In Buddhism, the term parinirvana is used to refer to nirvana-after-death, which occurs upon the death of the body of someone who has attained nirvana during his or her lifetime. It implies a release from the karma and rebirth as well as the dissolution of the skandhas. In some Mahāyāna scriptures, notably the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, Parinirvāṇa is described as the realm of the eternal true Self of the Buddha. In the Buddhist view, when an ordinary person dies and their physical body disintegrates, the person's unresolved karma passes on to a new birth. However, when a person attains nirvana, they are liberated from karmic rebirth; when such a person dies, their physical body disintegrates and this is the end of the cycle of rebirth. Contemporary scholar Rupert Gethin explains: Eventually ‘the remainder of life’ will be exhausted and, like all beings, such a person must die, but unlike other beings, who have not experienced ‘nirvāṇa’, he or she will not be reborn into some new life, the physical and mental constituents of being will not come together in some new existence, there will be no new being or person.
Instead of being reborn, the person ‘parinirvāṇa-s’, meaning in this context that the five aggregates of physical and mental phenomena that constitute a being cease to occur. This is the condition of ‘nirvāṇa without remainder ’: nirvāṇa that comes from ending the occurrence of the aggregates of physical and mental phenomena that constitute a being. Modern Buddhist usage tends to restrict ‘nirvāṇa’ to the awakening experience and reserve ‘parinirvāṇa’ for the death experience. Accounts of the purported events surrounding the Buddha's own parinirvāṇa are found in a wide range of Buddhist canonical literature. In addition to the Pāli Mahāparinibbāna sutta and its Sanskrit parallels, the topic is treated in the Saṃyutta-nikāya and the several Sanskrit parallels, the Sanskrit-based Ekottara-āgama, other early sutras preserved in Chinese, as well as in most of the Vinayas preserved in Chinese of the early Buddhist schools such as the Sarvāstivādins and the Mahāsāṃghikas; the historical event of the Buddha's parinirvāṇa is described in a number of works, such as the Sanskrit Buddhacarita and the Avadāna-śataka, the Pāli Mahāvaṃsa.
According to Bareau, the oldest core components of all these accounts are just the account of the Buddha's parinirvāṇa itself at Kuśinagara and the funerary rites following his death. He deems all other extended details to be additions with little historical value; the parinirvana of the Buddha is described in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta. Because of its attention to detail, this Theravada sutta, though first committed to writing hundreds of years after his death, has been resorted to as the principal source of reference in most standard studies of the Buddha's life. In contrast to these works which deal with the Buddha's parinirvāṇa as a biographical event, the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra, which bears a similar name, was written hundreds of years later; the Nirvana Sutra does not give details of the historical event of the day of the parinirvāṇa itself, except the Buddha's illness and Cunda's meal offering, nor any of the other preceding or subsequent incidents, instead using the event as a convenient springboard for the expression of standard Mahayana ideals such as the tathagata-garbha / buddha-dhatu doctrine, the eternality of the Buddha, the soteriological fate of the icchantikas and so forth.
It has been suggested by Waddell that the site of the death and parinirvana of Gautama Buddha was in the region of Rampurva: "I believe that Kusīnagara, where the Buddha died may be found to the North of Bettiah, in the line of the Aśōka pillars which lead hither from Patna" in Bihar. It still awaits proper archaeological excavation. According to the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, the Buddha taught that parinirvāṇa is the realm of the Eternal, the Self, the Pure. Dr. Paul Williams states that it depicts the Buddha using the term "Self" in order to win over non-Buddhist ascetics. However, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra is a long and composite Mahayana scripture, the part of the sutra upon which Williams is basing his statement is a portion of the Nirvana Sutra of secondary Central Asian provenance - other parts of the sutra were written in India. Guang Xing speaks of how the Mahayanists of the Nirvana Sutra understand the mahaparinirvana to be the liberated Self of the eternal Buddha: One of the main themes of the MMPS is that the Buddha is eternal...
