Berkeley County, South Carolina
Berkeley County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 177,843, its county seat is Moncks Corner. After two previous incarnations of Berkeley County, the current county was created in 1882. Berkeley County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Berkeley County was established in 1682, it was named after co-owners of the Province of Carolina. It became part of the Charleston District in 1769, it did not exist as a District during most of the 19th century and was part of the Low Country culture. In 1882, following white Democrats' regaining control of the state legislature after the Reconstruction era, they established this as a county, with its seat at Mount Pleasant; the county seat was moved in 1895 to Moncks Corner. The Old Berkeley County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,229 square miles, of which 1,099 square miles is land and 130 square miles is water.
Georgetown County - east Williamsburg County - northeast Clarendon County - north Orangeburg County - northwest Dorchester County - west Charleston County - south Francis Marion National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 142,651 people, 49,922 households, 37,691 families residing in the county. The population density was 130 people per square mile. There were 54,717 housing units at an average density of 50 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.00% White, 26.63% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 1.87% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. 2.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.4% were of American, 10.0% German, 8.4% Irish and 7.7% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 49,922 households out of which 39.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 14.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.50% were non-families.
19.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 11.70% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 7.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,908, the median income for a family was $44,242. Males had a median income of $31,583 versus $22,420 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,879. About 9.70% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 177,843 people, 65,419 households, 47,141 families residing in the county.
The population density was 161.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 73,372 housing units at an average density of 66.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 66.5% white, 25.0% black or African American, 2.3% Asian, 0.6% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.8% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 65,419 households, 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 34.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,777 and the median income for a family was $56,869. Males had a median income of $40,534 versus $30,997 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,865. About 9.9% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
In addition to local municipal Police Departments, the entire county is protected by the Berkeley County Sheriff's Office. Headquartered in Moncks Corner, the Sheriff's Office is divided into many divisions: The Uniformed Patrol Division consists of four squads of deputies who alternately patrol the entire county in twelve-hour shifts, they respond to all calls dispatched by 911 operators. The Criminal Investigations Division is a division of trained detectives who investigate both violent and property crimes. Normal office hours are 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday, the designated detective on duty is available to respond in the evening and on weekends; the Narcotics Division investigates drug activity and is available to receive information 24 hours a day. They have a dedicated tip line available to receive anonymous tips; the Special Response Team consists of trained deputies who respond to crisis situations such as manhunts, armed robberies, hostage situations. They are activated by the Command Staff.
The team members are trained in hostage negotiations. Each patrol squad has trained canine, they are available to search for contraband, guns and missing persons. The Records Office is located in the Sheriff's Office and will provide copies of incident reports when requested in person; the Training Office is located at the Berkeley County Sheriff's Office. These facilities are used for training Berkel
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans within the present-day United States. Tribal territories and the slave trade ranged over present-day borders; some Native American tribes held war captives as slaves prior to and during European colonization, some Native Americans were captured and sold by others into slavery to Europeans, a small number of tribes, in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, adopted the practice of holding slaves as chattel property and held increasing numbers of African-American slaves. Pre-contact forms of slavery were distinct from the form of chattel slavery developed by Europeans in North America during the colonial period. European influence changed slavery used by Native Americans; as they raided other tribes to capture slaves for sales to Europeans, they fell into destructive wars among themselves, against Europeans. Many Native American tribes practiced some form of slavery before the European introduction of African slavery into North America.
Native American groups enslaved war captives whom they used for small-scale labor. Others however would stake themselves in gambling situations when they had nothing else which would put them into servitude for a short time in some cases for life. During times of famine some Native Americans would temporarily sell their children to obtain food. There were several differences between slavery as practiced in the pre-colonial era among Native Americans and slavery as practiced by Europeans after colonization. Whereas Europeans came to look upon slaves of African descent as being racially inferior, Native Americans took slaves from other Native American groups, therefore did not have the same racial ideology for their slavery. Native slaves could be looked down upon as ethnically inferior, however. Another difference was that Native Americans did not buy and sell captives in the pre-colonial era, although they sometimes exchanged enslaved individuals with other tribes in exchange for redeeming their own members.
