Arthur Boyd Houghton
Arthur Boyd Houghton was a British painter and illustrator. Houghton was born in Kotagiri, India, his work was varied and was regarded during the mid-19th century. He traveled to America and Russia, creating illustrations for The Graphic and for numerous books, including The Arabian Nights and Don Quixote, his work was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the golden decade of English book illustration, when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism, he was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton, who served in the East India Company's Marine as a draughtsman. Laurence Housman produced a selection from his work, dedication to the artist’s daughter Mrs E. C. Davis.. Paul Hogarth wrote a monograph. Work by this artist is held within various public collections including Tate Britain in London.
Houghton is best known for wood-engravings but produced a number of oil paintings and watercolours, many of his wife and children. He wrote a little poetry, published in his lifetime; when still a child, a shot fired from a toy cannon left him blind in one eye, unable to sustain his concentration when painting large works for exhibition at the Royal Academy. He died in London
Norman Macleod (1812–1872)
Reverend Norman Macleod was a Scottish clergyman and author who served as Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1869/70. Norman Macleod was born in Kirk Street, Campbeltown, to the Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod and Agnes Maxwell, his father, at that time minister of Campbeltown, was himself an exceptional man. His entire life was bound to the Highlanders of Scotland, catering to their spiritual and intellectual needs, he was the author of an extensive literature described by Professor Blackie as the "great work of classical Gaelic prose....written in a dialogue form, enriched by the dramatic grace of Plato and the shrewd humour of Lucian", played a major role in the creation of an educational infrastructure for the Highlands and Islands. He was an untiring supporter of the interests of the Highlanders, his name was respected throughout the North and West of Scotland. In 1827, Macleod became a student at the University of Glasgow. On 18 March 1838, he became parish minister at Ayrshire.
At this time the troubles in the Scottish Church were gathering to a head. Macleod, although he had no love for lay patronage, wished the Church to be free to do its proper work, clung to the idea of a national Established Church, therefore remained in the Establishment when the Disruption of 1843 took place, he was one of those who took a middle course in the non-intrusion controversy, holding that the fitness of those who were presented to parishes should be judged by the presbyteries, the principle of Lord Aberdeens Bill. On the secession of 1843 he was offered many different parishes, having settled at Dalkeith, devoted himself to parish work and to questions affecting the Church as a whole, he was instrumental in the work of strengthening the Church. In 1847 he became one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance, from 1849 edited the Christian Instructor. In 1851 he was called to Glasgow, in which city the rest of his days were passed. There the more liberal theology made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, MacLeod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social reform of the people.
He instituted temperance refreshment rooms, a Congregational penny savings bank, held services specially for the poor. Despite his liberal stance on some issues, he was one of many clergy who preached against Verdi's La Traviata. In a sermon just after its 1857 Scottish premiere, Macleod argued that'no woman could hear it without a blush'In 1860 Macleod was appointed editor of the new monthly magazine Good Words, illustrated by Arthur Hughes, Francis Arthur Fraser, John Leighton, James Mahoney, Francis S. Walker, Townley Green and others. Under his control the magazine, of a religious character, became popular, his own literary work, nearly all of which appeared in its pages — sermons, travels, poems — was only a by-product of a busy life. By far his best work was the delightful Reminiscences of a Highland Parish. While Good Words made his name known, helped the cause he had so at heart, his relations with the queen and the royal family strengthened yet further his position in the country. Never since Principal Carstairs had any Scottish clergyman been on such terms with his sovereign.
In 1865, Macleod risked an encounter with Scottish Sabbatarian ideas. The presbytery of Glasgow issued a pastoral letter on the subject of Sunday trains and other infringements of the Christian Sabbath. Macleod protested against the grounds. For a time, owing to a misleading report of his statement, he became the man in all Scotland most profoundly distrusted, but four years the Church accorded him the highest honor in her power by choosing him as moderator of her general assembly. In 1867, along with Dr Archibald Watson, Macleod was sent to India, to inquire into the state of the missions, he undertook the journey in spite of failing health, seems never to have recovered from its effects. He returned resolved to devote the rest of his days to rousing the Church to her duty in the sphere of foreign missions, but his health was now broken, his old energy flagged, he is buried at Campsie. His Glasgow church was named after the Macleod Parish Church. Queen Victoria gave two memorial windows to Crathie church as a testimony of her admiration for his work.