The Mahayanists assert the eternity of the Buddha in two ways in the MMPS. They state that the Buddha is the dharmakaya, hence eternal. Next, they reinterpret the liberation of the Buddha as mahaparinirvana possessing four attributes: eternity, happiness and purity. Only in Mahaparinirvana is this True Self held to be discernible and accessible. Kosho Yamamoto cites a passage in which the Buddha admonishes his monks not to dwell inordinately on the idea of the non-Self but to meditate on the Self. Yamamoto writes: Having dwelt upon the nature of nirvana, the Buddha now explains its positive aspect and says that nirvana has the four attributes of the Eternal, the Self, the Pure... the Buddha says: "O you bhiksus! Do not abide in the thought of the non-eternal, non-Self, the not-pure and have things as in the case of those people who take the stones, wooden pieces and gravel for the true gem... In every sit
Gorakhpur is a city located along the banks of the Rapti river in the north-eastern part of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located near the Nepal border, 273 kilometres east of the state capital Lucknow, it is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur Gorakhpur division. The city is home to a Gorakshanath temple; the name "Gorakhpur" comes from the Sanskrit Gorakshapuram, which means abode of Gorakshanath, a renowned ascetic, a prominent saint of the Nath Sampradaya. Gorakhpur is one of the flood vulnerable districts in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Data over the past 100 years show a considerable increase in the intensity and frequency of floods, with extreme events occurring every three to four years. 20% of the population is affected by floods, which are an annual occurrence in some areas, causing huge loss of life and livelihoods for the poor inhabitants, as well as damage to public and private property. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". Gorakhpur is connected through Gorakhpur railway station.
The station offers Class A-1 railway station facilities. On 6 October 2013, Gorakhpur has the world's Longest Railway platform, after inauguration of the remodelled Gorakhpur Yard, with a stretch of around 1.36 kilometres. Gorakhpur is the headquarters of North Eastern Railways. An airforce station in Gorakhpur was extended for public transport. Named Mahayogi Gorakhnath Airport. Gorakhpur has 2 universities named Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University and Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, two medical college named Baba Raghav Das Medical College and AIIMS and a sports college named Veer Bahadur Singh Sports College. Yogi Adityanath, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Shakir Ali, barrister Leopold Amery, British Cabinet Minister Ram Upendra Das, economist Amrapali Dubey, actress Ravi Dubey, actor Mahmood Farooqui Indian writer and director Firaq Gorakhpuri,writer. Narendra Hirwani, international cricket player Anurag Kashyap, filmmaker Syed Modi, badminton player, winner of Arjuna Award Raghupati Sahay, critic Asit Sen, Bollywood actor Jimmy Shergill, actor Saurabh Shukla, actor Shri prakash shukla,Indian contract killer Kedarnath Singh, critic Lilavati Singh, educator Vir Bahadur Singh, Former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.
Paramahansa Yogananda, Yoga guru, founder of Self-Realization Fellowship/Yogoda Satsanga Society of India. Captain Mahendra Nath Mulla, Officer of the Indian Navy. Kafeel Khan, lecturer at BRD medical college Gorakhpur Cantonment railway station Ramgarh Tal Lake Deoria District
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Awadh, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5. Its inhabitants are referred to as Awadhis, it was established as one of the twelve original subahs under 16th-century Mughal emperor Akbar and became a hereditary tributary polity around 1722, with Ayodhya as its initial capital and Saadat Ali Khan as its first Subadar Nawab and progenitor of a dynasty of Nawabs of Awadh. The traditional capital of Awadh was Faizabad, but the capital was moved to Lucknow the station of the British Resident, which now is the capital of Uttar Pradesh. Nepalgunj now is the capital of Province No. 5 of Nepal. Presently, Awadh geographically includes the districts of Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar,Faizabad, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Pratapgarh, Shravasti, Siddharth Nagar, Sultanpur, Kanpur, Kanpur Dehat, Fatehpur and Allahabad from Lower Doab, it includes a few district of Province No. 5 of Nepal.
The region is home to a distinct dialect, spoken by Awadhis. Awadh, known because of Lucknow and because of shashikant the granary of India, was important strategically for the control of the Doab, a fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers, it was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. Awadh's political unity can be traced back to the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala, with Ayodhya as its capital. Modern Awadh finds historical mention only in the late 16th century. In prehistoric times, reputedly the kingdom of Bikukshi, contained five main divisions: Uttara Kosala or the trans-Ghaghra districts, now known as Bahraich, Gonda and Gorakhpur. Silliana, consisting of lower range of hills to the north of Uttara Kosala, now belonging to Nepal, with the Tarai at its base. Pachhimrath, which may be described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti west to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur; this division included about third of present district of Faizabad, a small portion of the north of Sultanpur, greater part of Barabanki, sections of the Lucknow and Sitapur districts.
Purabrath, which may be described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti east to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur. This division included about two-thirds of present district of Faizabad, the north-eastern corner of Sultanpur, parts of Mirzapur district, Pratapgarh District and Jaunpur. Arbar, extended soutwards Gomti to the Sai river. Since AD 1350 different parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, East India Company and the British Raj. Kanpur was one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857, participated in India's Independence movement, emerged as an important city of North India. For about eighty-four years, Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Jehangir granted an estate in Awadh to a nobleman, Sheik Abdul Rahim, who had won his favour. Sheik Abdul Rahim built Machchi Bhawan in this estate; until 1719, the Subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire, administered by a Nazim or Subah Nawab appointed by the Emperor.
