Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
The Host (2013 film)
The Host is a 2013 American romantic science fiction thriller film adapted from Stephenie Meyer's 2008 novel of the same name. It tells the story of a young woman, captured after the human race has been taken over by parasitic aliens called "Souls". After Melanie is infused with a soul called "Wanderer", Melanie and the alien "Soul" vie for control of her body. Written and directed by Andrew Niccol, the film stars Saoirse Ronan, Max Irons, Jake Abel, William Hurt, Diane Kruger. Released in theaters on March 29, 2013, the film was poorly received by critics; the human race has been taken over by small parasitic aliens called "Souls". They travel to planets inserting themselves into a host body of that planet's dominant species while suppressing the host's consciousness, they access the host's memories, occupied hosts are identifiable by silver rings in the hosts' eyes. A human on the run, Melanie Stryder, is captured and infused with a Soul called "Wanderer." Wanderer is asked by a “Seeker” Soul to access Melanie's memories and learn the location of a pocket of unassimilated humans.
Melanie's consciousness, has not been eliminated. Wanderer tells Seeker that Melanie was traveling with her brother and her boyfriend, Jared Howe, to find Melanie's uncle Jeb in the desert. Wanderer admits that Melanie is still present, so Seeker decides to be transferred into Melanie's body to get the information herself. With Melanie’s guidance, Wanderer escapes and makes her way to the desert, where she is found by Jeb, who takes her to a series of caves inside a mountain where the humans are hiding. Wanderer's presence is met with hostility by all but Jamie. Melanie instructs Wanderer not to tell anyone she is still alive, since it would provoke them, though she allows her to tell Jamie. Wanderer begins interacting with the humans and begins to gain their trust, forming a bond with Ian O'Shea. Seeker leads a search party into the desert, they intercept one of the shelter's supply teams, in the ensuing chase and Brandt commit suicide to avoid capture. During the chase, Seeker accidentally kills another Soul, leading her superiors to call off the search.
Jared and Kyle move to kill Wanderer. Jeb and Ian accept this, but Jared refuses to believe it until he strategically kisses Wanderer, provoking Melanie to take back control and slap him, proving to Jared that she is still alive. Kyle tries to kill Wanderer but ends up being saved by Wanderer. Ian believes that Kyle attacked Wanderer and tells her he has feelings for her. Wanderer admits that Melanie's body is compelled to love Jared, but she has feelings of her own, the two kiss. Wanderer enters the community's medical facility and discovers that Doc has been experimenting with ways to remove Souls and allow the host's mind to regain control, resulting in the deaths of many Souls and hosts. After isolating herself for several days, Wanderer learns that Jamie is critically ill with an infection in his leg, she infiltrates a Soul medical facility to steal some alien medicine. Seeker has continued looking for Wanderer on her own. Wanderer offers to show Doc the proper method of removing Souls, on the condition that he remove her from Melanie's body.
Doc uses the technique to remove Seeker from her host, with Soul surviving. Wanderer takes Seeker’s tiny alien form to a Soul space-travel site, where she sends it so far from Earth that it can not return for numerous generations. Tired of the many lives she’s lived and finding it too painful to leave everyone behind, Wanderer makes Doc promise to let her die when she is removed and not tell anyone; the others in the shelter intervene with Doc, who inserts Wanderer into Pet, a human, left brain-dead after the Soul inside her was removed. Now with a body of her own, Wanderer is able to be with Ian. A few months while on a supply run, Melanie and Jared are captured, they discover that their captors are humans, who reveal that there are several other human groups as well. They learn that a Soul with this group has sided with the human resistance, as Wanderer has, they may not be the last Souls to do so. Producers Nick Wechsler, Steve Schwartz, Paula Mae Schwartz acquired the film rights to The Host in September 2009, but Open Road Films acquired the film rights, made Stephenie Meyer, Nick Wechsler, Steve Schwartz, Paula Mae Schwartz the main producers.
Andrew Niccol was hired to direct the film. In February 2011, Susanna White was hired to replace Niccol as director, but he resumed the role in May 2011. Saoirse Ronan was cast in May as Melanie Stryder/Wanderer. On June 27, the release date was set for the film for March 29, 2013, it was announced that principal photography would begin in February 2012, in Louisiana and New Mexico. Distributed by Open Road Films, the film was released theatrically on March 29, 2013; the first official trailer was released on March 22, 2012, was shown before The Hunger Games. The Host was released on DVD and Blu-ray on July 9, 2013; the film grossed $63,327,201 worldwide, of which $26,627,201 was from North America, $36,700,000 from other territories. It opened at #6 at the US box office, for its opening weekend grossed $10,600,112; the film was panned by critics. On review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 9% based on 124 reviews, with an average rating of 3.6/10
Unmanned aerial vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system; the flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers. Compared to manned aircraft, UAVs were used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for humans. While they originated in military applications, their use is expanding to commercial, recreational and other applications, such as policing and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography and drone racing. Civilian UAVs now vastly outnumber military UAVs, with estimates of over a million sold by 2015. Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, which refer to the same concept; the term drone, more used by the public, was coined in reference to the early remotely-flown target aircraft used for practice firing of a battleship's guns, the term was first used with the 1920s Fairey Queen and 1930's de Havilland Queen Bee target aircraft.
These two were followed in service by the similarly-named Airspeed Queen Wasp and Miles Queen Martinet, before ultimate replacement by the GAF Jindivik. The term unmanned aircraft system was adopted by the United States Department of Defense and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 according to their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030; the International Civil Aviation Organization and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term used in the European Union's Single-European-Sky Air-Traffic-Management Research roadmap for 2020. This term emphasizes the importance of elements other than the aircraft, it includes elements such as data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned-aircraft vehicle system, remotely piloted aerial vehicle, remotely piloted aircraft system. Many similar terms are in use. A UAV is defined as a "powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload".
Therefore, missiles are not considered UAVs because the vehicle itself is a weapon, not reused, though it is unmanned and in some cases remotely guided. The relation of UAVs to remote controlled model aircraft is unclear. UAVs may not include model aircraft; some jurisdictions base their definition on weight. For recreational uses, a drone is a model aircraft that has first-person video, autonomous capabilities, or both; the earliest recorded use of an unmanned aerial vehicle for warfighting occurred on July 1849, serving as a balloon carrier in the first offensive use of air power in naval aviation. Austrian forces besieging Venice attempted to launch some 200 incendiary balloons at besieged city; the balloons were launched from land. At least one bomb fell in the city. UAV innovations started in the early 1900s and focused on providing practice targets for training military personnel. UAV development continued during World War I, when the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company invented a pilotless aerial torpedo that would explode at a preset time.
The earliest attempt at a powered UAV was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" in 1916. Nikola Tesla described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat vehicles in 1915. Advances followed including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane; this developments inspired the development of the Kettering Bug by Charles Kettering from Dayton, Ohio. This was meant as an unmanned plane that would carry an explosive payload to a predetermined target; the first scaled remote piloted vehicle was developed by film star and model-airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935. More emerged during World War II – used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany used various UAV aircraft during the war. Jet engines entered service after World War II in vehicles such as the Australian GAF Jindivik, Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft offered their Model 1001 for the U. S. Navy in 1955, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam War. In 1959, the U.
S. Air Force, concerned about losing pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of unmanned aircraft. Planning intensified after the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 in 1960. Within days, a classified UAV program started under the code name of "Red Wagon"; the August 1964 clash in the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U. S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's classified UAVs into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War. When the Chinese government showed photographs of downed U. S. UAVs via Wide World Photos, the official U. S. response was "no comment". During the War of Attrition the first tactical UAVs installed with reconnaissance cameras were first tested by the Israeli intelligence bringing photos from across the Suez canal; this was the first time that tacti
George Bush Center for Intelligence
The George Bush Center for Intelligence is the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency, located in the unincorporated community of Langley in Fairfax County, United States. C; the headquarters is a conglomeration of the Original Headquarters Building and the New Headquarters Building that sits on a total of 258 acres of land. Before its current name, the CIA headquarters was formally unnamed. On April 26, 1999, the complex was named in the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 for George H. W. Bush, who had served as the Director of Central Intelligence for 357 days, between January 30, 1976 and January 20, 1977, had served as both the 43rd Vice President of the United States and the 41st President of the United States; the Original Headquarters Building was designed by the New York firm Harrison & Abramovitz in the 1950s and contains 1,400,000 square feet of space. The ground was broken for construction on November 3, 1959, with President Dwight Eisenhower laying the cornerstone, the building was completed in March 1961.
The New Headquarters Building, designed by Smith and Grylls Associates, was completed in March 1991 after the ground was broken for construction on May 24, 1984. It is a complex that adjoins two six-story office towers and is connected via a tunnel to the OHB. On January 25, 1993, Mir Qazi, a Pakistani resident of the United States, killed two CIA employees and wounded three others on the road to the CIA headquarters, claiming that it was revenge for the US government's policy in the Middle East, "particularly toward the Palestinian people"; the Center is located at 1000 Colonial Farm Road in McLean and can be reached via George Washington Memorial Parkway. However, due to a need for secrecy, the complex may only be accessed by those with authorization or by appointment; the location of the building in Langley, Virginia has arisen to the name "Langley" being used as a colloquial metonym for the CIA headquarters, despite the presence of other non-CIA-related government buildings in the community of Langley, such as the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center.
This is similar to how "Foggy Bottom" is colloquially used to identify the headquarters of the United States Department of State, despite the name being used to refer to the neighborhood of D. C. in which the building is located. The CIA Museum is located within the Center; the museum holds declassified items such as artifacts associated with the CIA, the Office of Strategic Services and foreign intelligence organizations, including historical spy gadgets and weapons, photographs. As it is located within the CIA compound, it is not accessible by the general public. An Enigma machine and Osama bin Laden's AKMS are held in the museum. There is a Starbucks located on the site of the CIA headquarters. Kryptos is an infamous encrypted sculpture. In a nod to American covert intelligence-gathering activities from an earlier era, a statue of Nathan Hale, the captured colonial spy hanged by the British during the American Revolution, stands on the grounds of the CIA headquarters complex. Defense Intelligence Agency Headquarters 1993 shootings at CIA Headquarters The Crystal Palace Headquarters Virtual Tour—A virtual tour of the CIA headquarters Three Things About the CIA's Langley Headquarters
Gattaca is a 1997 American science fiction film written and directed by Andrew Niccol. It stars Ethan Hawke and Uma Thurman, with Jude Law, Loren Dean, Ernest Borgnine, Gore Vidal, Alan Arkin appearing in supporting roles; the film presents a biopunk vision of a future society driven by eugenics where potential children are conceived through genetic selection to ensure they possess the best hereditary traits of their parents. The film centers on Vincent Freeman, played by Hawke, conceived outside the eugenics program and struggles to overcome genetic discrimination to realize his dream of going into space; the film draws on concerns over reproductive technologies that facilitate eugenics, the possible consequences of such technological developments for society. It explores the idea of destiny and the ways in which it can and does govern lives. Characters in Gattaca continually battle both with society and with themselves to find their place in the world and who they are destined to be according to their genes.
The film's title is based on the letters G, A, T, C, which stand for guanine, adenine and cytosine, the four nucleobases of DNA. It was a 1997 nominee for the Academy Award for Best Art Direction and the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score; the film flopped at the box office, but it received positive reviews and has since gained a cult following. In "the not-too-distant future", libertarian eugenics is common. A genetic registry database uses biometrics to classify those so created as "valids" while those conceived by traditional means and more susceptible to genetic disorders are known as "in-valids". Genetic discrimination is illegal, but in practice genotype profiling is used to identify valids to qualify for professional employment while in-valids are relegated to menial jobs. Vincent Freeman is conceived without the aid of genetic selection, his parents, regretting their decision, use genetic selection to give birth to their next child, Anton. Growing up, the two brothers play a game of "chicken" by swimming out to sea with the first one returning to shore considered the loser.
Vincent is reminded of his genetic inferiority. One day Vincent challenges Anton to a game of chicken and bests him before Anton starts to drown. Vincent saves Anton and leaves home. Years Vincent works as an in-valid, cleaning office spaces including that of Gattaca Aerospace Corporation, a space-flight conglomerate, he gets a chance to pose as a valid by using hair, skin and urine samples from a donor, Jerome Eugene Morrow, a former swimming star paralyzed due to a car accident. With Jerome's genetic makeup, Vincent gains employment at Gattaca, is assigned to be navigator for an upcoming trip to Saturn's moon Titan. To keep his identity hidden, Vincent must meticulously groom and scrub down daily to remove his own genetic material, pass daily DNA scanning and urine tests using Jerome's samples. Gattaca becomes embroiled in controversy when one of its administrators is murdered a week before the flight; the police find a fallen eyelash of Vincent's at the scene. An investigation is launched to find the murderer.
Through this, Vincent becomes close to a co-worker, Irene Cassini, falls in love with her. Though a valid, Irene has a higher risk of heart failure that will prevent her from joining any deep space Gattaca mission. Vincent learns that Jerome's paralysis is by his own hand. Jerome maintains that he was designed to be the best, yet wasn't, and, the source of his suffering. Vincent evades the grasp of the investigation, it is revealed that Gattaca's mission director was the killer, with the administrator's threats to cancel the mission as motive. Vincent learns that the detective who closed the case was his brother Anton, who in turn has become aware of Vincent's presence; the brothers meet, Anton warns Vincent that what he is doing is illegal, but Vincent asserts that he has gotten to this position on his own merits. Anton challenges Vincent to one more game of chicken; as the two swim out in the dead of night, Anton expresses surprise at Vincent's stamina, so Vincent reveals that his strategy for winning was not to save energy for the swim back.
Anton turns back and begins to drown, but Vincent rescues him and swims them both back to shore using celestial navigation. On the day of the launch, Jerome reveals that he has stored enough DNA samples for Vincent to last two lifetimes upon his return, gives him an envelope to open once in flight. After saying goodbye to Irene, Vincent prepares to board but discovers there is a final genetic test, he lacks any of Jerome's samples, he is surprised when Dr. Lamar, the person in charge of background checks, reveals that he knows Vincent has been posing as a valid. Lamar admits that his son looks up to Vincent and wonders whether his son, genetically selected but "not all that they promised", could break the limits just as Vincent has, he passes Vincent as a valid. As the rocket launches, Jerome dons his swimming medal and immolates himself in his home's incinerator. Vincent muses on this, stating "For someone, never meant for this world, I must confess, I'm having a hard time leaving it. Of course, they say.
Maybe I'm not leaving. The exteriors and some of the interior shots of the Gattaca complex were filmed at Frank Lloyd Wright's
Airman first class
Airman First Class is the third enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, just above Airman and below Senior Airman. The rank of Airman First Class is considered a junior enlisted rank, with the non-commissioned officers and senior non-commissioned officers above it. Airman First Class is a rank, used by the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Coast Guard, although it is not in use. In documents about the history of U. S. armed forces, this rank is abbreviated as "A1C". Promotion to Airman First Class occurs upon one or more of the following: Completion of 10 months time in the grade of Airman Completion of three years of the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps sponsored by any of the four branches of the service Completion of two years of college-level Reserve Officer Training Corps Earning the Billy Mitchell Award in the Civil Air Patrol Completion of at least 45 semester hours or at least 67 quarter hours of accredited junior college/college credits. Agreeing to an extended-length enlistment; those personnel who qualify for these early promotions to Airman First Class wear the insignia of this rank during their basic training graduation ceremonies at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, except for those who signed up for an extended enlistment.
They will receive their promotions to Airman First Class twenty weeks after graduation from basic military training or graduation from their technical training schools, whichever comes first. Enlistees who have signed up for initial six-year enlistment periods have qualified and done so in return for a guarantee of up to two years of training in Department of Defense and Air Force schools in highly-technical specialities such as electronics, weapons systems, physician's assistant or nursing. To qualify for all of this, the enlistee must have graduated from high school and scored on Air Force technical aptitude tests. On the bottom line, they spend up to two years in training at the expense of the Air Force, they pay back by serving at least an additional four years after their schooling, they get an early promotion to Airman First Class as additional compensation. Those who are promoted to this level upon completion of basic training receive a retroactive pay increment that brings them up to the E-3 pay grade corresponding to Airman First Class, going back to day one of their enlistment.
In other words, they get paid. However, if for some reason they get expelled from basic training, they do not receive this extra pay, just get paid as airmen basic for the time that they spent in the Air Force before getting discharged. Airmen First Class are considered to be adjusted to Air Force and military life, their duties focus on efficiently and carrying out their assignments and honing their job skills. From 1947 to 1952, this rank was known as an Air Force Corporal, from 1952 to 1967 it was called an Airman Second Class. During this time frame, the E-4 paygrade rank, now known as Senior Airman, was called Airman First Class. Airman First Class are nicknamed "dragonfly wings" due to the insignia's resemblance to that animal's two pairs of wings. Cadet Airman First Class U. S. Air Force enlisted rank insignia United States military pay
Improvised explosive device
An improvised explosive device is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. It may be constructed of conventional military explosives, such as an artillery shell, attached to a detonating mechanism. IEDs are used as roadside bombs. IEDs are seen in heavy terrorist actions or in asymmetric unconventional warfare by insurgent guerrillas or commando forces in a theatre of operations. In the second Iraq War, IEDs were used extensively against US-led invasion forces and by the end of 2007 they had become responsible for 63% of coalition deaths in Iraq, they are used in Afghanistan by insurgent groups, have caused over 66% of coalition casualties in the 2001–present Afghanistan War. IEDs were used extensively by cadres of the rebel Tamil Tiger organisation against military targets in Sri Lanka. An IED is a bomb fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy or incapacitate personnel or vehicles.
In some cases, IEDs are used to distract, disrupt, or delay an opposing force, facilitating another type of attack. IEDs may incorporate military or commercially sourced explosives, combine both types, or they may otherwise be made with homemade explosives. An HME lab refers to a Homemade Explosive Lab, or the physical location where the devices are crafted. An IED has five components: a switch, an initiator, charge, a power source. An IED designed for use against armoured targets such as personnel carriers or tanks will be designed for armour penetration, by using a shaped charge that creates an explosively formed penetrator. IEDs are diverse in design and may contain many types of initiators, detonators and explosive loads. Antipersonnel IEDs also contain fragmentation-generating objects such as nails, ball bearings or small rocks to cause wounds at greater distances than blast pressure alone could. In the conflicts of the 21st century, anti-personnel improvised explosive devices have replaced conventional or military landmines as the source of injury to dismounted soldiers and civilians.
These injuries were reported in BMJ Open to be far worse with IEDs than with landmines resulting in multiple limb amputations and lower body mutilation. This combination of injuries has been given the name "Dismounted Complex Blast Injury" and is thought to be the worst survivable injury seen in war. IEDs are triggered by various methods, including remote control, infrared or magnetic triggers, pressure-sensitive bars or trip wires. In some cases, multiple IEDs are wired together in a daisy chain to attack a convoy of vehicles spread out along a roadway. IEDs made by inexperienced designers or with substandard materials may fail to detonate, in some cases, they detonate on either the maker or the placer of the device; some groups, have been known to produce sophisticated devices constructed with components scavenged from conventional munitions and standard consumer electronics components, such as mobile phones, consumer-grade two-way radios, washing machine timers, pagers, or garage door openers.
The sophistication of an IED depends on the training of the designer and the tools and materials available. IEDs may use artillery shells or conventional high-explosive charges as their explosive load as well as homemade explosives. However, the threat exists that toxic chemical, biological, or radioactive material may be added to a device, thereby creating other life-threatening effects beyond the shrapnel, concussive blasts and fire associated with bombs. Chlorine liquid has been added to IEDs in producing clouds of chlorine gas. A vehicle-borne IED, or VBIED, is a military term for a car bomb or truck bomb but can be any type of transportation such as a bicycle, donkey, etc, they are employed by insurgents in particular ISIS, can carry a large payload. They can be detonated from a remote location. VBIEDs can create additional shrapnel through the destruction of the vehicle itself and use vehicle fuel as an incendiary weapon; the act of a person's detonating it is known as an SVBIED suicide.
Of increasing popularity among insurgent forces in Iraq is the house-borne IED, or HBIED from the common military practice of clearing houses. The Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms includes two definitions for improvised devices: improvised explosive devices and improvised nuclear device; these definitions address the Explosive in CBRNe. That leaves chemical and radiological undefined. Four definitions have been created to build on the structure of the JCS definition. Terms have been created to standardize the language of first responders and members of the military and to correlate the operational picture. A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, harass, or distract, it may incorporate military stores, but is devised from non-military components. IEDs have been deployed in the form of explosively formed projectiles, a special type of shaped charge, effective at long standoffs from the target, however they are not accurate at long distances.
This is because of. The large "slug" projected from the explosion has no stabilization because it has no tail fins and it does not spin like a bullet fro