with the larger numbers is. For example, the Catholic Church is a single church, or communion, comprising 24 distinct self-governing particular churches in full communion with the bishop of Rome. Further, the Catholic Church presence in each country is counted as a different denomination—though this is in no way an ecclesiologically accurate definition; this can result in the one Catholic Church being counted as 242 distinct denominations, as in the World Christian Encyclopedia. Additionally, single nondenominational congregations or megachurches without denominational affiliation are counted each as its own denomination, resulting in cases where entire "denominations" may account for only a handful of people.
Other denominations may be small remnants of once larger churches. The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing have only two full members, for example, yet are a distinct denomination. Most current divisions are the result of historical schisms—a break in the full communion between united Churches, bishops, or communities; some historical schisms proved temporary and were healed, others have hardened into the denominations of today. However individual denominations are counted, it is acknowledged that they fall into the following major "families" of churches: The Catholic Church; some of these families are in themselves a single communion, such as the Catholic Church. Other families are a general movement wit
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
Cyril Argentine Alington was an English educationalist, scholar and prolific author. He was successively the headmaster of Eton College, he served as chaplain to King George V and as Dean of Durham. Dr Alington was the second son of the Rev. Henry Giles Alington, an inspector of schools, his wife Jane Margaret Booth, daughter of Rev. Thomas Willingham Booth, his father came from a long line of clerics, was descended from the Alingtons of Horseheath, an ancient Cambridgeshire family. He was educated at Marlborough College and Trinity College and was elected a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford in 1896, he was ordained as an Anglican priest in 1901. Alington's educational career began as a sixth-form master at Marlborough College in 1896, he moved to Eton College in 1899, but left to become headmaster of Shrewsbury School in 1908. In 1917 he returned to Eton to succeed Edward Lyttelton, as headmaster, he served as chairman of the Headmasters' Conference, 1924–25. At Eton, a building which houses much of the English department is now named after him, as is Shrewsbury's school hall.
From 1933 to 1951 Alington served as Dean of Durham. He had become a Doctor of Divinity at Oxford in 1917 and received other honours: he was chaplain to the King from 1921 until 1933, he received the freedom of the City of Durham in 1949. He appeared on the cover of Time magazine on 29 June 1931. "An accomplished classicist, a witty writer of light verse, a priest of orthodox convictions..." In 1904, Alington married Hester Margaret Lyttelton, the youngest daughter of George Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton. The couple had two sons, their eldest daughter, died at the age of 30, their youngest son Patrick Alington was killed in World War II at Salerno in 1943. Their eldest son, Giles Alington, became Senior Tutor of University College, Oxford; the three surviving daughters all married Etonians. Lavinia married Sir Roger Mynors and classical scholar. Alington died at the age of 82 and was buried at Durham Cathedral, where there is a memorial in the north transept. Alington wrote more than 50 books, including works on religion, history, a series of detective novels.
He wrote several popular hymns, including Good Christian Men and Sing, Ye that know The Lord is gracious and The Lord of Hosts Our King Shall Be, used as the epigraph to Nevil Shute's novel In the Wet. Mr Evans - A Cricket-Detective Story Through the Shadows Strained Relations The Count in Kensington King Harrison & Others. King Harrison is a comic opera The Abbot's Cup Crime on the Kennet Ten Crowded Hours Archdeacons Afloat Midnight Wireless Archdeacons Ashore Blackmail in Blankshire Gold and Gaiters The Nabob's Jewel Blessed Blunders. A Schoolmaster's Apology Shrewsbury Fables Eton Fables Twenty Years: Being a Study of the Party System, 1815–1835 Virgil Aeneid IV-VI Why We Read the Old Testament An Eton Poetry Book More Eton Fables Elementary Christianity Doubts and Difficulties Cautionary Catches Christian Outlines: An Introduction to Religion Final Eton Fables Eton Faces Old and Young Lionel Ford The Fool Hath Said Can We Believe in God? Things Ancient and Modern The New Testament: A Reader's Guide The Last Crusade The Kingdom of God Christianity in England: An Historical Sketch Poets at Play In Shabby Streets and Other Verses Edward Lyttelton: An Appreciation Good News.
Daily Telegraph, 1937 Is It Wrong to Pray - for Success, for Wealth, for Victory?. Answers, 1938 The King: A Psalm of Thanksgiving.. Written for the thanksgiving service for the recovery of King George V for which it was set to music by Henry Walford Davies To the School at War. Times, 19 December 1914 Qui Laborat Orat. Sunday Times, 11 January 1942 The Trust; the Methodist, 16 June 1945 The New Standard Encyclopaedia and World Atlas 1932 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Burke's Landed Gentry, edited by Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd, 18th edition, London, 1972, volume 3, p. 11
Presbyterian Church (USA)
The Presbyterian Church is a mainline Protestant denomination in the United States. A part of the Reformed tradition, it is the largest Presbyterian denomination in the US, known for its progressive stance on doctrine; the PC was established by the 1983 merger of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, whose churches were located in the Southern and border states, with the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, whose congregations could be found in every state. The named Presbyterian Church in America is a separate denomination whose congregations can trace their history to the various schisms and mergers of Presbyterian churches in the United States; the denomination had 1,415,053 active members and 19,491 ordained ministers in 9,304 congregations at the end of 2017. This number does not include members who are baptized but who are not confirmed or the inactive members affiliated. For example, in 2005, the PC claimed 318,291 baptized, but not confirmed and nearly 500,000 inactive members in addition to active members.
Its membership has been declining over the past several decades. Average denominational worship attendance dropped to 565,467 in 2017 from 748,774 in 2013; the PC is the largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States. Presbyterians trace their history to the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the Presbyterian heritage, much of its theology, began with the French theologian and lawyer John Calvin, whose writings solidified much of the Reformed thinking that came before him in the form of the sermons and writings of Huldrych Zwingli. From Calvin's headquarters in Geneva, the Reformed movement spread to other parts of Europe. John Knox, a former Roman Catholic Priest from Scotland who studied with Calvin in Geneva, took Calvin's teachings back to Scotland and led the Scottish Reformation of 1560; because of this reform movement, the Church of Scotland embraced Reformed theology and presbyterian polity. The Ulster Scots brought their Presbyterian faith with them to Ireland, where they laid the foundation of what would become the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
Immigrants from Scotland and Ireland brought Presbyterianism to America as early as 1640, immigration would remain a large source of growth throughout the colonial era. Another source of growth were a number of New England Puritans who left the churches because they preferred presbyterian polity. In 1706, seven ministers led by Francis Makemie established the first American presbytery at Philadelphia, followed by the creation of the Synod of Philadelphia in 1717; the First Great Awakening and the revivalism it generated had a major impact on American Presbyterians. Ministers such as William and Gilbert Tennent, a friend of George Whitefield, emphasized the necessity of a conscious conversion experience and pushed for higher moral standards among the clergy. Disagreements over revivalism, itinerant preaching, educational requirements for clergy led to a division known as the Old Side–New Side Controversy that lasted from 1741 to 1758. In the South, the Presbyterians were evangelical dissenters Scotch-Irish, who expanded into Virginia between 1740 and 1758.
Spangler argues they were more energetic and held frequent services better atuned to the frontier conditions of the colony. Presbyterianism grew in frontier areas. Uneducated whites and blacks were attracted to the emotional worship of the denomination, its emphasis on biblical simplicity, its psalm singing; some local Presbyterian churches, such as Briery in Prince Edward County, owned slaves. The Briery church purchased five slaves in 1766 and raised money for church expenses by hiring them out to local planters. After the United States achieved independence from Great Britain, Presbyterian leaders felt that a national Presbyterian denomination was needed, the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America was organized; the first General Assembly was held in Philadelphia in 1789. John Witherspoon, president of Princeton University and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence, was the first moderator. Not all American Presbyterians participated in the creation of the PCUSA General Assembly because the divisions occurring in the Church of Scotland were replicated in America.
In 1751, Scottish Covenanters began sending ministers to America, the Seceders were doing the same by 1753. In 1858, the majority of Covenanters and Seceders merged to create the United Presbyterian Church of North America. In the decades after independence, many Americans including Calvinists and Baptists were swept up in Protestant religious revivals that would become known as the Second Great Awakening. Presbyterians helped to shape voluntary societies that encouraged educational, missionary and reforming work; as its influence grew, many non-Presbyterians feared that the PCUSA's informal influence over American life might make it an established church. The Second Great Awakening divided the PCUSA over revivalism and fear that revivalism was leading to an embrace of Arminian theology. In 1810, frontier revivalists organized the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Throughout the 1820s, support and opposition to revivalism hardened into well-defined factions, the New School and Old School respectively.
By the 1838, the Old School–New School Controversy had divided the PCUSA. There were now two general assemblies each claiming to represent the PCUSA. In 1858, the New School split along sectional lines when its Southern synods and pre