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Gordon (slave)

Gordon, or "Whipped Peter", was an enslaved African American who escaped from a Louisiana plantation in March 1863, gaining freedom when he reached the Union camp near Baton Rouge. He became known as the subject of photographs documenting the extensive scarring of his back from whippings received in slavery. Abolitionists distributed these carte de visite photographs of Gordon throughout the United States and internationally to show the abuses of slavery. In July 1863 these images appeared in an article about Gordon published in Harper's Weekly, the most read journal during the Civil War; the pictures of Gordon's scourged back provided Northerners with visual evidence of brutal treatment of slaves and inspired many free blacks to enlist in the Union Army. Gordon joined the United States Colored Troops soon after their founding, served as a soldier in the war. Gordon escaped in March 1863 from the 3,000-acre plantation of John and Bridget Lyons, who owned him and nearly forty other slaves at the time of the 1860 census.

The Lyons plantation was located along the west bank of the Atchafalaya River in St. Landry Parish, between present-day Melville and Krotz Springs, Louisiana. In order to mask his scent from the bloodhounds that were chasing him, Gordon took onions from his plantation, which he carried in his pockets. After crossing each creek or swamp, he rubbed his body with these onions in order to throw the dogs off his scent, he fled over 40 miles over the course of ten days before reaching Union soldiers of the XIX Corps who were stationed in Baton Rouge. Pherson and his partner Mr. Oliver, who were in camp at the time, produced carte de visite photos of Gordon showing his back. During the examination, Gordon is quoted Ten days from to-day I left the plantation. Overseer Artayou Carrier whipped me. I was two months in bed sore from the whipping. My master come. My master was not present. I don't remember the whipping. I was two months in bed sore from the whipping and my sense began to come – I was sort of crazy.

I tried to shoot everybody. They said so, I did not know. I did not know. I burned up all my clothes. I never was this way before. I don't know. My master come, they told me. My master's Capt. JOHN LYON, cotton planter, on Atchafalya, near Washington, Louisiana. Whipped two months before Christmas. Gordon joined the Union Army as a guide three months after the Emancipation Proclamation allowed for the enrollment of freed slaves into the military forces. On one expedition, he was taken prisoner by the Confederates, he once more escaped to Union lines. Gordon soon afterwards enlisted in a U. S. Colored Troops Civil War unit, he was said to have fought bravely as a sergeant in the Corps d'Afrique during the Siege of Port Hudson in May 1863. It was the first time; the Atlantic's editor-in-chief James Bennet in 2011 noted, "Part of the incredible power of this image I think is the dignity of that man. He's posing, his expression is indifferent. I just find that remarkable. He's saying,'This is a fact.'""I have found a large number of the four hundred contrabands examined by me to be badly lacerated as the specimen represented in the enclosed photograph."—J.

W. Mercer, Asst. Surgeon 47th Massachusetts Volunteers, report to Colonel L. B. Marsh, Camp Parapet, Louisiana, 4 August 1863 In the 2012 film Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln's son Tad views a glass plate of Gordon's medical examination photo by candlelight. "Copy photograph of Gordon, a runaway slave". Yale University Library Catalog. 1863. Retrieved September 24, 2014. Silkenat, David. ""A Typical Negro": Gordon, Vincent Coyler, the Story Behind Slavery's Most Famous Photograph". American Nineteenth Century History. 15: 169–186. Doi:10.1080/14664658.2014.939807. Edwards, Ron. "The Whipping Scars On The Back of The Fugitive Slave Named Gordon". US Slave Blog. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Goodyear III, Frank. "The Scourged Back: How Runaway Slave and Soldier Private Gordon Changed History". America's Black Holocaust Museum. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015. Paulson Gage, Joan. "A Slave Named Gordon". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Paulson Gage, Joan. "Icons of Cruelty".

The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Bostonian. "The Realities of Slavery". New-York Daily Tribune. P. 4. Retrieved June 27, 2015

View (Buddhism)

View or position is a central idea in Buddhism. In Buddhist thought, a view is not a simple, abstract collection of propositions, but a charged interpretation of experience which intensely shapes and affects thought and action. Having the proper mental attitude toward views is therefore considered an integral part of the Buddhist path, as sometimes correct views need to be put into practice and incorrect views abandoned, sometimes all views are seen as obstacles to enlightenment. Views are produced in turn produce mental conditioning, they are symptoms of conditioning, rather than neutral alternatives individuals can dispassionately choose. The Buddha, according to early texts, having attained the state of unconditioned mind, is said to have "passed beyond the bondage, greed, acceptance and lust of view."Those who wish to experience nirvana must free themselves from everything binding them to the world, including philosophical and religious doctrines. Right view as the first part of the Noble Eightfold Path leads not to the holding of correct views, but to a detached form of cognition.

The term "right view" or "right understanding" is about having a correct attitude towards one's social and religious duties. This is explained from the perspective of the cycle of rebirth. Used in an ethical context, it entails that our actions have consequences, that death is not the end, that our actions and beliefs have consequences after death, that the Buddha followed and taught a successful path out of this world and the other world. Originating in the pre-Buddhist Brahmanical concerns with sacrifice rituals and asceticism, in early texts the Buddha shifts the emphasis to a karmic perspective, which includes the entire religious life; the Buddha further describes such right view as beneficial, because whether these views are true or not, people acting on them will be praised by the wise. They will act in a correct way. If the views do turn out to be true, there is a next world after death, such people will experience the good karma of what they have done when they were still alive; this is not to say that the Buddha is described as uncertain about right view: he, as well as other accomplished spiritual masters, are depicted as having "seen" these views by themselves as reality.

Although devotees may not be able to see these truths for themselves yet, they are expected to develop a "pro-attitude" towards them. Moral right view is not just considered to be adopted, however. Rather, the practitioner endeavors to live following right view, such practice will reflect on the practitioner, will lead to deeper insight into and wisdom about reality. According to Indologist Tilmann Vetter, right view came to explicitly include karma and Rebirth, the importance of the Four Noble Truths, when "insight" became central to Buddhist soteriology; this presentation of right view still plays an essential role in Theravada Buddhism. A second meaning of right view is an initial understanding of points of doctrine such as the Four Noble Truths, not-self and Dependent Origination, combined with the intention to accept those teachings and apply them to oneself. Thirdly, a "supramundane" right view is distinguished, which refers to a more refined, intuitive understanding produced by meditative practice.

Thus, a gradual path of self-development is described, in which the meaning of right view develops. In the beginning, right view can only lead to a good rebirth, but at the highest level, right view can help the practitioner to attain to liberation from the cycle of existence. Buddhist Studies scholar Paul Fuller believes that although there are differences between the different levels of right view, all levels aim for emotional detachment; the wisdom of right view at the moral level leads to see the world without greed and delusion. Misunderstanding objects as self is not only seen as a form of wrong view, but as a manifestation of desire, requiring a change in character; the Buddha of the early discourses refers to the negative effect of attachment to speculative or fixed views, dogmatic opinions, or correct views if not known to be true by personal verification. In describing the diverse intellectual landscape of his day, he is said to have referred to "the wrangling of views, the jungle of views".

He assumed an unsympathetic attitude toward religious thought in general. In a set of poems in the early text Sutta Nipata, the Buddha states that he himself has no viewpoint. According to Steven Collins, these poems distill the style of teaching, concerned less with the content of views and theories than with the psychological states of those who hold them. Identity view Sammaditthi Sutta Kalama Sutta The Blind Men and the Elephant Dogma Collins, Selfless persons: imagery and thought in Theravāda Buddhism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-39726-X Fuller, The Notion of Diṭṭhi in Theravāda Buddhism: The Point of View, Routledge Velez de Cea, J. Abraham, The Buddha and Religious Diversity, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-135-10039-1 Vetter, The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, Brill, ISBN 90-04-08959-4 Canki Sutta, early discourse on views in Buddhism Wei-hsün Fu, Charles.

Levinson recursion

Levinson recursion or Levinson–Durbin recursion is a procedure in linear algebra to recursively calculate the solution to an equation involving a Toeplitz matrix. The algorithm runs in Θ time, a strong improvement over Gauss–Jordan elimination, which runs in Θ; the Levinson–Durbin algorithm was proposed first by Norman Levinson in 1947, improved by James Durbin in 1960, subsequently improved to 4n2 and 3n2 multiplications by W. F. Trench and S. Zohar, respectively. Other methods to process data include Schur Cholesky decomposition. In comparison to these, Levinson recursion tends to be faster computationally, but more sensitive to computational inaccuracies like round-off errors; the Bareiss algorithm for Toeplitz matrices runs about as fast as Levinson recursion, but it uses O space, whereas Levinson recursion uses only O space. The Bareiss algorithm, though, is numerically stable, whereas Levinson recursion is at best only weakly stable. Newer algorithms, called asymptotically fast or sometimes superfast Toeplitz algorithms, can solve in Θ for various p. Levinson recursion remains popular for several reasons.

Matrix equations follow the form: M x → = y →. The Levinson–Durbin algorithm may be used for any such equation, as long as M is a known Toeplitz matrix with a nonzero main diagonal. Here y → is a known vector, x → is an unknown vector of numbers xi yet to be determined. For the sake of this article, êi is a vector made up of zeroes, except for its ith place, which holds the value one, its length will be implicitly determined by the surrounding context. The term N refers to the width of the matrix above – M is an N×N matrix. In this article, superscripts refer to an inductive index, whereas subscripts denote indices. For example, in this article, the matrix Tn is an n×n matrix which copies the upper left n×n block from M – that is, Tnij = Mij. Tn is a Toeplitz matrix; the algorithm proceeds in two steps. In the first step, two sets of vectors, called the forward and backward vectors, are established; the forward vectors are used to help get the set of backward vectors. The backwards vectors are necessary for the second step, where they are used to build the solution desired.

Levinson–Durbin recursion defines the nth "forward vector", denoted f → n, as the vector of length n which satisfies: T n f → n = e ^ 1. The nth "backward vector" b → n is defined similarly. An important simplification can occur; this can save some extra computation in that special case. If the matrix is not symmetric the nth forward and backward vector may be found from the vectors of length n − 1 as follows. First, the forward vector may be extended with a zero to obtain: T n [ f