Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Hariprasad Chaurasia is an Indian music director and classical flutist, who plays the bansuri, an Indian bamboo flute, in the Hindustani classical tradition. Chaurasia was born in Prayagraj in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, his mother died when he was 6. He had to learn music without his father's knowledge, he did go to the Akhada and train with his father for some time, although he started learning music and practising at his friend's house. He has stated, I was not any good at wrestling. I went there only to please my father, but maybe because of the strength and stamina I built up I'm able to play the bansuri to this day. Chaurasia started learning vocal music from his neighbour, Rajaram, at the age of 15, he switched to playing the flute under the tutelage of Bholanath Prasanna of Varanasi for eight years. He joined the All India Radio, Odisha in 1957 and worked as a composer and performer. Much while working for All India Radio, he received guidance from the reclusive Annapurna Devi, daughter of Baba Allaudin Khan.
She only agreed to teach him. Another version is that she only agreed to teach him after he took the decision to switch from right-handed to left-handed playing to show her his commitment. In any case Chaurasia plays left-handed to this day. Apart from classical music, Hariprasad has collaborated with Shivkumar Sharma, forming a group called Shiv-Hari; the pair composed music for many popular movies, including Silsila and Chandni, created some popular songs. Pandit Chaurasia collaborated with Odia musician Bhubaneswar Mishra, forming the pair "Bhuban-Hari", the pair composed music for many Odia movies, creating numerous songs that were hugely popular in the state; these include Muje janena kaha baata. Pandit Chaurasia's nephew and pupil Rakesh Chaurasia is a accomplished flutist now, has been performing globally with such eminent maestros as Ustad Zakir Hussain, he serves as the artistic director of the World Music Department at the Rotterdam Music Conservatory in the Netherlands. He was the founder of the Vrindavan Gurukul in Mumbai and Vrindavan Gurukul in Bhubaneshwar.
Both of these institutes are schools dedicated to training students in bansuri in the Guru-shishya tradition. He has collaborated with several western musicians, including John McLaughlin, Jan Garbarek, Ken Lauber, has composed music for Indian films. Chaurasia played on The Beatles' 1968 B-side "The Inner Light", written by George Harrison. Chaurasia was married to Anuradha, he has three sons Vinay and Rajiv, five granddaughters and a single grandson. The 2013 documentary film Bansuri Guru features the life and legacy of Chaurasia and was directed by the musician's son Rajeev Chaurasia and produced by the Films Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Sangeet Natak Academy - 1984 Konark Samman - 1992 Padma Bhushan - 1992 Yash Bharati Samman - 1994 Padma Vibhushan - 2000 Pandit Chatur Lal Excellence Award - 2015 Hafiz Ali Khan Award - 2000 Dinanath Mangeshkar Award - 2000 Pune Pandit Award - 2008, by The Art & Music Foundation, India Akshaya Samman - 2009 Honorary Doctorate, North Orissa University - 2008 Honorary Doctorate, Utkal University - 2011 National Eminence award, NADA VIDYA BHARTI by Visakha Music and Dance Academy, Vizag - 2009 The 25 Greatest Global Living Legends In India by NDTV - 2013 Official biography "Woodwinds of Change" by Surjit Singh - 2008'Hariprasad Chaurasia and the Art of Improvisation', by Henri Tournier These are major albums released by Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia 1967Call of the Valley with Shivkumar Sharma and Brij Bhushan Kabra1978Krishnadhwani 601981Pt.
Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute1984Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute 1987Morning to Midnight Ragas - Morning Ragas1988Call of the Valley1989Venu Live in Ahmedabad'891990Immortal Series1991Megh Malhar1992Night Ragas Live in Amsterdam'92 Morning to Midnight Ragas - Afternoon Ragas All time Favourites Live from Sawai Gandharva Music Festival - Video Raga-s DU Nord Et Du Sud Immortal Series - Flute Fantasia1993Indian Classical Masters Daylight Ragas Flute - Hariprasad Chaurasia1994Thumri - The Music of Love In A Mellow Mood Possession Immortal Series - Devine Drupad Classic Greats1 - Ideas on Flute1995In Live Concert Cascades of Hindustani Music Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 4am to 7am Raga Bhairava: Integration Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 7am to 10am Raga Gurjari Todi: Compassion Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 10am to 1pm Raga Vrindavani Saranga: Greater Energy Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 1pm to 4pm Raga Multani: Affuence Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 4pm to 7pm Raga Marwa: Coherence Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 7pm to 10pm Raga Desh: Joy Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 10pm to 1am Raga Abhogi: Peaceful Slumber Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 1am to 4am Raga Sindhu Bhairavi: Gentleness Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute Malhar-Chandrika Music 157 - Live in London Music - Flute Great Jugalbandis Music from the world of OSHO - Above & Beyond Prem Yog Written on the Wind Romantic Themes Saptarishi - Live at Siri Fort The Mystical Flute of Hari Prasad Chaurasia Maestro's Choice Basant Bahar Chaurasia's Choice1996Hari Prasad Chaurasia & his Divine Flute Flute Recital Valley Recalls - In search of Peace and Harmony Krishna's
Dhamrai is an Upazila of Dhaka District in the Division of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Dhamrai Upazila is located about 40 kilometers north west of the capital city of Dhaka, it is one of the six Upazilas of Dhaka district. The Upazila is surrounded by the Upazilas of Mirzapur and Kaliakair and Nagarpur on the north, Singair on the south, Savar in the east and Saturia on the west. Dhamrai is located within the coordinates of 90.02 - 90.14E and 23.50 - 24.02E. The total area of Dhamrai Upazila is 307.4 km². It has 57,297 units of households; the Upazila consists of 16 unions and 398 villages. Dhamrai Upazila is composed of the alluvium soil of the Dholesshori rivers. Other rivers are Gazikhali. At the 1991 Bangladesh census, Dhamrai had a population of 312,777. Males constituted 50.37% of the population, females constituted 49.63%. The population of citizens 18 years and older was 163,449. Dhamrai had an average literacy rate of 29.5%, lower than the national average of 32.4%. The breakdown of Population is as follows: Total Population: 312,777.
Dhamrai was once under the Thana of Savar. Dhamrai became a Thana itself in 1914 during the British rule. In 1947 it was put under the district of Dhaka. On December 15, 1984 Dhamrai was upgraded into a full-fledged Upazila. Naming of Dhamrai: There are two versions of how the name of Dhamrai came about:- During the time of Asoka the Great there was a Buddhist "Dharmarajika" and the name became truncated and in time came to be known as Dhamrai; the discovery of a prehistoric Buddhist "stupa" in Savar, about 10 miles away from Dhamrai lends credence to this opinion. A famous Sufi saint, came to what is now Bangladesh, about eight hundred years ago with 360 companions. Legend has it that five of them came to Dhamrai area, sparsely populated and forested, they started leading a secluded life. Food supplies ran short and one day they found a stray cow wandering about, they used the meat to satisfy their hunger. After a few days a couple by the name of Dhama Gope and his wife Rai Goalini came and claimed that the cow was theirs.
They demanded compensation for the cow. The Sufis learnt, it is said that with their blessings a child was born to the couple and they said that they would name the place so that their names would forever be remembered. Thus the name Dhamrai came about; the total cultivable land is 23,470 hectares. Of the total cultivable land: 1 crop: 2,050 2 crop: 14,580 3 crop: 6,740 More than 3 crops: 100 Intensity of Cultivation: 220.83%Farmers by Land Occupancy: Landless: 11,755 Marginal: 10,670 Middle: 5,675 Big: 535Food Production: Total demand: 65,209 Actual production: 75,023 Total Surplus: 9,814 DHAMRAI ROTH JATRA AND FAIR:The annual Jagannath Roth Jatra is a famous Hindu festival attracting thousands of people. Dhamrai is well known for this annual festival all throughout Bangladesh. Roth jatra festival begins on around the 10 day of Bangla Calendar month of Ashar and "Ulto Roth" takes place one week after. A month-long Roth Maela is held in Dhamrai for this occasion; this commemorates the annual journey of Lord Jagannath, Lord Balarama, their sister Subhadra to their aunt's temple.
During the festival, devotees help pull the Lords' chariot with ropes. They risk their lives in the huge crowd; the huge processions accompanying the chariots play devotional songs with drums, trumpets etc. Children line the streets through which the chariot will add to the mass chorus; the Roth cart is 45 feet high and pulled by the pilgrims who turn up for the event. METAL CASTING:The main center for metal casting in Bangladesh is in Dhamrai. For many generations, this place has produced handmade metal ware for markets throughout Bangladesh, using the lost wax casting method and hollow casting method, over 2,000 years old; these methods are used to make items ranging from ornate Hindu and Buddhist statues to simple household objects such as pitchers and items include quality statues, bowls and plates. Over the past fifty years, many of the families in Bangladesh who have been involved in the metal casting trade have taken on other work. With stiff competition from inexpensive machine-made aluminum and plastic products coming in from India and other countries in the region, the market for hand-cast items has dwindled away.