Nawab –the plural of the Arabic word'Naib', meaning'assistant'– was the term given to subahdars appointed by the Mughal emperor all over India to assist him in managing the Empire. In the absence of expeditious transport and communication facilities, they were independent rulers of their territory and wielded the power of life and death over their subjects. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow; the Nawabs of Lucknow were in fact the Nawabs of Awadh, but were so referred to because after the reign of the third Nawab, Lucknow became the capital of their realm, where the British station Residents from 1773. The city was North India's cultural capital. Under them music and dance flourished, many monuments were erected. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.
From the pre-historic period to the time of Akbar, the limits of the subah and its internal divisions seem to have been changing, the name of Oudh, or Awadh, seems to have been applicable to only one of the ancient divisions or Sarkars, nearly corresponding to old Pachhimrath. The title of Subehdar of Awadh is mentioned as early as 1280 AD, but it can only have denoted the governor of the tract of the country above defined; the Awadh of Mughal Badshah Akbar was one of the twelve subahs into which he divided the Mughal Empire as it stood in 1590. As constituted at the end of the sixteenth century, the Subah contained five sarkars, viz. Awadh, Bahraich and Gorakhpur, which in turn were divided
West Rapti River
West Rapti drains Rapti Zone in Mid-Western Region, Nepal Awadh and Purvanchal regions of Uttar Pradesh state, India before joining the Ghaghara -- a major left bank tributary of the Ganges known as the Karnali inside Nepal. The West Rapti is notable for janajati ethnic groups – Kham Magar among its highland sources and Tharu in Inner Terai Deukhuri Valley, for its irrigation and hydroelectric potential, for recurrent floods that led to its nickname "Gorakhpur's Sorrow"; the Rapti rises south of a prominent E-W ridgeline midway between the western Dhaulagiri Himalaya and the Mahabharat Range. A 3,500 metres summit on this ridgeline marks a triple divide. North of the triple divide the Gandaki basins are adjacent. After crossing into India, the Babai and Rapti separately join the Karnali's continuation called Ghaghara; the Ghaghara joins the Ganges. The Rapti's headwaters descend south from rugged highlands populated by Kham Magar; the western tributary Mādī Kholā rises in northwestern Rolpa and is joined by Lungrī Kholā draining northeastern Rolpa.
The Mardi crosses into Pyuthan. It is joined by east-flowing Arun Kholā at Devithān where it enters a gorge through the Mahabharat Range. Jhimruk Kholā -- east of the Mardi—mainly drains Pyuthan. Below the upper highlands, an alluvial valley opens where Bahun and Chhetri rice farmers irrigate paddy fields. At Cherneta, Pyuthan the Jhimruk approaches within 1.5 km of the Mardi and a 12 megawatt hydroelectric plant exploits the Jhimruk being 200 meters higher. Below Cherneta the Jhimruk loops east, becoming the border between Pyuthan and Arghakhanchi District, its valley steepens as it enters the Mahabharat Range. Partway through it joins the Mardi and the combined flow is named the Rapti; the main river emerges from its gorge into Dang District. At Bhalubang Bazaar Nepal's east-west Mahendra Highway bridges the river. Below Bhalubang, Inner Terai Deukhuri Valley opens between the Dang and Dudhwa Ranges, both subranges of the Siwaliks. Valley, following the WNW trend of the Siwalik hills for 100 km.
Although the land is fertile, before DDT came into use in the 1950s Deukhuri was so malarial that only the Tharu people who had genetic resistance could be confident of surviving the warmer months. The river crosses from Dang into Banke District. Approaching Nepalganj—largest town in Nepal's western Terai—the Dudhwa Hills fall away and the river turns SE, crossing into Uttar Pradesh and flowing through districts Shravasti, Siddharth Nagar, Sant Kabir Nagar and Gorakhpur, passing Gorakhpur city at about 135 air miles from Nepal. Just west of the city it is joined by the smaller Rohini rising further east in Nepal's Nawalparasi and Rupandehi Districts, draining 794 km2 in Nepal 1892 km2 in India. 60 km beyond Gorakhpur the Rapti joins the Ghaghara at Rajpur. About 120 km further on at Chhapra, the Ghaghara reaches the Ganges. Aciravati, Achirvati or Airavati is the ancient name for a river has been identified with the modern Rapti, flowing through what is now Nepal and the northern portion of Uttar Pradesh.
