The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
TripAdvisor, Inc. is an American travel and restaurant website company that shows hotel and restaurant reviews, accommodation bookings and other travel-related content. It includes interactive travel forums. Headquartered in Needham, TripAdvisor is the largest travel website in the world, with more than 315 million reviewers and over 500 million reviews of hotels, restaurants and other travel-related businesses. TripAdvisor was an early adopter of user-generated content; the website services are free to users, who provide most of the content, the website is supported by a hotel booking facility and an advertising business model. TripAdvisor Media Group operates 25 travel brands including TripAdvisor, BookingBuddy, Cruise Critic, Family Vacation Critic, FlipKey, GateGuru, Holiday Lettings, Holiday Watchdog, Independent Traveler, lafourchette, OneTime, SeatGuru, SmarterTravel, TravelPod, VacationHomeRentals and VirtualTourist. TripAdvisor operates websites internationally. TripAdvisor was founded by Stephen Kaufer, Langley Steinert, Nick Shanny, Thomas Palka in February 2000.
Kaufer has stated that the original idea wasn't a user generated social media site to swap reviews, "We started as a site where we were focused more on those official words from guidebooks or newspapers or magazines. We had a button in the beginning that said, "Visitors add your own review", boy, did that just take off." Original financing was obtained from Flagship Ventures, the Bollard Group, private investors. In 2004, the company was purchased by IAC/InterActiveCorp. In August 2005, IAC spun off its travel group of businesses under Inc. name. In April 2009, TripAdvisor launched its official site in China, since it has indexed more than 20,000 hotels and restaurants information and customer reviews, made top lists, becoming one of the biggest travel websites as of July 2011. In September 2010, SmarterTravel, part of TripAdvisor Media Group, launched SniqueAway, the first members-only site where each travel deal is endorsed by the people. In March 2011, TripAdvisor informed all registered TripAdvisor members that an unauthorized third party had stolen some of TripAdvisor's email list and might use it to create spam messages.
No passwords or other information was stolen. This happened shortly before many other companies reported similar thefts of the addresses on their email lists. In April 2011, it was announced that Expedia would split into two publicly traded companies by spinning off the TripAdvisor brand of travel sites. According to Expedia CEO Dara Khosrowshahi, the move "allows the two businesses to be pure plays and to operate with the proper amount of focus to grow respectively." The spin-off was completed in December 2011 with a public offering. According to a July 2011 PhoCusWright survey of 3,641 respondents, solicited at random through a pop-up invitation link on TripAdvisor.com and commissioned by Trip Advisor, “98% of participants found that TripAdvisor’s hotel reviews … reflect the experience.”TripAdvisor becomes the world’s largest travel site, with nearly 280 million unique monthly visitors. In April 2012, the company launched a connection to Facebook that lets users select reviews from people in their social graph.
In October 2014, Trip Advisor released a new feature, "Just for you", offering tailored hotel recommendations based on the user's preferences and search history on the site. This feature mirrored the "Tribes" feature launched on competitor site Gogobot in 2013. In November 2018, the company incorporated food-ordering and delivery service, DoorDash, into its restaurant listings; as per its annual shareholder report, Trip advisor earns 43% of its revenues through its two most significant advertising partners and Priceline. It redirections; these include revenues from the sale of advertising through click-based advertising and, to a lesser extent, display-based and subscription-based advertising. The company has master advertising contracts with its advertising partners, its advertisers depend on this advertising to generate sales leads, bookings, or revenue and profit on a cost-effective basis. Click-based advertising revenue accounts for the majority of its advertising revenue, its CPC pricing for click-based advertising depends, on competition between advertisers.
Its advertisers focus more on traffic volume rather than per-click profit. Hence they do not reduce the CPC; as of 2017, Trip advisor employed 3,217 part time and full time employees, of whom 51% were located in USA. In May 2007, TripAdvisor acquired Smarter Travel Media operator of SmarterTravel.com and BookingBuddy.com. In May 2007, TripAdvisor acquired The Independent Traveler, Inc. publisher of Cruise Critic.com and IndependentTraveler.comIn February 2008, TripAdvisor acquired Holiday Watchdog, user-generated travel site in the U. K. In July 2008, TripAdvisor acquired Virtualtourist, a travel website with over 1 million registered members and OneTime.com, a travel comparison site. In July 2008, TripAdvisor acquired a majority stake in a vacation-rental website. In October 2009, TripAdvisor purchased Kuxun.cn, China’s second-largest consumer travel site and hotel and flight search engine. Kuxun was sold to Meituan. In June 2010, TripAdvisor acquired the United Kingdom's largest independent vacation rental website, holidaylettings.co.uk.
In July 2011, TripAdvisor announced its acquisition of Where I've Been, a Chicago-based Travel Facebook app for an undisclosed sum. In October 2012, TripAdvisor announ
A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator, enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device; the most popular browsers are Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, he recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person.
This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a rapid rate. Marc Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator became the most popular browser. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows operating system and did so as freeware with no restrictions on usage; the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002. In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model; this work evolved into Firefox, first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011. Apple released its Safari browser in 2003, it remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms. The last major entrant to the browser market was Google, its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success.
Once a web page has been retrieved, the browser's rendering engine displays it on the user's device. This includes video formats supported by the browser. Web pages contain hyperlinks to other pages and resources; each link contains a URL, when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again. To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components. Web browsers can be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Options, or Preferences; the menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their home default search engine, they can change default web page colors and fonts. Various network connectivity and privacy settings are usually available. During the course of browsing, cookies received from various websites are stored by the browser; some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser.
Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension. The most popular browsers have a number of features in common, they allow users to browse in a private mode. They can be customized with extensions, some of them provide a sync service. Most browsers have these user interface features: Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. There are niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Mobile browser List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers Media related to Web browsers at Wikimedia Commons
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on New York Stock Exchange, it is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the company has had various industries in over 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, licensing. Nokia is a notable major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period.
After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was bought by the former, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization; the company also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings. The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global. Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors; as of 2018 Nokia is the world's third largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.
Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland. A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab, after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas, a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas, all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.
In 1967, the three companies - Nokia and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the radio industry. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces, such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now making professional mobile radios, telephone switches and chemicals. After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market, it soon widened trade. Nokia co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union; the U. S. government became suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, according to U. S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.
S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia. However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, French television maker Oceanic in 1987; this made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe. The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz, which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands, it was part of American conglomerate Internationa
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. The company specializes in developing and marketing database software and technology, cloud engineered systems, enterprise software products — its own brands of database management systems. In 2018, Oracle was the third-largest software maker by revenue, after Alphabet; the company develops and builds tools for database development and systems of middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software, customer relationship management software, supply chain management software. Larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks." He heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates.
Ellison wanted to make Oracle's product compatible with System R, but failed to do so as IBM kept the error codes for their DBMS a secret. SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc in 1979 again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982, to align itself more with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the company's senior programmer. On March 12, 1986, the company had its initial public offering. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, the name of the holding company. Part of Oracle Corporation's early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products; this eased porting to different operating systems. 1979: offers the first commercial SQL RDBMS 1983: offers a VAX-mode database 1984: offers the first database with read-consistency 1986: offers a client-server DBMS 1987: introduces UNIX-based Oracle applications 1988: introduces PL/SQL.
1992: offers full applications implementation methodology 1995: offers the first 64-bit RDBMS 1996: moves towards an open standards-based, web-enabled architecture 1999: offers its first DBMS with XML support 2001: becomes the first to complete 3 terabyte TPC-H world record 2002: offers the first database to pass 15 industry standard security evaluations 2003: introduces what it calls "Enterprise Grid Computing" with Oracle10g 2005: releases its first free database, Oracle Database 10g Express Edition 2006: acquires Siebel Systems 2007: acquires Hyperion Solutions 2008: Smart scans in software improve query-response in HP Oracle Database Machine / Exadata storage 2010: acquires Sun Microsystems 2013: begins use of Oracle 12c, capable of providing cloud services with Oracle Database 2014: acquires Micros Systems 2016: acquires NetSuite Inc. Oracle ranked No. 82 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. According to Bloomberg, Oracle's CEO-to-employee pay ratio is 1,205:1.
The CEO's compensation in 2017 was $108,295,023. Meanwhile, the median employee compensation rate was $89,887. Oracle designs and sells both software and hardware products, as well as offering services that complement them. Many of the products have been added to Oracle's portfolio through acquisitions. Oracle's E-delivery service provides documentation. Oracle Database Release 10: In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g as the latest version of Oracle Database. Release 11: Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007. Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009; this version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, Personal Edition—and in one free edition—the Express Edition. The licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that were called complex by licensing expert Freirich Florea; the Enterprise Edition, the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions — but has complex licensing.
Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition and Standard Edition One with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. Release 12: Release 12c became available on July 1, 2013. Oracle Corporation has acquired and developed the following additional database technologies: Berkeley DB, which offers embedded database processing Oracle Rdb, a relational database system running on OpenVMS platforms. Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation. Oracle has since made many enhancements to this product and development continues as of 2008. TimesTen, which features in-memory database operations Oracle Essbase, which continues the Hyperion Essbase tradition of multi-dimensional database management MySQL, a relational database management system licensed under the GNU General Public License developed by MySQL AB Oracle NoSQL Database, a scalable, distributed key-value NoSQL database Oracle Fusion Middleware is a family of middleware
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google