As a result, the tradition of making handmade cast metal objects is in jeopardy. For example, there are only six people left in Bangladesh who are capable of making masterpiece-quality Hindu and Buddhist images using the lost wax method. Twenty years ago, there were over 30 craftsmen. If this trade is someday lost, an important part of Bangladesh's artistic tradition will vanish forever. Dhamrai is well known for pottery. NGOs working in Dhamrai: SOJAG: Works throughout Dhamrai and adjoining Upazilas of Mirzapur, Shaturia and Singair; the headquarters is at village Shailan under Shombhag Union. Grameen Choa: Located at Dhantara Bazar, Dhamrai SDI: Located at Dhamrai Bazar, Dhamrai There are 139 Government Primary schoo
Visva-Bharati University is a public central university located in Santiniketan, West Bengal. It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it Visva-Bharati, which means the communion of the world with India; until independence it was a college. Soon after independence, in 1951, the institution was given the status of a university and was renamed Visva-Bharati University; the English daily, The Nation, notes, "Using the money he received with his Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, the school was expanded and renamed Visva-Bharati University. It grew to become one of India's most renowned places of higher learning, with a list of alumni that includes Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen, globally renowned filmmaker Satyajit Ray and the country's leading art historian R. Siva Kumar, to name just a few." The origins of this eminent university date back to 1863 when Maharshi Debendranath Tagore, the zamindar of Silaidaha in East Bengal, was given a tract of land by Babu Sitikanta Sinha, the zamindar of Raipur, a neighbouring village not far from Bolpur and present-day Santiniketan and set up an ashram at the spot that has now come to be called chatim tala at the heart of the town.
The ashram was called Brahmacharya Ashram, renamed Brahmacharya Vidyalaya. It was established with a view to encouraging people from all walks of life to come to the spot and meditate. In 1901 his youngest son Rabindranath Tagore established a co-educational school inside the premises of the ashram. From 1901 onwards, Tagore used the ashram to organise the Hindu Mela, which soon became a centre of nationalist activity. Through the early twentieth century the zamindars of Surul, another neighbouring village, a few minutes by cycle from the Uttarayan Complex, the zamindars of Taltore, a village just north of the university town, continued to sell their lands and other properties to the ashram and the college, being built on this spot. On 23 December 1921, Tagore formally started the college with proceeds from the prize money of the Nobel Prize he received in 1913 for the publication of his book of poems Gitanjali; the college became a centre of Brahmo learning in this period. It was granted full university status in May 1951 by the government of independent India.
Rabindranath Tagore's eldest son, Rathindranath Tagore, became the first upacharya of the new university. Another member of the Tagore family who performed the role of upacharya was Indira Devi Chaudhurani, a niece of the poet. Rabindranath Tagore believed in open air education and had reservations about any teaching done within four walls; this was due to his belief. Tagore did not have a good opinion about the Western method of education introduced by the British in India. Tagore once said, "I do not remember what I was taught, I only remember what I learnt." Tagore's idea on education was that every person is genius and that all students may not bloom at the same time. So he devised a new system of learning in Visva-Bharati, he allowed students to continue their course till his teacher both are satisfied. At Visva-Bharati University, if a course demanded by a student is not available the university will design a course and bring teachers for that course; the university would not be bothered by the consideration of whether there is a demand for the course.
The high officials of the university include the paridarshaka and the upacharya. The paridarshaka of this university is the president of India, while the acharya is the prime minister; the university is run by its Karma Samity, chaired by the acharya. The institutes and departments are located in both Sriniketan; the university is divided into institutes, centres and schools. The respective departments are included in the institutes; the university's programmes dealing with its rich cultural heritage, as well as art and dance education, are funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The Cheena Bhavana was founded in April 1937 with the great vision of Tagore. Tagore invited Prof. Tan Yunshan to serve as the first chairperson of Cheena Bhavana. International scholars such as Jan Yun-hua worked at the Cheena Bhavana on topics ranging from Sino-Indian studies to Buddhism and Chinese philosophy. Chiang Kai-shek and Zhou Enlai donated a large number of Chinese books to the institute, making it one of the most important libraries for classical Chinese studies in India.
Darshan Bhavana: This department is well known for its research and teaching. Jiten Mohanty has been associated with the work of this department; the Kala Bhavana is arguably one of the most well-known of the departments, it boasts an well-known faculty and student body. It is most famous for the spread of Bengal School of Art. Abanindranath Tagore, one of India's most eminent artists was one of chief patrons. Luminaries such as Abanindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Binode Bihari Mukherjee, Ramkinkar Baij, Dinkar Kaushik, K. G. Subramanyan, A. Ramachandran and R. Siva Kumar have either taught or been students here while Beohar Rammanohar Sinha did both, studying 1946–51 and teaching 1953–56 and 1959–62. Palli Charcha Kendra Palli-Samgathana Vibhaga Palli Siksha Bhavana Rabindra Bhavana: Swapan Chakrabarty is the director of this institution. Sange
Sahitya Akademi Award
The Sahitya Academy Award is a literary honor in India, which the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, annually confers on writers of the most outstanding books of literary merit published in any of the major Indian languages recognised by the Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi. Established in 1954, the award comprises a plaque and a cash prize of ₹ 100000; the award's purpose is to recognize and promote excellence in Indian writing and acknowledge new trends. The annual process of selecting awardees runs for the preceding twelve months; the plaque awarded by the Sahitya Akademi was designed by the Indian film-maker Satyajit Ray. Prior to this, the plaque was made of marble, but this practice was discontinued because of the excessive weight. During the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965, the plaque was substituted with national savings bonds, they form the highest honor which the Akademi confers through a system of electing Fellows and Honorary Fellows.. Sahitya Akademy gives these special awards to writers for significant contribution to Indian languages other than the above 24 major ones and for contribution to classical & medieval literature.
Like the Sahitya Akademi Awards, Bhasha Samman too comprise a cash prize of Rs. 1,00,000The Sahitya Akademi instituted Bhasha Samman in 1996 to be given to writers, editors, performers or translators who have made considerable contribution to the propagation, modernization or enrichment of the languages concerned. The Samman carries a plaque along with an amount equal to its awards for creative literature i.e. rupees 1,00,000. It was Rs.25,000 at the time of inception, increased to Rs.40,000 from 2001, Rs.50,000 from 2003 and to Rs. 1,00,000 from 2009. The Sammans are given to 3-4 persons every year in different languages on the basis of recommendation of experts' committees constituted for the purpose; the first Bhasha Sammans were awarded in to Dharikshan Mishra for Bhojpuri, Bansi Ram Sharma and M. R. Thakur for Pahari, K. Jathappa Rai and Mandara Keshava Bhat for Tulu and Chandra Kanta Mura Singh for Kokborok, for their contribution to the development of their respective languages. Awards for translations were instituted in 1989 at the instance of then-Prime Minister of India, P. V. Narasimha Rao.
The Sahitya Akademi annually gives these awards for outstanding translations of major works in other languages into one of the 24 major Indian languages. The awards comprise a plaque and a cash prize of Rs. 50,000. The initial proposal for translation prizes contained provisions for a prize for translations into each of the twenty-two languages recognised by the Akademi; the Board decided to dispense with its original requirement for additional expert committees to evaluate the translations, ruled that it was not obligated to grant prizes in languages where suitable books were not nominated. The Akademi requires that both, the original author as well as the translator, are to be Indian nationals. Over time, the Akademi has expanded the conditions for the Translation Prizes. In 1992, the Akademi began to allow translations made in link languages to be eligible for the Awards, although it noted that translations made directly from the original language would always be preferred. In 1995, the Akademi held that joint translations would be eligible, in 1997, it dispensed with the process of advertising for nominations and replaced it with invitations for recommendations from advisory boards and Committee members.
As of 2002, 264 prizes have been awarded to 266 translators. Named after the Ceylon Tamil writer Ananda Coomaraswamy, the fellowship was started in 1996, it is given to scholars from Asian countries to spend 3 to 12 months in India to pursue a literary project. Named after Hindi writer Premchand, the fellowship was started in 2005, it is given to persons of eminence in the field of Culture from SAARC countries. The Akademi has seen several instances of Awards being declined as an act of protest. In 1973, G. A. Kulkarni returned the Award for his collection of short stories in Marathi, Kajal Maya, because a controversy had arisen regarding the date of publication of the book and its consequent eligibility for the Award. In 1969, Swami Anand declined the Award for contributions to Gujarati literature on the grounds that his religious beliefs precluded him from accepting any pecuniary benefits for public services. In 1981, Telugu writer V. R. Narla was given the Sahitya Akademi Award for his play, Sita Josyam, but returned it on the grounds that the Akademi had allowed an adverse review of the play to be published in their journal, Indian Literature.