The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang knew it as A-chi-lo. Jain texts mention it as Eravai; the ancient city of Sravasti, once capital of Kosala Kingdom, stood on the western bank of the Achirvati. The river was a tributary of the Sarayu, it was one of the five great rivers that constituted the Ganges group of rivers and one of the sacred rivers of the Buddhist midland. The Rapti's flow has great seasonal variation because the river lacks sources in high elevation glaciers and snowfields to buffer pre-monsoon drought. Average monthly flows at Jalkundi in Deukhuri Valley vary from 17.6 m3/s in pre-monsoon April to 451 m3/s at the peak of the monsoon in August. Maximum recorded flood was 7,390 m3/s on 10 September 1981. 100-year flood flows are predicted at 10,100 m3/s. Over 700,000 acres in Uttar Pradesh are at risk of floods every year. Flood control projects under study include a dam at Jalkundi that would inundate 71,000 acres of farmland in Deukhuri Valley. An alternative dam site is upstream at Naumure on the Pyuthan-Dang district border.
This would be an earthen dam 169 m high with 351 million cubic meters live storage capacity, storing excess monsoon flows for irrigation use during the following dry season and generating up to 207 megawatts. Impoundment would be in gorges through the Mahabharat Range, inundating less farmland than the Jalkundi alternative. Plans are underway for three irrigation sub-projects – Kapilvastu District 30,500 hectares involving interbasin water transfer to the southeast, Deukhuri Valley 9,500 hectares, Banke District 40,000 hectares
Ghaghara called Karnali is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar. It joins the Sharda River at Brahmaghat in India. Together they form a major left bank tributary of the Ganges. With a length of 507 kilometres it is the longest river in Nepal; the total length of Ghaghara River up to its confluence with the Ganges at Revelganj in Bihar is 1,080 kilometres. It is the largest tributary of the Ganges by volume and the second longest tributary of the Ganges by length after Yamuna. Lower Ghaghara is known as Sarayu river and finds mention in Ramayana. Ayodhya is situated on its right bank, it rises in the southern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet, in the glaciers of Mapchachungo, at an elevation of about 3,962 metres above sea level. The river flows south through one of the most remote and least explored areas of Nepal as the Karnali River; the 202-kilometre Seti River drains the western part of the catchment and joins the Karnali River in Doti District north of Dundras hill.
Another tributary, the 264-kilometre long Bheri, rises in the western part of Dhaulagiri Himalaya and drains the eastern part of the catchment, meeting the Karnali near Kuineghat in Surkhet. Cutting southward across the Siwalik Hills, it splits into two branches, the Geruwa on the left and Kauriala on the right near Chisapani to rejoin south of the Indian border and form the proper Ghaghara. Other tributaries originating in Nepal are the Kali and the little Gandak, it flows southeast through Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states to join the Ganges downstream of the town of Chhapra, after a course of 1,080 kilometres. Sarayu river is stated to be synonymous as a tributary of it. Karnali River exposes the oldest part of the Sivalik Hills of Nepal; the remnant magnetization of siltstones and sandstones in this group suggests a depositional age of between 16 million and 5.2 million years. The Karnali River Basin lies between the mountain ranges of Dhaulagiri in Nepal and Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand. Dhaulagiri II, elevation 7,751 metres, is the highest point of the entire basin.
In the north, it lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas. The basin formed by the river has a total catchment area of 127,950 square kilometres, of which 45 percent is in India; the population of the Basin districts in Nepal increased from 1.9 million in 1971 to 4.7 million people in 2001 a 250% increase over three decades. The average population density of the Basin area increased from 53 persons/km2 in 1981 to 87 persons/km2 in 2001. There is a steady growth in the economically active population in the basin districts; the average literacy rate has increased from a mere 7.5% in 1971 to 45% in 2001. The social status of the permanent households increased from 24% in 1991 to 31% in 2001; the basin has a total road length of 2,640 kilometres. Chhoti Gandak is a groundwater-fed meandering river originating near Dhesopool, Maharajganj district of Uttar Pradesh, it travels a distance of about 250 kilometres and joins Ghaghara near Guthani, Siwan district of Bihar. The Chhoti Gandak River Basin is located between 26°00' to 27°20' N latitude and 83°30' to 84°15' E longitude.
Right bank tributaries are Khekhra, Jethan, Duhari and Koilar rivers. The discharge of Chhoti Gandak is controlled by rain, high during the monsoon season and low during the summers, it has been observed that whenever precipitation is high in the catchment areas, there is flood in the downstream part of the Chhoti Gandak River Basin. The region exhibits upland terrace surface, river valley terrace surface, present-day river channel with narrow flood plains, natural levee, point-bar deposits. All these geomorphic features made up of alluvium of different ages; the main tributaries of the Karnali are: the Bheri. In Nepal, Karnali Zone is the largest zone with about 5,000 square miles area, its administrative center is Jumla. The zone is divided into the five districts of Dolpa, Jumla and Mugu; the Karnali zone has the lowest population density in Nepal. There are no large settlements on the banks of the river, only crossed near Chisapani by the Mahendra Highway; this region is now connected by karnali highway.
And now due to various hydro electricity projects this area is being developed. Now a 900 mW project is going to be constructed in this river In India, the administrative districts in the Ghaghra catchment are Ambedkarnagar, Barabanki, Ballia, Deoria, Gonda, Sant Kabir Nagar, Kheri Lakhimpur, Sitapur of Uttar Pradesh and Siwan district in Bihar. Important towns in India include Akabarpur, Ayodhya Faizabad, Barabanki, Deoria, Gonda, Khaililabad, Siddharthnagar, Saint Kabir Nagar, Kamhariya and Tanda in Uttar Pradesh and Chapra and Sonepur in Bihar; the Karnali Basin hosts some of Nepal's famous national parks. The protected area constitutes nearly 14% of the total basin area, including four national parks, one wildlife reserve, one hunting reserve and two buffer zones; the basin and its influence area constitute 27% of the total protected area, 63% of national park, 25% of the buffer zone and 31% of wildlife reserve. The significance of some of the protected areas is summarised below: Shey Phoksundo National Park in Dolpa District, established in
Purvanchal is a geographic region of northern India that coincides with the Bhojpuri region. It comprises the eastern end of Uttar Pradesh and the western end of Bihar, where Hindi, its dialects Bhojpuri and Awadhi, to a lesser extent, are spoken, it is bounded by Nepal to the north, the Indian state of Bihar to the east, Bagelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh state to the south, the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh to the west and the end of Lower Doab in Uttar Pradesh to its southwest. The name Purvanchal is derived from two Hindi word Puruv and Anchal which means'the eastern part of a region' or'East zone'. Purvanchal consists of 4 divisions: the eastern Awadhi region in the west, the western Bhojpuri region in the east, the Baghelkhand region in the south, the Nepal region in the north. Varanasi Airport Gorakhpur Airport Ram Lala Airport Ayodhya Gautam Buddha kushinagar international airport Azamgarh Airstrip Ballia Airstrip Maharajganj Airstrip Sarasvati Airstrip Kushinagar Airstrip Faizabad Airstrip Renukoot Airstrip Mirzapur Airstrip Akbarpur Airstrip Gauri ganj Airstrip Sultanpur Airstrip Gonda Airstrip Balrampur Airstrip Sarasvati Airstrip Basti Airstrip kushan Airstrip It lies on the Indo-Gangetic plain, together with western Bihar is the most densely populated area in the world.
The rich quality of its soil and the high earthworm density in the soil as opposed to adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh makes the region favourable for agriculture. Most of the countryside is given to intensive agriculture. Bhojpuri is the predominant language or dialect in the region, in addition to Hindi, although Awadhi and Baghelkhandi are spoken in the western and southern areas. Like Bihar state to the east, a large population, slow economic growth, agricultural mechanisation, the closure of sugar mills have led to increased unemployment and political discontent, some unrest in the region. Purvanchal is one of the most ancient regions of India and enjoys a rich heritage and culture because of its association with cities like Varanasi, Gorakhpur etc. A major religious hub in India, it is one of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, played an important role in the development of Buddhism. Hindu population is 94.73% of total population. Ayodhya population 640,189 Gorakhpur population 641,234 Varanasi population 12,456,56 Banaras Hindu University is a Central University in Purvanchal.
It evolved out of the Central Hindu College of Varanasi, set up by Annie Besant — a colorful British woman of Irish descent — who joined hands with Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya in April 1911 for a common Hindu university at Varanasi. Indian Institute of Technology, Varanasi is an Institute of National Importance in Purvanchal, it is one of the 16 prestigious Indian Institutes of Technology. It was established in 1919 by the visionary Mahamana Pandit Mohan Malviya and has been ranked among the top 10 technical institutes of India. A Government Degree College was set up by the Government of Uttar Pradesh, for providing higher education to scholars who are interested in course work and programs of higher studies. At present, 137 Government Degree Colleges have been established by the state government to fulfill above criteria; the UP government administers and controls these colleges through Department of Higher Education, Uttar Pradesh and follows the norms and regulations of University Grants Commission, New Delhi.
Http://www.epurvanchal.com Purvanchal Website