Stock photography is the supply of photographs, which are licensed for specific uses. The stock photo industry, which began to gain hold in the 1920s, has established models including traditional macrostock photography, midstock photography, microstock photography. Conventional stock agencies charge from several hundred to several thousand United States dollars per image, while microstock photography may sell for around USD 25 cents. Professional stock photographers traditionally place their images with one or more stock agencies on a contractual basis, while stock agencies may accept the high-quality photos of amateur photographers through online submission. Themes for stock photos are diverse, although Megan Garber of The Atlantic wrote in 2012 that "one of the more wacky/wondrous elements of stock photos is the manner in which, as a genre, they've developed a unifying editorial sensibility. To see a stock image is... to know you're seeing a stock image." Notable traditional stock photo agencies have included RobertStock, the Bettman Archive in New York, the Hulton Archive in the United Kingdom among many others.
In the 1990s companies such as Photodisc in Seattle, Washington began selling CD ROMs with packs of images, pioneering the royalty free licensing system at a time when rights managed licensing was the norm in the stock industry. There was a great amount of consolidation among stock photo agencies between 1990 and the mid-2000s through Corbis and Getty Images; the early microstock company iStockphoto was founded in May 2000, followed by companies such as Dreamstime, fotoLibra, Can Stock Photo and Fotolia. Newspapers and magazines were first able to reproduce photographs instead of line art in the mid-1880s with the invention of the half-tone and its use on a printing press. Starting with staff photographers independent free-lance photographers took over. One of the first examples of a stock photo was circa 1920 when American photographer H. Armstrong Roberts ensured the people photographed in "Group in Front of Tri-Motor Airplane" all signed model releases; this allowed others like it to be commercially viable.
In an effort to save the cost of hiring photographers for commission-based photo shoots and advertisers began to consider stock photos as a less risky alternative. One of the first major stock photography libraries was founded in 1920 by H. Armstrong Roberts; the Bettman Archive in New York is an example of an early traditional stock agency, with the company delivering photos upon 24-hour request to magazines such as Look and Life. Founded in 1936 by Otto Bettmann, a German curator who emigrated to the United States in 1935, the Bettman Archive began with Bettmann's personal collection of 15,000 images which he brought with him in suitcases when he escaped from Nazi Germany, he expanded his collection by placing ads in magazines for stills and photos. A different early pioneer with the stock industry was photographer Tony Stone, whose portfolio of mountain scenes proved popular with chocolate advertisers. Stone's stock library reached 20,000 images, each selected for its likelihood to sell multiple copies.
Known as a stock resource for newspapers and magazines, the Hulton Archive started as the photographic archive of Picture Post. As the archive expanded through World War II, it became clear that its vast collection of photographs and negatives were becoming an important historical documentary resource. In 1945, Sir Edward Hulton set up the Hulton Press Library as a semi-independent operation and commissioned Charles Gibbs-Smith of the Victoria and Albert Museum to catalogue the entire archive using a system of keywords and classifications; the Gibbs-Smith system claims to be the world’s first indexing system for pictures, it was adopted by the British Museum collections. By the 1980s, stock photography had become a specialty in its own right, with the stock industry advancing quickly; as photo libraries transitioned from physical archives to servers in the mid-1990s, "stock libraries" were called "stock agencies." The archives began to rely on keywords for sorting and retrieving photographs.
In 1991 Photodisc in Seattle, Washington began selling CD ROMs with packs of images. Unlike their competitors, Photodisc licensed. In contrast to the Rights Managed system, royalty free allowed the purchaser of a CD ROM to use the images as many times as they liked without paying further fees. There was a great amount of consolidation among stock photo agencies between 1990 and the mid-2000s, with Corbis notably acquiring the massive Bettmann Archive in 1995. After Photodisc went online in 1995, in September 1997, PhotoDisc agreed to combine with London-based Getty Communications to form the Seattle-based Getty Images. In 1996, the Hulton Picture Collection was bought by Getty Images for £8.6 million. Alamy is a owned stock photography agency launched in 1999. Alamy maintains an online archive of over one hundred million still images and hundreds of thousands of videos contributed by agencies and independent photographers or collected from news archives and national collections, its suppliers include both professional and amateur photographers, stock agencies, news archives and national collections.
Its clients are from the photography and advertising industries and the general public. The early microstock company iStockphoto was founded in May 2000. A free stock imagery website, it transitioned into its current micropayment model in 2001. IStockphoto co-founders Bruce Livingstone and Brianna Wettlaufer went on to start Stocksy United in 2013. Helping pioneer the subscription-base
A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to site content and audience. These advertisements are administered and maintained by Google, they can generate revenue on either a per-impression basis. Google beta-tested a cost-per-action service, but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering. In Q1 2014, Google earned US 22 % of total revenue, through Google AdSense. AdSense is a participant in the AdChoices program, so AdSense ads include the triangle-shaped AdChoices icon; this program operates on HTTP cookies. Over 11.1 million websites use AdSense. Google uses its technology to serve advertisements based on website content, the user's geographical location, other factors; those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through Google AdWords. AdSense has become one of the popular programs that specializes in creating and placing banner advertisements on a website or blog, because the advertisements are less intrusive and the content of the advertisements is relevant to the website.
They use text content on their websites. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates; the phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements". The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program, which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid. Additionally, for any given click received, advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid. Google shares 68% of revenue generated by AdSense with content network partners, 51% of revenue generated by AdSense with AdSense for Search partners. On June 18, 2015, Google announced rebranding of AdSense with a new logo. Google launched its AdSense program named content targeting advertising in March 2003; the AdSense name was used by Applied Semantics, a competitive offering to AdSense. The name was adopted by Google after Google acquired Applied Semantics in April 2003; some advertisers complained that AdSense yielded worse results than AdWords, since it served ads that related contextually to the content on a web page and that content was less to be related to a user's commercial desires than search results.
For example, someone browsing a blog dedicated to flowers was less to be interested in ordering flowers than someone searching for terms related to flowers. As a result, in 2004 Google allowed its advertisers to opt out of the AdSense network. Paul Buchheit, the founder of Gmail, had the idea to run ads within Google's e-mail service, but he and others say it was Susan Wojcicki, with the backing of Sergey Brin, who organized the team that adapted that idea into an enormously successful product. By early 2005 AdSense accounted for an estimated 15 percent of Google's total revenues. In 2009, Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features, including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads". In February 2010, Google AdSense started using search history in contextual matching to offer more relevant ads. On January 21, 2014, Google AdSense launched Direct Campaigns, a tool where publishers may directly sell ads; this feature was retired on February 10, 2015. The content-based advertisements can be targeted for users with certain interest or contexts.
The targeting can be CPC or CPM based, the only significant difference in CPC and CPM is that with CPC targeting, earnings are based on clicks while CPM earnings are based not just per views/impression but on a larger scale, per thousand impression, therefore driving it from the market, which makes CPC ads more common. There are various ad sizes available for content ads; the ads can be simple text, animated image, flash video, video, or rich media ads. At most ad sizes, users can change whether to show just one of them; as of November 2012, a grey arrow appears beneath AdSense text ads for easier identification. Google made a policy update regarding the number of ads per page, the three ads per page limit has been removed. AdSense for search allows publisher to display ads relating to search terms on their site and receive 51% of the revenue generated from those ads. AdSense custom search ads can be displ
Criticism of Google
Criticism of Google includes concern for tax avoidance and manipulation of search results, its use of others' intellectual property, concerns that its compilation of data may violate people's privacy and collaboration with Google Earth by the military to spy on users, censorship of search results and content, the energy consumption of its servers as well as concerns over traditional business issues such as monopoly, restraint of trade, antitrust, "idea borrowing", being an "Ideological Echo Chamber". Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, advertising technologies. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, generates profit from advertising through its AdWords program. Google's stated mission is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful". Much of the criticism pertains to issues. Google has been accused by a number of countries of avoiding paying tens of billions of dollars of tax through a convoluted scheme of inter-company licensing agreements and transfers to tax havens.
For example, Google has used contrived and artificial distinctions to avoid paying billions of pounds in corporate tax owed by its UK operations. On May 16, 2013, Margaret Hodge, the chair of the United Kingdom Public Accounts Committee, accused Google of being "calculated and unethical" over its use of the scheme. Google Chairman Eric Schmidt has claimed that this scheme of Google is "capitalism", that he was "very proud" of it. In November 2012, the UK government announced plans to investigate Google, along with Starbucks and Amazon.com, for possible tax avoidance. In 2015, the UK Government introduced a new law intended to penalize Google and other large multinational corporations's artificial tax avoidance. On 20 January 2016, Google announced that it would pay £130m in back taxes to settle the investigation. However, only 8 days it was announced that Google could end up paying more, UK tax officials were under investigation for what has been termed a "sweetheart deal" for Google. Google cut its taxes by $3.1 billion in the period of 2007 to 2009 using a technique that moves most of its foreign profits through Ireland and The Netherlands to Bermuda.
Afterwards, the company started to send £8 billion in profits a year to Bermuda. Google's income shifting—involving strategies known to lawyers as the "Double Irish" and the "Dutch Sandwich"—helped reduce its overseas tax rate to 2.4 percent, the lowest of the top five U. S. technology companies by market capitalization, according to regulatory filings in six countries. On 10 December 2018, a New Zealand court ordered that the name of a man accused of murdering British traveller Grace Millane be withheld from the public; the next morning, Google named the man in an email it sent people who had subscribed to "what's trending in New Zealand". Lawyers warned that this could compromise the trial, Justice Minister Andrew Little said that Google was in contempt of court. Google said that it had been unaware of the court order, that the email had been created by algorithms. According to Joe Wilcox of Microsoft-Watch, Google has increased its dominance of search, becoming an information gatekeeper, despite the conflict of interest between information gathering and the advertising surrounding that information.
His colleagues do not share the same view. The European Commission has pursued several competition law cases against Google, namely: Complaint that Google abused its position as a dominant search engine to favor its own services over those of competitors. In particular, Google operated a free comparison shopping website Froogle, which it abandoned in favor of a paid-placement-only site called Google Shopping. Other comparison sites complained of a precipitous drop in web traffic due to changes in the Google search algorithm, some were driven out of business; the investigation began in 2010 and concluded in July 2017 with a €2.42 billion fine against the parent company Alphabet, an order to change its practices within 90 days. Complaint opened in 2015 that the dominance of the Android operating system was abused to make it difficult for competing third-party apps and search engines to be pre-installed on mobile phones. Complaint opened in 2016 that Google abused its market dominance to prevent competing advertising companies to sell ads to web sites using Google AdSense In June 2008, Google reached an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages.
The alliance between the two companies was never realized because of antitrust concerns by the U. S. Department of Justice; as a result, Google pulled out of the deal in November 2008. In testimony before a U. S. Senate antitrust panel in September 2011, Eric Schmidt, Google's chairman, said that "the Internet is the ultimate level playing field" where users were "one click away" from competitors. Beyond the existence of alternatives, Google's large market share was another aspect of the debate, as this exchange between Senator Herb Kohl and Mr. Schmidt at the September Senate hearing illustrates: Senator Kohl asked: "But you do recognize that in the words that are used and antitrust kind of oversight, your market share constitutes monopoly, dominant – special power dominant – special power dominant for a monopoly firm. You recognize you're in that area?"Schmidt replied: "I would agree, that we're in that area.... I'm not a lawyer, but my understanding of monopoly findings is this is a judicial process."During the hearing Mike Lee, Republican of Ut
Google Groups is a service from Google that provides discussion groups for people sharing common interests. The Groups service provides a gateway to Usenet newsgroups via a shared user interface. Google Groups became operational in February 2001, following Google's acquisition of Deja's Usenet archive. Deja News had been operational since 1995. Google Groups allows any user to conduct and access threaded discussions, via either a web interface or e-mail. There are at least two kinds of discussion group; the first kind are forums specific to Google Groups. The second kind are Usenet groups, accessible by NNTP, for which Google Groups acts as gateway and unofficial archive; the Google Groups archive of Usenet newsgroup postings dates back to 1981. Through the Google Groups user interface, users can post to Usenet groups. In addition to accessing Google and Usenet groups, registered users can set up mailing list archives for e-mail lists that are hosted elsewhere; the Deja News Research Service was an archive of messages posted to Usenet discussion groups, started in March 1995 by Steve Madere in Austin, Texas.
Its powerful search engine capabilities won the service acclaim, generated controversy, changed the perceived nature of online discussion. This archive was acquired by Google in 2001. While archives of Usenet discussions had been kept for as long as the medium existed, Deja News offered a novel combination of features, it was available to the general public, provided a simple World Wide Web user interface, allowed searches across all archived newsgroups, returned immediate results, retained messages indefinitely. The search facilities transformed Usenet from a loosely organized and ephemeral communication tool into a valued information repository; the archive's relative permanence, combined with the ability to search messages by author, raised concerns about privacy and confirmed oft-repeated past admonishments that posters should be cautious in discussing themselves and others. While Madere was reluctant to remove archived material, protests from users and legal pressure led to the introduction of "nuking", a method for posters to permanently remove their own messages from search results.
It supported the use of an "X-No-Archive" message header, which if present would cause an article to be omitted from the archive. This did not prevent others from quoting the material in a message and causing it to be stored. Copyright holders were allowed to have material removed from the archive. According to Humphrey Marr of Deja News, copyright actions most came from the Church of Scientology; the capability to "nuke" postings was kept open for many years but removed without explanation under Google's tenure. Google mistakenly resurrected "nuked" messages at one point, angering many users. "Nukes" that were in effect at the time when Google removed the possibility, are still honored, however. Since May 2014, European users can request to have search results for their name from Google Groups, including their Usenet archive, delinked under the right to be forgotten law. Google Groups is one of the ten most delinked sites. If Google does not grant a delinking, Europeans can appeal to their local data protection agencies.
The service was expanded beyond search. My Deja News offered the ability to read Usenet in the traditional chronological, per-group manner, to post new messages to the network. Deja Communities were private Internet forums offered to businesses. In 1999 the site changed direction and made its primary feature a shopping comparison service. During this transition, which involved relocation of the servers, many older messages in the Usenet archive became unavailable. By late 2000 the company, in financial distress, sold the shopping service to eBay, who incorporated the technology into their half.com services. By 2001, the Deja search service was shut down. In February 2001, Google acquired Deja News and its archive, transitioned its assets to groups.google.com. Users were able to access these Usenet newsgroups through the new Google Groups interface. By the end of 2001, the archive had been supplemented with other archived messages dating back to May 11, 1981; these early posts from 1981–1991 were donated to Google by the University of Western Ontario, based on archives by Henry Spencer from the University of Toronto.
A short while Google released a new version that allowed users to create their own non-Usenet groups. When AOL discontinued access to Usenet around 2005, it recommended Google Groups instead. In 2008, Google broke the Groups search functionality and left it nonfunctional for about a year, until a Wired article spurred the company to fix the problems. For several years from May 2010 onward, Google incrementally changed the layout of the web search results pages degrading the discoverability of the site itself as well as its usability and functionality. On February 13, 2015, a Vice Media story reported that the ability to do advanced searches across all groups had again become nonfunctional, to date, Google has neither fixed nor acknowledged the problem; the researcher interviewed stated, "Advanced searches within specific groups appear to be working, but that's hardly useful for any form of research—be it casual or academic." The late Lee Rizor known as "Blinky the Shark", started the Usenet Improvement Project, a project, critical of Google Groups and its users.
The project aims to "make Usenet participation a better experience". They have accused Google Groups of ignoring an "increasing wave of spam" from its servers and of encouraging an Eternal September of "lusers" and "lamers" arriving in established groups en masse; the Use
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
Gmail allows the use of Boolean operators such as “OR” for finding messages that match at least one of the more search terms. Gmail allows users to create rules for the automatic organization of incoming mail. Filters are created using the Advanced Search interface using the same criteria as those used for searching. Gmail can perform any combination of the following actions upon an email that meets all the specified criteria in a filter: archiving adding a star marking as read marking as important applying a label moving to the bin forwarding to another e-mail address Labels provide a flexible method of organizing emails since an email can have any number of labels. Labels are much like tags on a blog post. Labels can do the work of folders if and email is moved to a label – this is the equivalent of applying a label to it as well as archiving it. By default, labels can be customized with a color. Users can create sub-labels beneath a label to create a hierarchy or nested labels. Labels can be used as a search criterion and all emails having a particular label can be viewed together through the side menu.
Gmail has received praise for replacing the limitations of hierarchical folders with the flexibility of labels. Gmail allows users to'archive' emails. Archiving can be accessed via the'All Mail' section. In Gmail, the'All Mail' section displays all excluding the ones in Spam and Bin. Technically, when a message is archived, the'Inbox' label is removed from it. Archiving presents a better alternative to deleting as it helps to tidy up the inbox without deleting messages permanently. Archiving, however, is limited to message threads and individual messages cannot be archived. Moreover, archiving is available only for the inbox, messages in other places such as Sent Mail cannot be archived. However, according to About.com, this limitation can be overcome by accessing Gmail through IMAP. Archiving is not offered by any other major webmail service or email client. Marking of emails as important is less automatic. Users can ‘train’ Gmail in recognizing important messages by manually marking messages as important.
Gmail takes into account a number of signals to determine. Messages from people who are emailed to or replied to a lot, messages of the type that are always opened or were marked as important or starred, are to be marked as important automatically. Messages that are sent to a user directly and not through a mailing list, messages containing certain keywords are marked as important. Messages of the type that were archived or deleted, or are opened are less to be marked as important. Important emails can be searched for using the operator “is:important”. Uninterested users have the option to turn off the entire feature. In September 2010, Google introduced the ` priority inbox'. Priority Inbox splits up the inbox into sections such as “Important and unread”, “Unread”, “Starred” and “Everything else” enabling a user to always see important items on the top, it is an opt-in feature. In a review for Lifehacker, Adam Pash writes that Gmail is only as good at recognizing important emails as any context-ignorant computer can be.
However, in another review for Lifehacker, Whitson Gordon calls Priority Inbox "one of Gmail’s most unsung features". He writes that Priority Inbox can be quite helpful as long as users give it a chance to learn from their habits. Beginning June 2013, Gmail allowed for the usage of tabs in the inbox for automatically categorizing emails by five general categories: Primary Social Promotions Updates Forums Users have the choice to hide one or more of the tabs or disable the entire feature; these tabs appear in Gmail's Android and iOS apps. If the use of tabs is switched off, all emails are sorted into one of the five categories, which can be used as automatic labels. Like labels, categories can be used as a search criterion and be made to appear as labels on the message list. All emai