United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Reserve Good Conduct Medal
A Reserve Good Conduct Medal refers to any one of the five military conduct awards, four of which are issued and one of, issued, by the United States Armed Forces to enlisted members of the Reserve and National Guard. The primary difference between the regular Good Conduct Medal and the Reserve Good Conduct Medal is that the regular Good Conduct Medal is only issued for active duty service while the reserve equivalent is bestowed for reserve duties such as drills, annual training, additional active duty for either training or operational support to the active duty force or, in the case of the Army National Guard and Air National Guard, in support of Title 32 U. S. C. state active duty such as disaster relief. To receive a Reserve Good Conduct Medal, a service member, must be an active member of the Reserve or National Guard and must have performed three to four years of satisfactory duty with such service being free of disciplinary action. Periods of active duty in the Active Component prior to joining the Reserve Component, full time active duty in an Active Guard and Reserve and Administration of the Reserve, Full Time Support, or active duty recall or mobilization in excess of three years are not creditable towards a Reserve Good Conduct Medal, although such periods are creditable for the active duty equivalent Good Conduct Medal.
Each service has specific varying requirements. The last of the Reserve Good Conduct Medals to be authorized, the U. S. Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal, was established by the Secretary of the Army on 3 March 1971 and amended by DA General Orders 4, in 1974; the Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal is awarded for exemplary behavior and fidelity while serving as a member of an Army National Guard or Army Reserve Troop Program Unit for each three-year period since 3 March 1972. Effective 28 March 1995, the period of qualifying service for the award was reduced from four years to three years. Service must have been consecutive and service performed in the Reserve Component of the U. S. Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard may not be credited for award of this medal; the member must have exhibited honest and faithful service in accordance with the standards of conduct and duty required by law and customs of the service of a member of the same grade as the individual to whom the standard is being applied.
A member must be recommended for the award by his or her unit commander whose recommendation is based on personal knowledge of the individual and the individual’s official records of periods of service under prior commanders during the period for which the award is made. Furthermore, a Commander may not extend the qualifying period for misconduct. A determination that service is not honorable as prescribed negates the entire period of the award. Soldiers who are ordered to active duty in the AGR program will be awarded the ARCAM if they have completed 2 of the 3 years required. Soldiers with less than 2 years will not receive an award. Service lost may be recovered if the Soldier is separated honorably from the AGR program and reverts to troop program unit service, for example, a Soldier serves 1 year and 6 months of qualifying service and is ordered to an AGR tour; this service is not sufficient for award of the ARCAM. When the Soldier leaves the AGR program that 1 year and 6 months is granted towards the next award of the ARCAM.
Only the State Adjutant General may determine that the AGR service was not sufficiently honorable enough to revoke the earned time, regardless of the type of separation given. The ARCAM is awarded to both officer and enlisted members of the Army Reserve and has the same criteria as the other Reserve Services for award of a Reserve Good Conduct Medal; the Armed Forces Reserve Medal is a similar award, given for ten years of honorable reserve service and is presented to both officers and enlisted personnel. First created in 1962 with retroactive presentation to 1958, it remained an active decoration in the U. S. Navy until its discontinuation in 2014; the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal was considered the enlisted successor award to the previous Naval Reserve Medal. From 1958 until 1996, the medal was awarded for four years of satisfactory enlisted reserve service as a drilling reservist in the Selected Reserve or Individual Ready Reserve, to include Volunteer Training Units. Full-time active duty enlisted personnel in the Naval Reserve's Training and Administration of the Reserve Program, while eligible for the Naval Reserve Medal, were not eligible for the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal and were awarded the Navy Good Conduct Medal on par with active duty Regular Navy enlisted personnel.
The years of service requirement for the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal dropped from four years of service to three years of service from 1997 until its discontinuation, synchronizing it with the reduction in the required service for the active duty Navy Good Conduct Medal, which replaced it pursuant to a SECNAV directive in 2014. As a result of this SECNAV directive, all enlisted sailors in both the Active Component and the Reserve Component now receive the same good conduct medal for the same period of service. Additional awards of the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal are denoted by service stars; this was strictly
Petty officer third class
Petty officer third class is the fourth enlisted rank in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Coast Guard, the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, above seaman and below petty officer second class, is the lowest rank of non-commissioned officer, equivalent to a corporal in the U. S. Army and Marine Corps. Petty officer third class shares the same pay grade as senior airman in the Air Force, which no longer has an NCO rank corresponding with E-4. Unlike seaman and lower ranks, a sailor's advancement to petty officer third class is not automatic given time in service, but is contingent on performance evaluations by their superiors and rate examinations, except for certain technical ratings which carry automatic advancement to PO3 after successful completion of that rating's "A" school and fulfillment of time in rate requirements; the advancement cycle is every 6 months. Only a certain number of billets open up biannually and all seamen compete for promotion; the top scorers are chosen for advancement, but only in sufficient numbers to fill the billets available.
Petty officers serve a dual role as leaders. Unlike the sailors who rank below them, there is no such thing as an undesignated petty officer; every petty officer has both rating. The rank and rating combined are known collectively as a sailor's rate. A petty officer's full title is a combination of the two. Thus, a petty officer third class who has the rating of Aviation Structural Mechanic is called an Aviation Structural Mechanic Third Class; the term petty officer is only used in abstract, the general sense, when referring to a group of petty officers of different ratings, or when the petty officer's rating is unknown. Each rating has an official abbreviation, such as AM for aviation structural mechanic; when combined with the petty officer level, this gives the shorthand for the petty officer's rank, such as AM3 for aviation structural mechanic third class. It is common practice to refer to the petty officer by this shorthand in all but the most formal correspondence, such as printing an inscription on awards.
The petty officer is referred to by the shorthand designation, without using the surname. Thus AM3 Anderson would be called AM3. To address a petty officer, one would say, "Petty Officer Smith", "Smith", or "sailor", the latter two forms being acceptable for use by those equal or greater in rank than the petty officer, it is uncommon to address a petty officer as "petty officer" the way one might address an NCO in the Army as "sergeant." It is acceptable, though archaic, to address a petty officer or chief petty officer of any grade as "Mister Smith" or "Miss Smith." In the modern navy, the use of "miss" or "mister" is common only in reference to junior commissioned officers or warrant officers. The rate insignia for a petty officer third class is a white perched eagle and one specialty mark above a chevron. On dress uniforms the symbol for the petty officer's rating is placed between the two. On the dress white uniform, the eagle and chevron are navy blue; this has led to the eagle, the entire rating badge, being referred to as "the crow."
On the dress blue uniform, the eagle and rating are white, the chevron is red. The insignia worn on working uniforms, such as coveralls and the naval working uniform, metal rank devices, like those worn on the collar of the naval service uniform, have the rating symbol omitted; when a sailor is promoted to petty officer third class, it is traditional for sailors holding that or a higher enlisted rank to "tack on the crow." This custom involved a promoted sailor's fellow petty officers taking turns stitching the new rank insignia on the sailor's uniform, the rushed needlework referred to as "tacking." More the custom has taken on a different form, being done with a gesture ranging from a light tap to a hard punch over the new petty officer's sleeve insignia. This, has been deemed "hazing", as such individuals involved in this practice can be subject to disciplinary action; this disciplinary action includes the individual being demoted. The "tacking on of the crow" has been known to cause serious injury.
It is not just patches that are "tacked on", but metal insignia in the chest area that have sharp attachment pins, such as the insignia for surface warfare or submarine service. A hard enough punch can cause the attachment points to pierce a sailor's skin. Commanding officers are known to direct the ship corpsman to perform physical exams for possible abuse and to report all injuries to newly promoted personnel, so punishment cannot be avoided; the U. S. Navy's high year tenure policy has made the good conduct variation for a petty officer third class all but obsolete. Among enlisted sailors 12 consecutive years of good conduct entitles the sailor to wear a good conduct variation of their rank insignia, with the red chevrons under the specialty mark and perched eagle worn as gold and the eagle itself worn as silver. However, the high year tenure initiative mandates that a petty officer third class may only have eight years of service. If a PO3 fails to make petty officer second class within those eight years, the petty officer is involuntarily separated for not meeting advancement requirements.
This same restriction has been imposed upon the ranks of petty officer second class and first class, allowing 14 years of service to a PO2 before advancement must be attained, 20 years of service to a petty officer first class. All of these initiatives, may be waived in the event the sailor holds cri
The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U. S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U. S. predominance in the Caribbean region, resulted in U. S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U. S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and in the Philippine–American War. The main issue was Cuban independence. Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule; the U. S. backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by reports of gruesome Spanish atrocities; the business community had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains. It lobbied vigorously against going to war. President William McKinley sought a peaceful settlement.
The United States Navy armored cruiser USS Maine mysteriously sank in Havana Harbor. McKinley signed a joint Congressional resolution demanding Spanish withdrawal and authorizing the President to use military force to help Cuba gain independence on April 20, 1898. In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U. S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. Both sides declared war; the ten-week war was fought in both the Pacific. As U. S. agitators for war well knew, U. S. naval power would prove decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever. The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill. Madrid sued for peace after two Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern, fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.
The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U. S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico and the Philippine islands. The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million to Spain by the U. S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain. The defeat and loss of the last remnants of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of'98; the United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism. The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War, the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, three Carlist Wars marked the low point of Spanish colonialism. Liberal Spanish elites like Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Emilio Castelar offered new interpretations of the concept of "empire" to dovetail with Spain's emerging nationalism.
Cánovas made clear in an address to the University of Madrid in 1882 his view of the Spanish nation as based on shared cultural and linguistic elements – on both sides of the Atlantic – that tied Spain's territories together. Cánovas saw Spanish imperialism as markedly different in its methods and purposes of colonization from those of rival empires like the British or French. Spaniards regarded the spreading of civilization and Christianity as Spain's major objective and contribution to the New World; the concept of cultural unity bestowed special significance on Cuba, Spanish for four hundred years, was viewed as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere.
S. would respect the status of the existing European colonies. Before the American Civil War, Southern interests attempted to have the United States purchase Cuba and convert it into a new slave territory; the pro-slavery element proposed the Ostend Manifesto proposal of 1854. It was rejected by anti-slavery forces. After the American Civil War and Cuba's Ten Years' War, U. S. businessmen began monopolizing the devalued sugar markets in Cuba. In 1894, 90% of Cuba's total exports went to the United States, which provided 40% of Cuba's imports. Cuba's total exports to the U. S. were twelve times larger than the export to her mother country, Spain. U. S. business interests indicated that while Spain still held political authority over Cuba, economic authority in Cuba, acting-authority, was shifting to the US. The U. S. became interested in a trans-isthmus canal either in Nicaragua, or in Panama, where the Panama Canal would be built, realized the need for naval protection. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an influential theorist.
S. built a p
Good conduct loop
A good conduct knot/loop is an award device of the Department of the Army which denotes additional decorations of the Army Good Conduct Medal. Good conduct loops were based on the concept of the enlistment bar. Good Conduct Loops have remained the primary method of displaying multiple bestowals of the Army Good Conduct Medal, may be said to show how many "hitches" a soldier has served. Good conduct loops are worn on a clasp attached to the service ribbon and suspension ribbon of the Good Conduct Medal. A Good Conduct Loop comprises a clasp with several inscribed loops; the second award of a Good Conduct Medal would display a bronze clasp with two loops, the third would show a bronze clasp with three loops, so on. At six loops, the clasp changes to silver, at eleven loops the clasp changes to gold. Thus, a silver clasp with two loops would denote the seventh award of the Good Conduct Medal while a gold clasp with five loops would indicate the fifteenth award of the Good Conduct Medal, the highest that the regulations list.
The Army Good Conduct Medal is the only one of the service Good Conduct awards which uses Good Conduct Loops. The U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Coast Guard display additional Good Conduct awards with service stars, while the U. S. Air Force uses oak leaf clusters. Awards and decorations of the United States military
Petty officer first class
Petty officer first class is the sixth enlisted rank in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Coast Guard, the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, ranking just above petty officer second class and directly below chief petty officer, it is designated as non-commissioned officer. It is equivalent to the rank of staff sergeant in the Army and Marine Corps, technical sergeant in the Air Force, they are all ranked E-6. In the United States Navy, each rating was abbreviated, such as ET for electronics technician, STS for sonar technician submarines, or FT for fire control technician; the Navy now utilizes the Navy Occupational Special system and disestablished the combined rating and rank that gave the shorthand for the petty officer's rank, such as ET1 for electronics technician, first class. It is common practice to refer to the petty officer by this shorthand in all but the most formal correspondence; the petty officer is just referred to by the shorthand designation, without using the surname. Thus ET1 Jones would just be called "ET1".
A first-class petty officer may be generically referred to as PO1 when the sailor's rating is not known, although some prefer to be called "Petty Officer". To address a petty officer, one would say, "Petty Officer Smith", "Smith", or "Sailor", it is uncommon to address a petty officer as "Petty Officer" the way one might address an NCO in the Marine Corps as "Sergeant". Acceptable, but archaic, would be to address a petty officer or chief petty officer of any grade as "Mister Smith" or "Ms. Smith"; the use of "Ms." or "Mister" is only in reference to junior commissioned officers or warrant officers. Similar to petty officer, second class and third class, advancement to petty officer, first class is contingent upon the following conditions: Completed a period of time-in-rate. Recommended for advancement by the commanding officer. Have an established performance mark average. No pending request for voluntary transfer to the fleet reserve; the advancement cycle is every 6 months. Only second-class petty officers that achieve a passing score on the biannual advancement examination are eligible to be advanced to first-class petty officer.
Once the examination is complete, a quota is established based upon the needs of the Navy with respect to the specific rating the sailor holds. Using the rating ET as an example: 1,000 ET2 eligible to be advanced after passing the advancement examination 100 are allowed to be advanced to ET1 by the Navy The 100th eligible ET2 received a 219.5 final multiple score, therefore 219.5 is the lowest possible final multiple allowed to advance to ET1. The Navy's current high year tenure policy imposes a maximum enlistment of 22 years to a petty officer first class. If a petty officer first class is not selected to the paygrade of chief petty officer within those 22 years, the petty officer is honorably retired from active service in the United States Navy, placed in Fleet Reserve for a period of ten years. Should there be no recall of the sailor to active duty due to war or national emergency, the sailor will transition to a "retired" status after a combined total of 30 years of service; the rate insignia for a petty officer, first class is a perched eagle above three chevrons.
On more formal uniforms, the symbol for the petty officer's rating will be placed between the eagle and the chevrons. On white uniforms, the eagle and chevrons are dark blue. On navy blue uniforms, the eagle and rating are white, the chevrons are red, unless the sailor has served in the Navy for 12 years or more with good conduct- that sailor wears gold chevrons on the dress blue uniform. Gold chevrons are worn on the collars of the Navy blue coveralls uniform, on the black garrison cap worn with the Navy service working uniform; the Coast Guard does not use golden chevrons. Working uniforms and metal rank devices do not have the rating badge symbol. First class petty officers serve as leading petty officers of a division, direct the activities of a division. There are situations when there are more than one first class petty officers in a division, due to the demands for experienced or skilled Sailors in technical areas. Leading petty officer experience for a first-class petty officer is not required for advancement to chief petty officer.
First-class petty officers form associations at their commands. Memberships in these associations are voluntary. On larger ships and some shore commands, PO1s may have their own mess, although unlike the CPO mess and wardroom mess, which have their own galleys and cooks, the first class "mess" is a separat
The Maltese cross is a cross symbol, consisting of four "V" or arrowhead shaped concave quadrilaterals converging at a central vertex at right angles, two tips pointing outward symmetrically. It is a heraldic cross variant which developed from earlier forms of eight-pointed crosses in the 16th century. Although chiefly associated with the Knights Hospitaller, by extension with the island of Malta, it has come to be used by a wide array of entities since the early modern period, notably the Order of Saint Stephen, the city of Amalfi, the Polish Order of the White Eagle and the Prussian order Pour le Mérite. Unicode defines a character named "Maltese cross" in the Dingbats range at code point U+2720; the Knights Hospitaller during the Crusades used a plain Latin cross. Occasional use of an "eight-pointed cross" by the order begins in the early 14th century; this early form is a cross moline or cross branchée ending in eight points, not yet featuring the sharp vertex of the modern design. The association of the eight-pointed cross with the southern Italy coastal town of Amalfi may go back to the 11th century, as the design is found on coins minted by the Duchy of Amalfi at that time.
Eight-pointed crosses appear on coins minted by the Grand Masters of the order, first shown embroidered on the left arm of the robe of the kneeling Grand Master on the obverse of a coin minted under Foulques de Villaret In 1489, the statutes of the oder require all knights of Malta to wear "the white cross with eight points". Emergence of the sharp vertex of the modern "four-arrowhead" design is gradual, takes place during the 15th to 16th century; the "Rhodian cross" of the early 16th century had but not quite, achieved the "sharp arrowhead appearance". The modern design is found on a copper coin dated 1567, minted by Grand Master Jean Parisot de Valette. In 1577, Alonso Sanchez Coello painted Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria as Grand Prior of the Order of Malta wearing the emblem on his robes; the design appears. It is shown on a copper coin dated 1693, minted under Grand Master Adrien de Wignacourt. From the end of the 17th century, it is occasionally displayed as alternative heraldic emblem of the order.
Its depiction on the facade of San Giovannino dei Cavalieri dates to 1699. The Maltese cross as defined by the constitution of the Order of St. John remains the symbol of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, of the Order of Saint John and its allied orders, of the Venerable Order of Saint John, of their various service organisations. Numerous other modern orders of merit have used the eight-pointed cross. In Australia, the eight-pointed cross is part of the state emblem of Queensland; the eight points of the eight-pointed cross have been given a number of symbolic interpretations, such as representing the eight Langues of the Knights Hospitaller. Or alternatively the "eight obligations or aspirations" of the knights:Websites operated by both the German Order of Saint John and the British Venerable Order of St John associate the eight points with the Eight Beatitudes. An undated leaflet published by The Venerable Order's main service organisation, St John Ambulance, has applied secular meanings to the points as representing the traits of a good first aider: The Maltese cross is displayed as part of the Maltese civil ensign.
The Maltese euro coins of 1- and 2-euro denomination carry the Maltese cross. It is the trademark of Air Malta, Malta's national airline; the Maltese cross was depicted on the two-mils coin in of the Maltese lira, on the reverse of one- and two-Euro coins introduced in January 2008. Austria's two highest decorations, the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria and the Austrian Decoration for Science and Art, have the eight-pointed cross as their basis. In Belgium, the eight-pointed cross is the basis of two of the country's royal orders of merit, the Order of Leopold and the Order of Leopold II; the Order of Bravery is the highest military decoration of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and of the Republic of Bulgaria and the most esteemed Bulgarian order. The Pour le Mérite, Imperial Germany's highest award for military valor, was a blue-enameled, eight-pointed cross with golden eagles between the arms, it was founded in 1740 by the francophile Prussian King Frederick the Great, was adorned with the French legend Pour le Mérite in gold.
Awards of the military class ceased with the dissolution of the Hohenzollern monarchy at the end of World War I in November 1918. The coats of arms of the former duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the former Mecklenburg-Strelitz district contained an eight-pointed cross. Several towns in Northern Germany have an eight-pointed cross on their coats of arms, including Malchin, Moraas, Sülstorf. Heitersheim and Bad Dürrheim in Southern Germany have an eight-pointed cross on their arms. In the Netherlands, the eight-pointed cross forms the basic form for the three highest royal orders of merit: the Orders of the Netherlands Lion, Orange-Nassau and the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau. In Norway, the eight-pointed cross is the symbol used in the Order of St. Olav. In the Philippines, the eight-pointed cross is a part of the pendant of the Quezon Service Cross, the highest honor that can be conferred in the republic, it is found in the Order of Sikatuna, Order of the Golden Heart. In Poland, the eight-pointed cross forms the basis for the country's four highest awards