In 1982, Deshbandhu Dogra Natan was given the Sahitya Akademi award for his Dogri novel, Qaidi but returned it on the grounds that he should have received the Award much earlier. In 1983, Gujarati writer Suresh Joshi returned the Award on the grounds that his book, Chintayami Manasa, did not, in his opinion, deserve the Award, expressed the opinion that the Award was granted to authors who were "spent forces"; this provoked a response from the then-President of the Akademi, Vinayaka Krishna Gokak, who said, concerning the awards that, "It is not possible to generalise on the basis of age. Nor can we expect the Akademi pan
University of Allahabad
The University of Allahabad, informally known as Allahabad University, is a public central university located in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. Established on 23 September 1887, it is the fourth oldest modern university in India, its origins lie in the Muir Central College, named after Lt. Governor of North-Western Provinces, Sir William Muir in 1876, who suggested the idea of a Central University at Allahabad now Prayagraj, which evolved to the present university. At one point it was called the "Oxford of the East". On 24 June 2005 its Central University status was restored through the University Allahabad Act 2005 of the Parliament of India; the foundation stone of the Muir Central College was laid by Governor-General of India, Lord Northbrook on 9 December 1873. The college was named after Sir William Muir, Lt. Governor of United Province, instrumental in its foundation; the building was designed by William Emerson, who designed Victoria Memorial in Kolkata and Crawford Market in Mumbai in a combination of Indo-Saracenic and Gothic styles.
It functioned under the University of Calcutta and on 23 September 1887, the University of Allahabad was established, making it the fifth university established in colonial India after Calcutta university, Bombay university, Madras university and Lahore's Punjab university. It began as an affiliating and examining body for graduate and postgraduate degrees with a classical orientation and the responsibility for secondary education as well. By 1904 the university established its own teaching departments and instituted doctoral research programs; the University Senate hall was opened by the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Hewett, in 1912. In 1921, with the promulgation of the'Allahabad University Act of 1921', the Muir Central College merged with the university, reorganized as a unitary teaching and residential university. Over the next few years its affiliated colleges were transferred to Agra University and the task of conducting secondary-level examinations was relocated. In 1951, the university recognized certain local institutions as Associated Colleges authorized to teach undergraduate courses under the faculties of Arts, Commerce and Law.
The university has had on its rolls a host of politicians and statesmen including one president and two vice-presidents of India, two former prime ministers, several union and state ministers, at least four chief justices of the Supreme Court, besides a large number of senior bureaucrats. In view of these achievements, as well as its position among the universities of Uttar Pradesh, the state government accorded it formal recognition in July 1992 as a ‘Premier Institution’. During the university's centenary celebrations in 1987 there were demands from students and employees for the granting of status as a Central University; the Government of India acceded to this and the university gained both Central status and recognition as an "Institution of National Importance" in May 2005. At that time, the University of Allahabad Act stipulated the constituent colleges of the university to be: The five faculties of Arts, Law and Science, Three university institutes — the Institute of Inter-Disciplinary Studies, the Institute of Professional Studies, the National Centre of Experimental Mineralogy and Petrology) and one independent university Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, One university college: the Motilal Nehru Medical College and Swarup Rani Nehru Hospital, Three constituent institutes: the Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute, the Harish Chandra Research Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics and the Kamla Nehru Post-graduate Medical Institute, Eleven local institutions.
There was much controversy related to the merger of the Motilal Nehru Medical College with the University. This has been resolved; the Honorable High Court of Allahabad passed an order directing that integration of the medical college with the university be completed by 1 October 2006. The affiliation of the S. P. Mukherjee Government Degree College with the University has yet to be finalised because of the objections raised by the Government of Uttar Pradesh. Harish Chandra Research Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics and Kamla Nehru Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Allahabad have sought to revoke their affiliation from the university; the same has been endorsed by the Executive Council of the University. The campus is spread around the city of Prayagraj across the area of Old Katra, it consists of major 5 faculties namely Science, commerce, management Faculties with the arts faculty housing the Administrative Block to Chatham Lines. It has numerous residential hostels for students.
The following colleges are constituent to Allahabad University: Allahabad Degree College Arya Kanya Degree College C. M. P. Degree College Ewing Christian College Hamidia Girls' Degree College Ishwar Saran Degree College Jagat Taran Girls' Degree College K. P Training College Rajarshi Tandon Girls' Degree College S. S. Khanna Girls Degree College S. P. M. Govt. Degree CollegeIt was announced by the college administration in 2017 that the students from constituent colleges can study Post-Graduate courses from the academic year 2018-19; the Muir Central College, Allahabad: its origin and completion, by William Henry Wright, published in 1985, Govt. Press, North-Western Provinces and Oudh. Materials and Motifs o
Amitabh Bachchan is an Indian film actor, film producer, television host, occasional playback singer and former politician. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s for films such as Zanjeer and Sholay, was dubbed India's "angry young man" for his on-screen roles in Bollywood. Referred to as the Shahenshah of Bollywood, Sadi ka Mahanayak, Star of the Millennium, or Big B, he has since appeared in over 190 Indian films in a career spanning five decades. Bachchan is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors in the history of Indian cinema as well as world cinema. So total was his dominance on the Indian movie scene in the 1970s and 1980s that the French director François Truffaut called him a "one-man industry". Beyond the Indian subcontinent, he has a large overseas following in markets including Africa, the Middle East, United Kingdom and parts of the United States. Bachchan has won numerous accolades in his career, including four National Film Awards as Best Actor and many awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies.
He has won fifteen Filmfare Awards and is the most nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 41 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter, he has hosted several seasons of the game show Kaun Banega Crorepati, India's version of the game show franchise, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. He entered politics for a time in the 1980s; the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1984, the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2015 for his contributions to the arts. The Government of France honoured him with its highest civilian honour, Knight of the Legion of Honour, in 2007 for his exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond. Bachchan made an appearance in a Hollywood film, Baz Luhrmann's The Great Gatsby, in which he played a non-Indian Jewish character, Meyer Wolfsheim. Bachchan was born in Allahabad, his ancestors on his father's side came from a village called Babupatti, in the Raniganj tehsil, in the Pratapgarh district, in the present-day state of Uttar Pradesh, in India.
His mother, Teji Bachchan,was a social activist and Punjabi Sikh woman from Lahore. His father Harivansh Rai Bachchan was a Hindi-speaking Kayastha Hindu poet, fluent in the related Hindustani dialects of Awadhi and Urdu. Bachchan was named Inquilaab, inspired by the phrase Inquilab Zindabad popularly used during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the boy's name to Amitabh, according to a Times of India article, means "the light that will never die". Although his surname was Shrivastava, Amitabh's father had adopted the pen name Bachchan, under which he published all of his works, it is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films and for all other practical purposes, Bachchan has become the surname for all of his immediate family. Bachchan's father died in 2003, his mother in 2007. Bachchan is an alumnus of Nainital, he attended Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi. He has Ajitabh, his mother had a keen interest in theatre and was offered a feature film role, but she preferred her domestic duties.
Teji had some influence in Amitabh Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should "take the centre stage". He is married to actress Jaya Bhaduri. Bachchan made his film debut in 1969, as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award-winning film Bhuvan Shome, his first acting role was as one of the seven protagonists in the film Saat Hindustani, directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Anwar Ali and Jalal Agha. Anand followed, his role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garnered Bachchan his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor award. He played his first antagonist role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwana. Following Parwana were several films including Reshma Aur Shera. During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri, he narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972 he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa directed by S. Ramanathan, moderately successful. Many of Bachchan's films during this early period did not do well, but, about to change.
Bachchan was struggling, seen as a "failed newcomer" who, by the age of 30, had twelve flops and only two hits. Bachchan was soon discovered by screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar. Salim Khan wrote the story and script of Zanjeer, conceived the "angry young man" persona of the lead role. Javed Akhtar came on board as co-writer, Prakash Mehra, who saw the script as groundbreaking, as the film's director. However, they were struggling to find an actor for the lead "angry young man" role. Salim-Javed soon discovered Bachchan and "saw his talent, he was exceptional, a genius actor, in films that weren’t good." According to Salim Khan, they "strongly felt that Amitabh was the ideal casting for Zanjeer". Salim Khan introduced Bachchan to Prakash Mehra, Salim-Javed insi