The Jackal's Horn is a boney cone-shaped excrescence which can grow on the skulls of golden jackals. It is associated with magical powers in South Asia; this horn measures half an inch in length, is concealed by fur. In the 1800s, the natives of Sri Lanka called this growth narric-comboo, both Tamil and Sinhalese people traditionally believe it to be a potent amulet which can grant wishes and reappear to its owner at its own accord when lost; some Sinhalese believe. According to healers and witch doctors in Nepal, a jackal horn can be used to win in gambling bouts, ward off evil spirits; the Tharu people of Bardia believe that jackal horns are retractible, only protrude when jackals howl in chorus. A hunter who manages to extract the horn will place it in a silver casket of vermilion powder, thought to give the object sustenance; the Tharu believe. In some areas, the horn is called Seear Singhi or "Geedhar Singhi" the word "Geedhar" is the Urdu translation of Jackle and and is tied to the necks of children.
The horn is sometimes traded by low caste people, though it is thought that they are in fact pieces of deer antlers sold to the credulous. In Bengal, it is believed that when placed within a safe, jackal horns can increase the amount of money within three-fold; some criminal elements of the Bengal Sansi will use fake jackal horns to lull unwitting people into trusting them, will offer to place these horns into their victim's safe in order to discover its location
An amulet known as a "good luck charm", is an object believed to confer protection upon its possessor. The word "amulet" comes from the Latin word amuletum, which Pliny's Natural History describes as "an object that protects a person from trouble". Anything can function as an amulet. Amulets which are said to derive their extraordinary properties and powers from magic or those which impart luck are part of folk religion or paganism, whereas amulets or sacred objects of formalised mainstream religion as in Christianity are believed to have no power of their own without being blessed by a clergyman, they will not provide any preternatural benefit to the bearer who does not have an appropriate disposition. Talismans and charms may differ from amulets by having alleged magical powers other than protection. Amulets are sometimes confused with small aesthetic objects that hang from necklaces. Any given pendant may indeed be an amulet but so may any other object that purportedly protects its holder from danger.
Amulets were prevalent in ancient Roman society, being the inheritor of the ancient Greek tradition, inextricably linked to Roman religion and magic. Amulets are outside of the normal sphere of religious experience, though associations between certain gemstones and gods has been suggested. For example, Jupiter is represented on milky chalcedony, Sol on heliotrope, Mars on red jasper, Ceres on green jasper, Bacchus on amethyst. Amulets are worn to imbue the wearer with the associated powers of the gods rather than for any reasons of piety; the intrinsic power of the amulet is evident from others bearing inscriptions, such as vterfexix or "good luck to the user." Amulet boxes could be used, such as the example from part of the Thetford treasure, Norfolk, UK, where a gold box intended for suspension around the neck was found to contain sulphur for its apotropaic qualities. In China, Taoist experts called fulu developed a special style of calligraphy that they said would be able to protect against evil spirits.
The equivalent type of amulet in Japan is called an ofuda. In antiquity and the Middle Ages, most Jews and Muslims in the Orient believed in the protective and healing power of amulets or blessed objects. Talismans used by these peoples can be broken down into three main categories: talismans carried or worn on the body, talismans hung upon or above the bed of an infirm person, medicinal talismans; this third category can be further divided into internal talismans. For example, an external amulet can be placed in a bath. Jews and Muslims have at times used their holy books in a talisman-like manner in grave situations. For example, a bed-ridden and ill person would have a holy book placed under part of the bed or cushion. Amulets are plentiful in the Jewish tradition, with examples of Solomon-era amulets existing in many museums. Due to the proscription of idols and other graven images in Judaism, Jewish amulets emphasize text and names; the shape and color of a Jewish amulet makes no difference.
Examples of textual amulets include the Silver Scroll, circa 630 BCE, the still contemporary mezuzah and tefillin. A counter-example, however, is the Hand of an outline of a human hand. Another non-textual amulet is the Seal of Solomon known as the hexagram or Star of David. In one form, it consists of two intertwined equilateral triangles, in this form it is worn suspended around the neck to this day. Another common amulet in contemporary use is the Chai —, worn around the neck. Other similar amulets still in use consist of one of the names of the god of Judaism, such as ה, יה, or שדי, inscribed on a piece of parchment or metal silver. During the Middle Ages and Sherira Gaon opposed the use of amulets and derided the "folly of amulet writers." Other rabbis, approved the use of amulets. Rabbi and famous kabbalist Naphtali ben Isaac Katz was said to be an expert in the magical use of amulets, he was accused of causing a fire that broke out in his house and destroyed the whole Jewish quarter of Frankfurt, of preventing the extinguishing of the fire by conventional means because he wanted to test the power of his amulets.
The Roman Catholic Church maintains that the legitimate use of sacramentals in its proper disposition is encouraged only by a firm faith and devotion to the Triune God, not by any magical or superstitious belief bestowed on the sacramental. In this regard, scapulars and other devotional religious Catholic paraphernalia derive their power, not from the symbolism displayed in the object, but rather from the blessing of the Catholic Church. Lay Catholics are not permitted to perform solemn exorcisms, but they can use holy water, blessed salt, other sacramentals, such as the Saint Benedict medal or the crucifix, for warding off evil; the crucifix, the associated sign of the cross, is one of the key sacramentals used by Catholics to ward off evil since the time of the Early Church Fathers. The imperial cross of Conrad II referred to the power of the cross against evil. A well-known amulet among Catholic Christians is the Saint Benedict medal which includes the Vade Retro Satana formula to ward off Satan.
This medal has been in use at least since the 1700s, in 1742 it received the approval of Pope Benedict XIV. It became part of the Roman Catholic ritu
The maneki-neko is a common Japanese figurine, believed to bring good luck to the owner. In modern times, they are made of ceramic or plastic; the figurine depicts a cat beckoning with an upright paw, is displayed in—often at the entrance of—shops, pachinko parlors, other businesses. Some of the sculptures have a slow-moving paw beckoning. Maneki-neko comes in different colors and degrees of ornateness. Common colors are white, black and sometimes red. In addition to ceramic figurines, maneki-neko can be found as keychains, piggy banks, air fresheners, house-plant pots, miscellaneous ornaments, as well as large statues, it is sometimes incorrectly called the "Chinese lucky cat" because of its popularity among Chinese merchants. To some Westerners it may seem; this is due to the difference in gestures and body language recognized by some Westerners and the Japanese. The Japanese beckoning gesture is made by holding up the hand, palm down, folding the fingers down and back, thus the cat's appearance.
Some maneki-neko made for some Western markets will have the cat's paw facing upwards, in a beckoning gesture, more familiar to most Westerners. Maneki-neko can be found with either the left paw raised; the significance of the right and left raised paw differs with place. According to a general rule of thumb, a statue with the left paw raised is meant to be displayed in drinking establishments, while the one with the right paw for all other places of business; some maneki-neko feature battery- or solar-powered moving arms endlessly engaged in the beckoning gesture. Antique examples of maneki-neko may be made of carved wood and metal, handmade porcelain or cast iron, it is believed that Maneki-neko originated in Tokyo, while some insist it was Kyoto. Maneki-neko first appeared during the part of the Edo period in Japan; the earliest records of Maneki-neko appear in the Bukō nenpyō's entry dated 1852. Utagawa Hiroshige's ukiyo-e "Joruri-machi Hanka no zu," painted in 1852, depicts the Marushime-neko, a variation of Maneki-neko, being sold at Senso temple, Tokyo.
In 1876, during the Meiji era, it was mentioned in a newspaper article, there is evidence that kimono-clad maneki-neko were distributed at a shrine in Osaka during this time. A 1902 advertisement for maneki-neko indicates. Beyond this the exact origins of maneki-neko are uncertain, though several folktales offer explanations. Others have noted the similarities between the maneki-neko's gesture and that of a cat washing its face. There is a Japanese belief; this belief may in turn be related to an older Chinese proverb that states that if a cat washes its face, it will rain. Thus, it is possible a belief arose that a figure of a cat washing its face would bring in customers. In his Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang, China's Tang Dynasty author Duan Chengshi wrote: "If a cat raises its paw over the ears and washes its face patrons will come". Maneki-neko is the subject of a number of folktales. Here are some of the most popular, explaining the cat's origins: The stray cat and the shop: The operator of an impoverished shop takes in a starving, stray cat despite having enough to feed himself.
In gratitude, the cat sits in the front of the store beckoning customers, thus bringing prosperity as a reward to the charitable proprietor. After, the "beckoning cat" has been a symbol of good luck for small business owners. Modern Japanese folklore suggests that keeping a talisman of good fortune, such as the maneki-neko, in bedrooms and places of study will bring about favorable results and life successes; because of its popularity in Chinese communities the maneki-neko is mistaken for being Chinese in origin rather than Japanese, is incorrectly referred to as a "Chinese lucky cat" or jīnmāo. This cat is prevalent in China domestically, is referred to as the followings: simplified Chinese: 招财猫; the Pokémon named. Unlike traditional Maneki-neko who hold the Koban coin, Meowth has the coin projected from its forehead. Meowth can fire this coin as a projectile weapon with its signature move Payday. Netta performed her song "Toy" in front of two walls full of maneki-neko at the Eurovision Song Contest 2018.
She won the competition after collecting 529 points at the final. Bakeneko Catbus Daruma doll Fukusuke Hello Kitty Jin Chan Kasha Koban Meowth Neko chigura Nekomata Tanuki
Fan death is a well-known superstition in Korean culture, where it is thought that running an electric fan in a closed room with unopened or no windows will prove fatal. Despite no concrete evidence to support the concept, belief in fan death persists to this day in Korea. Where the idea came from is unclear, but fears about electric fans date to their introduction to Korea, with stories dating to the 1920s and 1930s warning of the risks of nausea and facial paralysis from the new technology. One conspiracy theory is that the South Korean government created or perpetuated the myth as propaganda to curb the energy consumption of South Korean households during the 1970s energy crisis, but Slate reports that the myth is much older than that – dating as far back as the introduction of electric fans in Korea, cites a 1927 article about "Strange Harm from Electric Fans". Air movement will increase sweat evaporation, but in extreme heat – when the blown air is warmer than the body's temperature – it will increase the heat stress placed on the body speeding the onset of heat exhaustion and other detrimental conditions.
The American Environmental Protection Agency discourages people from using fans in closed rooms without ventilation when the heat index is above 32 °C. The EPA does, approve of using a fan if a window is open and it is cooler outside, or when the heat index in a closed room is lower. Hypothermia is abnormally low body temperature caused by inadequate thermoregulation; as the metabolism slows down at night, one becomes more sensitive to temperature, thus more prone to hypothermia. People who believe this theory think a fan operating in a closed room all night can lower temperature to the point of causing hypothermia, it is alleged that fans may cause asphyxiation by oxygen displacement and carbon dioxide intoxication. In the process of human respiration, inhaled fresh air is exhaled with a lower concentration of oxygen gas and higher concentration of carbon dioxide gas, causing a gradual reduction of O2 and buildup of CO2 in a unventilated room. During the summer, mainstream South Korean news sources report alleged cases of fan death.
A typical example is this excerpt from the July 4, 2011, edition of The Korea Herald, an English-language newspaper: A man died on Monday morning after sleeping with an electric fan running. The 59-year-old victim, only known by his surname Min, was found dead with the fan fixed directly at him; this article noted there was "no evidence" the fan caused the death, however. University of Miami researcher Larry Kalkstein says a misunderstanding in translation resulted in his accidental endorsement of the fan death theory, which he denies is a real phenomenon. Ken Jennings, writing for Slate, says that based on "a recent email survey of contacts in Korea", opinion seems to be shifting among younger Koreans: "A decade of Internet skepticism seems to have accomplished what the preceding 75 years could not: convinced a nation that Korean fan death is hot air." The Korea Consumer Protection Board, a South Korean government-funded public agency, issued a consumer safety alert in 2006 warning that "asphyxiation from electric fans and air conditioners" was among South Korea's five most common summer accidents or injuries, according to data they collected.
The KCPB published the following: If bodies are exposed to electric fans or air conditioners for too long, it causes bodies to lose water and hypothermia. If directly in contact with a fan, this could lead to death from increase of carbon dioxide saturation concentration and decrease of oxygen concentration; the risks are higher for the elderly and patients with respiratory problems. From 2003 2005, a total of 20 cases were reported through the CISS involving asphyxiations caused by leaving electric fans and air conditioners on while sleeping. To prevent asphyxiation, timers should be set, wind direction should be rotated, doors should be left open. Culture of South Korea Culture-bound syndrome List of common misconceptions
Omamori are Japanese amulets sold at Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, dedicated to particular Shinto kami as well as Buddhist figures, are said to provide various forms of luck or protection. The word mamori means protection, with omamori being the sonkeigo form of the word, "to protect". Made from paper or wood, modern amulets are small items kept inside a brocade bag and may contain a prayer, religious inscription of invocation. Omamori are available at both Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples with few exceptions and are available for sale, regardless of one's religious affiliation. Omamori are made sacred through the use of ritual, are said to contain busshin in a Shinto context or kesshin in a Buddhist context. While omamori are intended for temple tourists' personal use, they are viewed as a donation to the temple or shrine the person is visiting. Visitors give omamori as a gift to another person as a physical form of well-wishing; the amulet covering is made of brocaded silk and encloses papers or pieces of wood with prayers written on them which are supposed to bring good luck to the bearer on particular occasions, tasks, or ordeals.
Omamori are used to ward off bad luck and are spotted on bags, hung on cellphone straps, in cars, etc. Omamori have changed over the years from being made of paper and/or wood to being made out of a wide variety of materials. Modern commercialism has taken over a small part of the creations of omamori; this happens when more popular shrines and temples cannot keep up with the high demand for certain charms. They turn to factories to manufacture the omamori. However, priests have been known to complain about the quality and authenticity of the products made by factories. According to Yanagita Kunio: Japanese have always believed in amulets of one kind or another, but the modern printed charms now given out by shrines and temples first became popular in the Tokugawa period or and the practice of a person wearing miniature charms is new; the latter custom is common in cities. Omamori may provide general blessings and protection, or may have a specific focus such as: kōtsū-anzen – traffic safety-protection for drivers and travelers of all sorts yaku-yoke – avoidance of evil kaiun – open luck, better fortune gakugyō-jōju – education and passing examinations-for students and scholars shōbai-hanjō – prosperity in business-success in business and matters of money en-musubi – acquisition of a mate and marriage-available for singles and couples to ensure love and marriage anzan – protection for pregnant women for a healthy pregnancy and easy delivery kanai-anzen – safety of one's family and prosperity in the householdCustomarily, omamori are not opened in order to avoid losing their protective benefits.
They're tied to something like a backpack or a purse. It is not necessary, but amulets are customarily replaced once a year to ward off bad luck from the previous year. Old amulets are returned to the same shrine or temple they were purchased at so they can be disposed of properly. Amulets are returned on or after New Year’s; this way the shrine/temple visitor has a fresh start for the New Year with a new omamori. Old omamori traditionally should not be disposed of, but burned, as a sign of respect to the deity that assisted the person throughout the year. If a shrine or temple visitor cannot find an omamori that meets their need, they can request for a priest to have one made. If enough people request for this same type of omamori, the temple or shrine may start producing them for everyday availability. There are modern commercial versions for these that are not spiritual in nature and are not issued by a shrine or temple, it has become popular for stores in Japan to feature generic omamori with popular characters such as Mickey Mouse, Hello Kitty, Kewpie, etc.
Kamidana Magatama Ofuda Masuda, Koh. Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary. Tokyo: Kenkyusha. ISBN 4767420156. Nelson, Andrew N.. Japanese-English Character Dictionary. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle. ISBN 4805305746. Japanese Buddhist Statuary Omamori.com