Macleod was painted by Tavernor Knott around 1850. The portrait is held by the National Portrait Gallery of Scotland but is displayed. In August 1851, he married, Catherine Ann, daughter of William Mackintosh of Geddes, sister of John Mackintosh, his daughter, Ann Campbell Macleod, married in 1888 Sir James Wilson, published two books based on her letters to friends and family while they lived in India. His grandson, George MacLeod was to become Moderator of the Church of Scotland, having founded the Iona Community. John Wellwood, Norman Macleod, Edinburgh: Oliphant and Ferrier; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Macleod, Norman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 262. Hamilton, Thomas. "Macleod, Norman". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Anonymous. Cartoon portraits and biographical sketches of men of the day. Illustrated
John Everett Millais
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, was an English painter and illustrator, one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He was a child prodigy who, aged eleven, became the youngest student to enter the Royal Academy Schools; the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded at his family home at 83 Gower Street. Millais became the most famous exponent of the style, his painting Christ in the House of His Parents generating considerable controversy, painting the embodiment of the school, Ophelia, in 1850-51. By the mid-1850s Millais was moving away from the Pre-Raphaelite style to develop a new form of realism in his art, his works were enormously successful, making Millais one of the wealthiest artists of his day, but some former admirers including William Morris saw this as a sell-out. While these and early 20th-century critics, reading art through the lens of Modernism, viewed much of his production as wanting, this perspective has changed in recent decades, as his works have come to be seen in the context of wider changes and advanced tendencies in the broader late nineteenth-century art world, can now be seen as predictive of the art world of the present.
Millais's personal life has played a significant role in his reputation. His wife Effie was married to the critic John Ruskin, who had supported Millais's early work; the annulment of the marriage and her wedding to Millais have sometimes been linked to his change of style, but she became a powerful promoter of his work and they worked in concert to secure commissions and expand their social and intellectual circles. Millais was born in England in 1829, of a prominent Jersey-based family, his parents were Emily Mary Millais. Most of his early childhood was spent in Jersey, to which he retained a strong devotion throughout his life; the author Thackeray once asked him "when England conquered Jersey." Millais replied "Never! Jersey conquered England." The family moved to Dinan in Brittany for a few years in his childhood. His mother's "forceful personality", she had a keen interest in art and music, encouraged her son's artistic bent, promoting the relocating of the family to London to help develop contacts at the Royal Academy of Art.
He said "I owe everything to my mother."His prodigious artistic talent won him a place at the Royal Academy schools at the unprecedented age of eleven. While there, he met William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti with whom he formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in September 1848 in his family home on Gower Street, off Bedford Square. Millais's Christ in the House of His Parents was controversial because of its realistic portrayal of a working class Holy Family labouring in a messy carpentry workshop. Works were controversial, though less so. Millais achieved popular success with A Huguenot, which depicts a young couple about to be separated because of religious conflicts, he repeated this theme in many works. All these early works were painted with great attention to detail concentrating on the beauty and complexity of the natural world. In paintings such as Ophelia Millais created dense and elaborate pictorial surfaces based on the integration of naturalistic elements; this approach has been described as a kind of "pictorial eco-system."
Mariana is a painting that Millais painted in 1850-51 based on the play Measure for Measure by William Shakespeare and the poem of the same name by Alfred, Lord Tennyson from 1830. In the play, the young Mariana was to be married, but was rejected by her betrothed when her dowry was lost in a shipwreck; this style was promoted by the critic John Ruskin, who had defended the Pre-Raphaelites against their critics. Millais's friendship with Ruskin introduced him to Ruskin's wife Effie. Soon after they met she modelled for his painting The Order of Release; as Millais painted Effie they fell in love. Despite having been married to Ruskin for several years, Effie was still a virgin, her parents realised something was wrong and she filed for an annulment. In 1855, after her marriage to Ruskin was annulled and John Millais married, he and Effie had eight children: Everett, born in 1856. Their youngest son, John Guille Millais, became a naturalist, wildlife artist, Millais's posthumous biographer, their daughter Alice Alice Stuart-Wortley, was a close friend and muse of the composer Edward Elgar, is thought to be an inspiration for themes in his Violin Concerto.
Effie's younger sister Sophy Gray sat for several pictures by Millais, prompting some speculation about the nature of their fond relationship. After his marriage, Millais began to paint in a broader style, condemned by Ruskin as "a catastrophe." It has been argued that this change of style resulted from Millais's need to increase his output to support his growing family. Unsympathetic critics such as William Morris accused him of "selling out" to achieve popularity and wealth, his admirers, in contrast, pointed to the artist's connections with Whistler and Albert Moore, influence on John Singer Sargent. Millais himself argued that as he grew more confident as an artist, he could paint with greater boldness. In his article "Thoughts on our art of Today" he recommended Velázquez and Rembrandt as models for artists to follow. Paintings such as The Eve of St. Agnes and The Somnambulist show an ongoing
The Brothers Dalziel was a prolific engraving business in Victorian London, founded in 1839 by George Dalziel, with his brother Edward Dalziel from 1840. They were joined by their sister Margaret, brother John, brother Thomas Dalziel. Along with at least three older brothers and one younger, they were children of the artist Alexander Dalziel of Wooler in Northumberland,George Dalziel trained under Charles Gray in London from around 1835; the Dalziel brothers worked with many important Victorian artists, producing illustrations for the burgeoning magazine and book market of the period. Among the artists they worked with were Arthur Boyd Houghton, Richard Doyle, John Gilbert, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and James McNeill Whistler, they cut the illustrations to Edward Lear's Book of Nonsense. They produced independent ventures, most notably The Parables of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, illustrated by Millais, contributed humorous cartoons to magazines such as Fun, which George and Edward acquired in 1865.