In some cases, Native American slaves were allowed to live on the fringes of Native American society until they were integrated into the tribe. The word "slave" may not apply to such captive people; the ways in which captives were treated differed between Native American groups. Captives could be killed, or adopted. In some cases, captives were only adopted after a period of slavery. For example, the Iroquoian peoples adopted captives, but for religious reasons there was a process and many seasons when such adoptions were delayed until the proper spiritual times. In many cases, new tribes adopted captives to replace warriors killed during a raid. Warrior captives were sometimes made to undergo ritual mutilation or torture that could end in death as part of a spiritual grief ritual for relatives slain in battle. Adoptees were expected to fill the economic and familial roles of the departed loved ones, to fit into the societal shoes of the dead relative and maintain the spirit power of the tribe.
Captured individuals were sometimes allowed to assimilate into the tribe, would produce a family within the tribe. The Creek, who engaged in this practice and had a matrilineal system, treated children born of slaves and Creek women as full members of their mothers' clans and of the tribe, as property and hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line. In the cultural practices of the Iroquoian peoples rooted in a matrilineal system with men and women having equal value, any child would have the status determined by the woman's clan. More tribes took women and children captives for adoption, as they tended to adapt more into new ways. Several tribes held captives as hostages for payment. Various tribes practiced debt slavery or imposed slavery on tribal members who had committed crimes. Obtaining prisoners was a strong interest for Native American warriors as for the qualification of being considered brave this was an interest of male warriors in various tribes. Other slave-owning tribes of North America included Comanche of the Creek of Georgia.
When the Europeans made contact with the Native Americans, they began to participate in the slave trade. Native Americans, in their initial encounters with the Europeans, attempted to use their captives from enemy tribes as a "method of playing one tribe against another" in an unsuccessful game of divide and conquer; the Haida and Tlingit who lived along southeast Alaska's coast were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. In their society, slavery was hereditary after slaves were taken as prisoners of war—children of slaves were fated to be slaves themselves. Among some Pacific Northwest tribes, as many as one-fourth of the population were slaves, they were captured by raids on enemy tribes, or purchased on inter-tribal slave markets. Slaves would be killed in potlatches, to signify the owners' contempt for property; when Europeans arrived as colonists in North America, Native Americans changed their practice of slavery dramatically. Native Americans began selling war captives to Europeans rather than integrating them into their own societies as they had done before.
As the demand for labor in the West Indies grew with the cultivation of sugar cane, Europea
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
The UGM-73 Poseidon missile was the second US Navy nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile system, powered by a two-stage solid-fuel rocket. It succeeded the UGM-27 Polaris beginning in 1972, it was followed by Trident I in 1979, Trident II in 1990. A development study for a longer range version of the Polaris missile achieved by enlarging it to the maximum possible size allowed by existing launch tubes started in 1963. Tests had shown that Polaris missiles could be operated without problems in launch tubes that had their fiberglass liners and locating rings removed; the project was given the title Polaris B3 in November, but the missile was named Poseidon C3 to emphasize the technical advances over its predecessor. The C3 was the only version of the missile produced, it was given the designation UGM-73A. Longer and wider and heavier than Polaris A3, Poseidon had the same 4,600 kilometres range, greater payload capacity, improved accuracy, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle capability.
MIRV capacity has been given as up to either ten or fourteen W68 thermonuclear warheads contained in Mark 3 reentry vehicles to multiple targets. As with Polaris, starting a rocket motor when the missile was still in the submarine was considered dangerous. Therefore, the missile was ejected from its launch tube using high pressure steam produced by a solid-fueled boiler; the main rocket motor ignited automatically when the missile had risen 10 metres above the submarine. The first test launch took place on 16 August 1968, the first successful at-sea launch was from a surface ship, the USNS Observation Island, earning the ship the Meritorious Unit Commendation, the first test launch from a submarine took place on the USS James Madison on 3 August 1970; the weapon entered service on 31 March 1971. It equipped 31 Lafayette-, James Madison-, Benjamin Franklin-class submarines; the Royal Navy considered adopting Poseidon in the 1970s as an upgrade to its Polaris A3T boats, like the US this would have kept the existing hulls.
Although the Navy's favoured option, the British government instead adopted Chevaline, a two warhead MRV system with decoys, on the existing Polaris airframes and moved to the Trident D5 in new boats. Beginning in 1979, 12 Poseidon-equipped SSBNs were refitted with Trident I. By 1992, the Soviet Union had collapsed, 12 Ohio-class submarines had been commissioned, the START I treaty had gone into effect, so the 31 older Poseidon- and Trident I-armed SSBNs were disarmed, withdrawing Poseidon from service. United States United States Navy List of missiles
North Charleston, South Carolina
North Charleston is the third-largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, with incorporated areas in Berkeley and Dorchester counties. On June 12, 1972, the city of North Charleston was incorporated and was rated as the ninth-largest city in South Carolina; as of the 2010 Census, North Charleston had a population of 97,471, growing to an estimated population of 108,304 in 2015, with a current area of more than 76.6 square miles. As defined by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget, for use by the U. S. Census Bureau and other U. S. Government agencies for statistical purposes only, North Charleston is included within the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville metropolitan area and the Charleston-North Charleston urban area. North Charleston is one of the state's major industrial centers and is the state's top city in gross retail sales. From the 17th century until the Civil War, plantations cultivated commodity crops, such as rice and indigo; some of the plantations located in what is now North Charleston were: Archdale Hall Plantation – dating from 1680, Archdale Hall was located on the Ashley River.
By 1783, it had grown to 3,000 acres. Its primary crops were rice; the plantation was the longest family-owned plantation in South Carolina. It has since been redeveloped into the Archdale subdivision. Camp Plantation – dating from 1705, Camp Plantation covered around 1,000 acres. Elms Plantation – dating from 1682, Elms Plantation was founded by Ralph Izard, its principal crop was rice. It covered nearly 4,350 acres, stretching across parts of what are now the cities of Goose Creek and North Charleston. Charleston Southern University is located on part of the original plantation lands. French Botanical Garden – established between 1786 and 1796, this small plantation/garden area of 111 acres was owned and maintained by the French botanist André Michaux, it was closed by Michaux's son in 1803. The garden was located near what is today the Charleston International Airport, the parkway connecting Dorchester Road with International Boulevard is named in his honor. Marshlands, Mons Repos and Retreat plantations – the Retreat Plantation dates from 1672 and the Marshlands Plantation dates from 1682.
Mons Repos was developed around 1798. The land from all three plantations was acquired by the federal government for development of the Charleston Naval Base and Charleston Naval Shipyard; the Marshlands Plantation's main house has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. To preserve the house, it was moved in 1961 to land at Fort Johnson on James Island and is used as offices for the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. Oak Grove Plantation – dating from 1680, Oak Grove covered 960 acres along the Cooper River. By 1750, its owners had expanded the plantation to about 1,127 acres. Tranquil Hill Plantation – started in 1683, Tranquil Hill was known as White Hall Plantation, a name it would keep until 1773, its principal crop was rice. It encompassed about 526 acres. Since the late 20th century, it was redeveloped as the Whitehall residential subdivision. Windsor Hill Plantation – established in 1701, Windsor Hill was an inland rice plantation that covered nearly 1,348 acres.
General William Moultrie, victor at the Battle of Sullivan's Island in 1776 and governor from 1785–87 and 1792–94, was buried here. His remains were exhumed and reburied at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island in 1977; the Windsor Hill Plantation subdivision was developed on a portion of the eponymous plantation's property. The large plantations were subdivided into smaller farms in the late 19th century as the urban population began moving northward. Due to the large labor forces of enslaved African Americans who worked these properties for over two centuries, the population of Charleston County in 1870 was 73 percent black. After the Civil War, phosphate fertilizer plants were developed, with extensive strip mining occurring between the Ashley River and Broad Path; the main route for transportation of these phosphates became known as Ashley Phosphate Road. Since the early 20th century, the section of unincorporated Charleston County that became the city of North Charleston had been designated by Charleston business and community leaders as a place for development of industry and other business sites.
The first industry started in this area was the E. P. Burton Lumber Company. In 1901, the Charleston Naval Shipyard was established with agreements between the federal government and local Charleston city leaders. Shortly thereafter, the General Asbestos and Rubber Company built the world's largest asbestos mill under one roof. In 1912, a group of businessmen from the city of Charleston formed a development company that bought the E. P. Burton Lumber Company began to lay out an area for further development; the Park Circle area was one of the first to be designed and developed, allocating sections for industrial and residential usage. Park Circle was planned as one of only two English Garden Style communities in the US, most of the original planning concept remains today; some of the streets in the area still bear the names of these original developers: Durant, Mixon, O'Hear. During World War II, substantial development occurred as the military bases and industries expanded, increasing the personnel assigned there.
New residents moved to the region to be closer to their work. From World War II through the 1
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups