The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment and this may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades. The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members, originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of workers, past workers, students. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a union, is highest in the Nordic countries. The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level that is maintained in the various branches of industry.
That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value, yet historian R. A. the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all labouring men and women for a different order of things. The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote, We rarely hear, it has said, of the combination of masters. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, there were severe penalties for attempting to organize unions, up to and including execution. This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England.
In 1799, the Combination Act was passed, which banned trade unions, although the unions were subject to often severe repression until 1824, they were already widespread in cities such as London. Sympathy for the plight of the workers brought repeal of the acts in 1824, by the 1810s, the first labour organizations to bring together workers of divergent occupations were formed. Possibly the first such union was the General Union of Trades, known as the Philanthropic Society, the latter name was to hide the organizations real purpose in a time when trade unions were still illegal. The Association quickly enrolled approximately 150 unions, consisting mostly of textile related unions, but including mechanics and various others
One Big Union (concept)
The One Big Union was an idea in the late 19th and early 20th centuries amongst trade unionists to unite the interests of workers and offer solutions to all labour problems. Unions initially organised as craft or trade unions, Workers were organised by their skill, plumbers, each into their respective unions. Capitalists could often divide craft and trade unionists along these lines in demarcation disputes, as capitalist enterprises and state bureaucracies became more centralised and larger, some workers felt that their institutions needed to become similarly large. A simultaneous disenchantment with the weakness of craft unions caused many unions to organise along industrial lines. In the 1911 pamphlet One Big Union, IWW supporters Father Thomas J, One Big Union was the notional organisational concept, while the IWWs revolutionary industrial unionism was the organizing method by which that concept could be realised. Organizing the One Big Union of all workers the world over was meant to achieve working class control, but the One Big Union organisations were resisted by government and industry, and subverted by existing trade unions.
By 1925, only the slogan of One Big Union remained, the Industrial Workers of the World adopted and promoted the concept of the One Big Union after the publication of the One Big Union pamphlet in 1911, the IWW continues to use the phrase. Members of the IWW historically, and currently and sign letters with the closing, many commentators regard One Big Union as synonymous with the Industrial Workers of the World. One of the popular IWW publications was called One Big Union Monthly, the IWW promoted the One Big Union concept in various ways, including as an invitation to racial equality. One IWW leaflet proclaimed, To Colored Workingmen and Women, If you are a wage worker you are welcome in the I. W. W, halls, no matter what your color. By this you may see that the I. W. W. is not a white mans union, not a black union, not a red or yellow mans union. All of the class in one big union. The IWW used the same sort of arguments to welcome women into the workforce, the appeal subsequently proclaimed the intent to organise all wage workers.
Into One Big Union, regardless of creed, color, or nationality, an injury to one is an injury to all. The One Big Union idea had the goals of better pay, shorter hours. The IWW propagandised, Organize in one big union and fight for a chance to live as human beings should live, all together now and victory will be ours. In North America, the most significant early impetus for the One Big Union concept came from the Western Federation of Miners which was headquartered in Denver, the WFM and its allies first launched the Western Labor Union. The Western Labor Union was initially intended to displace the conservative American Federation of Labor in the West, the WLUs rebranding in 1902 as the American Labor Union was a direct response to actions by President Samuel Gompers
He built a leadership role as a philanthropist for the United States and the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away to charities and his 1889 article proclaiming The Gospel of Wealth called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, and it stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline and emigrated in 1848 to the United States with his parents, Carnegie started work as a telegrapher and by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars and oil derricks. He accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman raising money for American enterprise in Europe and he built Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $480 million. It became the U. S. Steel Corporation, after selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years. Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace, education.
Andrew Carnegie was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, in a typical weavers cottage with only one main room, the main room served as a living room, dining room and bedroom. He was named after his legal grandfather, in 1836, the family moved to a larger house in Edgar Street, following the demand for more heavy damask from which his father, William Carnegie, benefited. He was educated at the Free School in Dunfermline, which had been a gift to the town by the philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask, Lauders son, named George Lauder, grew up with Andrew and would become his business partner. When Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on hard times as a handloom weaver. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother who was a cobbler and she eventually became the primary breadwinner by the 1840s. Struggling to make ends meet, the Carnegies decided to move with his family to Allegheny, Andrews family had to borrow money from the Lauders in order to migrate. Allegheny was an industrial area that produced many products including wool.
The Made in Allegheny label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. His first job at age 13 in 1848 was as a bobbin boy and his starting wage was $1.20 per week. Andrews father, William Carnegie, started off working in a cotton mill and his mother, Margaret Morrison Carnegie, earned money by binding shoes. In 1849, Carnegie became a messenger boy in the Pittsburgh Office of the Ohio Telegraph Company, at $2.50 per week. He was a hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburghs businesses
A strikebreaker is a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who are not employed by the prior to the trade union dispute. Strikebreakers may refer to workers who cross picket lines to work, strikebreakers are employed worldwide, often occurring wherever workers go on strike or engage in related actions. However, strikebreakers are used far more frequently in the United States than in any industrialized country. The Mohawk Valley formula calls for the use of strikebreakers when dealing with striking employees, among human rights treaties, only the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights contains a clause protecting the right to strike. However, like the Social Charter of 1961, the Covenant permits each signatory country to abridge the right to strike, for example, the ILO has ruled that the right to strike is an intrinsic corollary of the right of association protected by Convention No.87. The ILO has concluded striker replacement, while not in contravention of ILO agreements, carries with it significant risks for abuse, the European Social Charter of 1961 was the first international agreement to expressly protect the right to strike.
However, the European Unions Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers permits EU member states to regulate the right to strike, japanese labor law significantly restricts the ability of both an employer and a union to engage in labor disputes. The law highly regulates labor relations to ensure peace and channel conflict into collective bargaining. It bans the use of strikebreakers, south Korea bans the use of strikebreakers, although the practice remains common. In most European countries, strikebreakers are rarely used, they are rarely if ever mentioned in most European national labor laws. As mentioned above, it is left to the European Union member states to determine their own policies, Germany has employment law that strongly protects worker rights, but trade unions and the right to strike are not regulated by statute. The Bundesarbeitsgericht and the Bundesverfassungsgericht have, issued a number of rulings which essentially regulate trade union activities such as strikes.
Work councils, for example, may not strike at all, the widespread use of work councils, channels most labor disputes and reduces the likelihood of strikes. Recent efforts to enact a federal labor relations law that regulates strikes, lockouts. United Kingdom laws permit strikebreaking, and courts have significantly restricted the right of unions to punish members who act as strikebreakers, canada has federal industrial relations laws that strongly regulate the use of strikebreakers. In Quebec, the use of strikebreakers is illegal, but companies may try remain open with only managerial personnel, mexico has a federal labor law that requires companies to cease operations during a legal strike, effectively preventing the use of strikebreakers. The U. S. Supreme Court held in NLRB v. Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co.304 U. S.333 that an employer may not discriminate on the basis of union activity in reinstating employees at the end of a strike
Fashion (David Bowie song)
Fashion is a track from David Bowies 1980 album Scary Monsters. It was released as the single from the album and was accompanied, like its predecessor Ashes to Ashes. According to co-producer Tony Visconti, Fashion was the last song completed in the Scary Monsters sessions, its bassline, guest guitarist Robert Fripp contributed a series of harsh, mechanical riffs to complement the bands funk/reggae arrangement. The track was noted for its emotionally vacant choir effect, references to a goon squad coming to town provoked theories that the song actually concerns fascism. Biographer David Buckley believed the song poked fun at the banality of the dance-floor, David Mallet shot a music video for the single Fashion in a famous nightclub owned by his friend Robert Boykin called Hurrah. The opening shot of the clip features David Bowie on the HURRAH stage which was draped in khaki canvas for this shoot. The faceted mirror walls surrounding the floor can be seen in the background of various shots. Other locations around Manhattan are intercut throughout the clip, record Mirror readers voted Fashion and Ashes to Ashes the best music videos of 1980.
The video features Carlos Alomar, G. E, Fashion was the second single from Scary Monsters and the first issued after the albums September 1980 release. The edited 7 cut reached No.5 in the UK, the UK sleeve design was adapted for the cover art on the 1980 compilation Best of Bowie. Bowie has performed the song on tours, and it is included in the 1983 concert film Serious Moonlight. It was featured in the movie Clueless, during the Closing Ceremony of the 2012 London Olympics, Fashion was used during a tribute to the British fashion industry in a parade that featured a number of top models from the UK. The song was ranked among the top ten Tracks of the Year for 1980 by NME, Fashion –3,23 Scream Like a Baby –3,35 The Japanese release of the single had Its No Game as the B-side. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Armed Forces (album)
Armed Forces is Elvis Costellos third album, his second with the Attractions, and the first to officially credit the Attractions on the cover. It was released in the UK by Radar Records and in the USA by Columbia in 1979, the album had the working title Emotional Fascism. Initial pressings of the album in the UK and USA included a promotional single, Live at Hollywood High. The live tracks, produced by Nick Lowe, are Accidents Will Happen, the UK edition included 4 postcards featuring pictures of the band. The album has appeared on Q magazine and Rolling Stone magazine lists of greatest albums, in the 1982 film E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Elliotts brother, sings Accidents Will Happen in the family kitchen after coming home from school. Maslin felt that Costello wants to be daring, but he wants to dance. Both reviewers felt the album was more densely or richly produced than the two predecessors, greg Kot of the Chicago Tribune, in his 1991 review, called the album Costellos political record, and one of his most irresistibly melodic.
LeMay argued that the marks the point at which Costello found his role as a songwriter. In 2000 Q magazine placed Armed Forces at number 45 in its list of the 100 Greatest British Albums Ever. In 2003, the album was ranked at number 482 on Rolling Stone magazines list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, the album was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. All songs written by Elvis Costello, the Rykodisc reissue placed Peace and Understanding. After a 15 second silence following Two Little Hitlers
Espionage is the obtaining of information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. Espionage can be committed by an individual or a spy ring, in the service of a government or a company, the practice is inherently clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a subset of intelligence gathering, which includes espionage as well as information gathering from public sources, Espionage is often part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term is associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage, one of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemys ranks. This is the job of the spy, Spies can bring back all sorts of information concerning the size and strength of enemy forces. They can find dissidents within the forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies can be used to steal technology, counterintelligence operatives can feed false information to enemy spies, protecting important domestic secrets, and preventing attempts at subversion. Nearly every country has strict laws concerning espionage, and the penalty for being caught is often severe. However, the benefits that can be gained through espionage are generally great enough that most governments, events involving espionage are well documented throughout history. The Old Testament of the Christian Bible, which is based primarily on the Hebrew Bible, speaks about Joshua and Caleb, the ancient writings of Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun-Tzu and Chanakya contain information on deception and subversion. Chanakyas student Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire in India, made use of assassinations and secret agents, the ancient Egyptians had a thoroughly developed system for the acquisition of intelligence, and the Hebrews used spies as well, as in the story of Rahab.
Spies were prevalent in the Greek and Roman empires, during the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongols relied heavily on espionage in their conquests in Asia and Europe. Feudal Japan often used ninjas to gather intelligence, aztecs used Pochtecas, people in charge of commerce, as spies and diplomats, and had diplomatic immunity. Many modern espionage methods were established by Francis Walsingham in Elizabethan England, in 1585, Queen of Scots was placed in the custody of Sir Amias Paulet, who was instructed to open and read all of Marys clandestine correspondence. In a successful attempt to expose her, Walsingham arranged a single exception, Mary was misled into thinking these secret letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Walsinghams agents. He succeeded in intercepting letters that indicated a conspiracy to displace Elizabeth I with Mary, in foreign intelligence, Walsinghams extensive network of intelligencers, who passed on general news as well as secrets, spanned Europe and the Mediterranean.
While foreign intelligence was a part of the principal secretarys activities, Walsingham brought to it flair and ambition
A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities by desire for private gain. Mercenaries fight for money or other recompense instead of fighting for ideological interests, in the last century, and as reflected in the Geneva Convention, mercenaries have increasingly come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. However, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, Protocol Additional GC1977 is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions. Article 47 of the protocol provides the most widely accepted definition of a mercenary, though not endorsed by some countries. The Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, a mercenary shall not have the right to be a combatant or a prisoner of war. All the criteria must be met, according to the Geneva Convention, according to the GC III, a captured soldier must be treated as a lawful combatant and, therefore, as a protected person with prisoner-of-war status until facing a competent tribunal.
That tribunal, using criteria in APGC77 or some equivalent domestic law, may decide that the soldier is a mercenary. The only possible exception to GC IV Art 5 is when he is a national of the authority imprisoning him, if, after a regular trial, a captured soldier is found to be a mercenary, he can expect treatment as a common criminal and may face execution. As mercenary soldiers may not qualify as PoWs, they cannot expect repatriation at wars end, the four mercenaries sentenced to death were shot by a firing squad on 10 July 1976. The legal status of civilian contractors depends upon the nature of their work, on 4 December 1989, the United Nations passed resolution 44/34, the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use and Training of Mercenaries. It entered into force on 20 October 2001 and is known as the UN Mercenary Convention. Article 1 contains the definition of a mercenary, Article 1.1 is similar to Article 47 of Protocol I, however Article 1. – under Article 1.2 a person does not have to take a part in the hostilities in a planned coup détat to be a mercenary.
Critics have argued that the convention and APGC77 Art,47 are designed to cover the activities of mercenaries in post-colonial Africa and do not address adequately the use of private military companies by sovereign states. While the United States governed Iraq, no U. S. citizen working as a guard could be classified as a mercenary because he was a national of a Party to the conflict. S. However, those who acknowledge the United States and other forces as continuing parties to the conflict might insist that U. S. armed guards cannot be called mercenaries. The laws of countries forbid their citizens to fight in foreign wars unless they are under the control of their own national armed forces. If a person is proven to have worked as a mercenary for any other country while retaining Austrian citizenship, in 2003, France criminalized mercenary activities, as defined by the protocol to the Geneva convention for French citizens, permanent residents and legal entities
A union organizer is a specific type of trade union member or an appointed union official. A majority of unions appoint rather than elect their organisers, in most unions, the organisers role is to recruit groups of workers under the organizing model. In other unions, the role is largely that of servicing members and enforcing work rules. In some unions, organisers may take on roles such as making representations before Fair Work Australia, tribunals. In North America, a union organiser is a representative who organizes or unionizes non-union companies or worksites. Organisers primarily exist to assist non-union workers in forming chapters of locals, Organisers employ various methods to secure recognition by the employer as being a legitimate union, the ultimate goal being a collective bargaining agreement. The methods can be classified as being either top-down organizing or bottom-up organizing, top-down organizing focuses on persuading management through salesmanship or pressure tactics. The salesmanship may include offering access to such as to a well-trained and skilled supply of labor or access to union cartels. A strict enforcement of these laws might result in fines and might serve to hurt the chances in a competitive bidding process.
Top-down organizing is generally considered easier than bottom-up and is practiced more in the construction industry, bottom-up organizing focuses on the workers and usually involves a certification process, normally overseen by a labor relations board such as the NLRB in the U. S. The process entails either a secret ballot election or, in some cases, in either case, should a majority of the employees agree to union representation, the results bind the company to recognize and negotiate with the union. Normally, both sides are given a chance to campaign for or against unionization, though management has an advantage due to their greater access to the employees. It is in this electioneering model where the organiser really organizes, arranging meetings, devising strategy and it is from the pool of activists recruited to the organizing committee that the union typically draws its shop stewards. Though some mistake organizing as strictly being a recruitment effort, numerous obstacles emerge which require more than simple enlistment, during organizing, management has greater means to reward or punish workers, far overshadowing methods available to the union.
Nonetheless, such charges are hard to prove and the movement believes the entire process to be slanted against them in enforcement. Sometimes, organizing involves legal wrangling over issues such as voter eligibility, in such cases, issues are often settled by appeal to the Labor Board who serves, essentially, as a referee during the process. Intrigue during heated campaigns is not uncommon, in various cases, one or both sides have used spying and information-gathering techniques tantamount to industrial espionage. Organisers must be determined and persuasive individuals able to sway groups to action under trying circumstances when jobs are on the line, Organisers must be strong enough to stand up to constant confrontation and must be willing to take big risks
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
This strike finally ended some 45 days later, after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops. Because of economic problems and pressure on wages by the railroads, workers in other cities, in New York and Maryland, into Illinois and Missouri. An estimated 100 people were killed in the unrest across the country, in Martinsburg, Pittsburgh and other cities, workers burned down and destroyed both physical facilities and the rolling stock of the railroads - engines and railroad cars. Local populations feared that workers were rising in revolution such as the Paris Commune of 1871, at the time, the workers were not represented by labor unions. The city and state governments organized armed militias, aided by national guard, federal troops and private militias organized by the railroads, disruption was widespread and at its height, the strikes were supported by about 100,000 workers. With the intervention of troops in several locations, most of the strikes were suppressed by early August.
Labor continued to work to organize unions to work for better wages. Fearing the social disruption, many cities built armories to support their militias, with public attention on workers wages and conditions, the B&O in 1880 founded an Employee Relief Association to provide death benefits and some health care. In 1884 it established a pension plan. Other improvements generally had to labor organizing. The failure of the Jay Cooke bank in New York, was followed quickly by that of Henry Clews, unemployment rose dramatically, reaching 14 percent by 1876, many more were severely underemployed, and wages overall dropped to 45% of their previous level. Thousands of American businesses failed, defaulting on more than a billion dollars of debt, one in four laborers in New York were out of work in the winter of 1873-1874. National construction of new rail lines dropped from 7,500 miles of track in 1872 to just 1,600 miles in 1875, and production in iron and steel alone dropped as much as 45%. When the Civil War ended, a boom in construction ensued.
The railroads, the second largest employer outside of agriculture, required large amounts of capital investment, speculators fed large amounts of money into the industry, causing abnormal growth and over-expansion. Jay Cookes firm, like many other banking firms, invested a share of depositors funds in the railroads. In addition to Cookes direct infusion of capital in the railroads, in the wake of the Panic of 1873, a bitter antagonism between workers and the leaders of industry developed. Immigration from Europe was underway, as was migration of workers into the cities, increasing competition for jobs and enabling companies to drive down wages
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term crime does not, in criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition. The most popular view is that crime is a created by law, in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act not only to some individual. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law, the notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What precisely is an offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, the state has the power to severely restrict ones liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere, usually, to be classified as a crime, the act of doing something criminal must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the intention to do something criminal.
While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime, breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes, authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system, Legal sanctions vary widely in their severity, they may include incarceration of temporary character aimed at reforming the convict. Some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments, legal mutilation, usually a natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes, the sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between society and crime.
When Quinney states crime is a phenomenon he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning I decide, originally the Latin word crīmen meant charge or cry of distress. The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives, typically referred to a mistake or an offense against the community. In 13th century English crime meant sinfulness, according to etymonline. com and it was probably brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following, indictment, crime, the word may derive from the Latin cernere – to decide, to sift