Until the advent of photo-mechanical processes c. 1880, they were pre-eminent in their trade. Examples of their work can be seen in the Albert Museum in London. At the end of the nineteenth century they collaborated on an autobiographical summary of their work: The Brothers Dalziel, A Record of Work, 1840–1890 published by Methuen. "Obituary – George Dalziel". The Times. London. 8 August 1902. P. 3. Biography of Edward Dalziel Dalziels's Parables of Our Lord Excerpts from the Dalziel Brothers autobiography, with some of their engravings Books with engravings by the Dalziel brothers from the University of Florida Digital Collections Works by Edward Dalziel at Project Gutenberg Works by George Dalziel at Project Gutenberg Works by George and Edward Dalziel at Faded Page Works by or about Brothers Dalziel at Internet Archive Dalziel Brothers at Library of Congress Authorities, with 34 catalogue records – and others credited to particular siblings
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
In English church history, a Nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England. Broad use of the term was precipitated after the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, when the Act of Uniformity 1662 re-established the opponents of reform within the Church of England. By the late 19th century the term included the Reformed Christians, plus the Baptists and Methodists; the English Dissenters such as the Puritans who violated the Act of Uniformity 1559—typically by practising radical, sometimes separatist, dissent—were retrospectively labelled as Nonconformists. By law and social custom, Nonconformists were restricted from many spheres of public life—not least, from access to public office, civil service careers, or degrees at university—and were referred to as suffering from civil disabilities. In England and Wales in the late 19th century the new terms "free churchman" and "Free Church" started to replace "dissenter" or "Nonconformist".
One influential Nonconformist minister was Matthew Henry, who beginning in 1710 published his multi-volume Commentary, still used and available in the 21st century. Isaac Watts is an recognized Nonconformist minister whose hymns are still sung by Christians worldwide; the Act of Uniformity of 1662 required churchmen to use all rites and ceremonies as prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer. It required episcopal ordination of all ministers of the Church of England—a pronouncement most odious to the Puritans, the faction of the church which had come to dominance during the English Civil War and the Interregnum. Nearly 2,000 clergymen were "ejected" from the established church for refusing to comply with the provisions of the act, an event referred to as the Great Ejection; the Great Ejection created an abiding public consciousness of non-conformity. Thereafter, a Nonconformist was any English subject belonging to a non-Anglican church or a non-Christian religion. More broadly, any person who advocated religious liberty was called out as Nonconformist.
The strict religious tests embodied in the laws of the Clarendon code and other penal laws excluded a substantial section of English society from public affairs and benefits, including certification of university degrees, for well more than a century and a half. Culturally, in England and Wales, discrimination against Nonconformists endured longer. Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Calvinists, other "reformed" groups and less organized sects were identified as Nonconformists at the time of the 1662 Act of Uniformity. Following the act, other groups, including Methodists, Quakers, Plymouth Brethren, the English Moravians were labelled as Nonconformists as they became organized; the term dissenter came into particular use after the Act of Toleration, which exempted those Nonconformists who had taken oaths of allegiance from being penalized for certain acts, such as for non-attendance to Church of England services. A religious census in 1851 revealed Nonconformist comprised about half that of the people who attended church services on Sundays.
In the larger manufacturing areas, Nonconformists outnumbered members of the Church of England. In Wales in 1850, Nonconformist chapel attendance outnumbered Anglican church attendance, they were based in the fast-growing upwardly mobile urban middle class. Historians distinguish two categories of Dissenters, or Nonconformists, in addition to the evangelicals or "Low Church" element in the Church of England. "Old Dissenters", dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, included Baptists, Congregationalists, Quakers and Presbyterians outside Scotland. "New Dissenters" emerged in the 18th century and were Methodists. The "Nonconformist Conscience" was their moral sensibility which they tried to implement in British politics; the "Nonconformist conscience" of the Old group emphasized religious freedom and equality, pursuit of justice, opposition to discrimination and coercion. The New Dissenters stressed personal morality issues, including sexuality, family values, Sabbath-keeping. Both factions were politically active, but until mid-19th century the Old group supported Whigs and Liberals in politics, while the New—like most Anglicans—generally supported Conservatives.
In the late 19th the New Dissenters switched to the Liberal Party. The result was a merging of the two groups, strengthening their great weight as a political pressure group, they joined together on new issues regarding schools and temperance. By 1914 the linkage was weakening and by the 1920s it was dead. Nonconformists in the 18th and 19th century claimed a devotion to hard work, temperance and upward mobility, with which historians today agree. A major Unitarian magazine, the Christian Monthly Repository asserted in 1827: Throughout England a great part of the more active members of society, who have the most intercourse with the people have the most influence over them, are Protestant Dissenters; these are manufacturers and substantial tradesman, or persons who are in the enjoyment of a competency realized by trade and manufacturers, gentlemen of the professions of law and physic, agriculturalists, of that class who live upon their own freehold. The virtues of temperance, frugality and integrity promoted by religious Nonconformity...assist the temporal prosperity of these descriptions of persons, as they tend to lift others to the same rank in society.
The emerging middle-class norm for women was separate spheres, whereby women avoid the public sp
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin