British racing green
British racing green, or BRG, is a colour similar to Brunswick green, hunter green, forest green or moss green. It takes its name from the green international motor racing colour of the United Kingdom; this originated with the 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup, held in Ireland, as motor-racing was illegal in England. As a mark of respect, the British cars were painted shamrock green. Although there is still some debate as to an exact hue for BRG the term is used to denote a spectrum of deep, rich greens. "British racing green" in motorsport terms meant only the colour green in general – its application to a specific shade has developed outside the sport. In the days of the Gordon Bennett Cup, Count Eliot Zborowski, father of inter-war racing legend Louis Zborowski, suggested that each national entrant be allotted a different colour; every component of a car had to be produced in the competing country, as well as the driver being of that nationality. The races were hosted in the country of the previous year's winner.
When Britain first competed in 1902, they had to choose a different colour from the national flag colours of red and blue, because those had been taken for the 1900 race by America and France respectively. When Selwyn Edge won the 1902 Gordon Bennett Cup race for England in his Napier it was decided that the 1903 race would be held in Ireland, at that time a part of the United Kingdom, as motor racing at the time was illegal in Great Britain; as a mark of respect for their Irish hosts the English Napier cars were painted shamrock green. In keeping with these Irish/Napier roots, many of the earliest greens used on British racing cars were of a lighter olive, moss or emerald green. Darker shades became more common, though there was a return to lighter greens by HWM and other teams in the 1950s; the colour use only applied to the grandes épreuves, but was codified in the Code Sportif International of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile for use in all international-level motor racing events.
The foremost British participant in International Motor Racing at the highest echelons both before and after the Great War was Sunbeam. Green liveried Sunbeam Racing Cars won the 1912 Coupe de l’Auto as well as being the first British team to win the European Grand Epreuves Grand Prix in both 1923 and 1924; the Green Sunbeams driven by the likes of Henry Segrave and K L Guinness were during the vintage period, the prominent competitors to watch for. In the 1920s Bentley cars were hugely successful at the Le Mans 24h races, all sporting a mid- to dark-green; the first recorded use of the darkest green shades was on the Bugatti of Briton William Grover-Williams, driving in the first Monaco Grand Prix, in 1929. This colour has become known as British Racing Green. In the 1950s and 1960s British teams such as Aston Martin, Cooper, BRM were successful in Formula One and Sports car racing, all in different shades of green; the British Racing Partnership team used a pale green. Scottish teams such as Ecurie Ecosse and Rob Walker Racing used a dark blue, which did not conform to the CSI rules but was tolerated by officials.
The Australian-owned but British-based and licensed Brabham team used a shade of BRG, this was augmented with a gold stripe and green being the national sporting colours of Australia. Another British-based and licensed team, McLaren, made their debut at the 1966 Monaco Grand Prix with the McLaren M2B car painted white with a green stripe, to represent a fictional Yamura team in the John Frankenheimer´s film Grand Prix. Under pressure from a number of teams, most famously the Lotus team who wished to use the Gold Leaf livery on the Lotus 49, in 1968 sponsorship regulations were relaxed in F1. Subsequently, Lotus made their debut in this new livery at the 1968 Spanish Grand Prix. In 1970 the FIA formally gave Formula One an exemption from the national colours ruling and the common green colour soon disappeared, being replaced by various sponsor liveries; this exemption has since been extended to all race series, unless specific regulations require the adoption of national colours. The history of the famous greens was revived in 2000 by Jaguar Racing in Formula One, but after this team was sold to Red Bull by Ford in 2004, the new Red Bull Racing team used their own colours.
Other traditionally British manufacturers have since followed suit. Bentley returned to the Le Mans circuit in 2001, 2002 and 2003, winning with the Bentley Speed 8, painted in a dark shade of BRG. In recent years Aston Martin has returned to endurance racing, with their DBR9s painted in, a Aston, light BRG. Rocketsports Racing used green for its Jaguar XK in the 24 Hours of Le Mans and American Le Mans Series and other. In 2010 the Lotus name returned to Formula One after a gap of 16 years with the Lotus Racing team's Lotus T127 car liveried in dark green with yellow. Although registered in Malaysia, the new team is based in Britain and chose BRG with the aim of "striking an emotional chord with young and old alike and evoking memories of some of motor racing most iconic moments". With the many successes of British racing teams through the years, British Racing Green became a popular paint choice for British sports and luxury cars. A solid colour, British Racing Green is a metallic paint due to the limited range of solids offered by today's manufacturers.
Paying tribute to the small British roadsters of the 1960s that inspired the Mazda MX-5, Mazda produced a limited edition version of the model in 1991 and 2001 called
County Kildare is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Mid-East Region, it is named after the town of Kildare. Kildare County Council is the local authority for the county which has a population of 222,504. Kildare is the 24th-largest of Ireland's 32 counties in area and seventh largest in terms of population, it is the eighth largest of Leinster's twelve counties in size, second largest in terms of population. It is bordered by the counties of Carlow, Meath, Offaly and Wicklow; as an inland county, Kildare is a lowland region. The county's highest points are the foothills of the Wicklow Mountains bordering to the east; the highest point in Kildare is Cupidstown Hill on the border with Dublin, with the better known Hill of Allen in central Kildare. The county has three major rivers running through it: the Liffey and the Boyne; the Grand Canal crosses the county from Lyons on the east to Monasterevin on the west. A southern branch joins the Barrow navigation at Athy; the Royal Canal stretches across the north of the county along the border with Meath.
Pollardstown Fen is the largest remaining calcareous fen in Ireland, covering an area of 220 hectares and is recognised as an internationally important fen ecosystem with unique and endangered plant communities, declared a National Nature Reserve in 1986. The Bog of Allen is a large bog that extends across 958 km2 and into County Kildare, County Meath, County Offaly, County Laois, County Westmeath. Kildare has 243 km2 of bog located in the south-west and north-west, a majority of this being Raised Bog, it is habitat to over 185 animal species. There are 8,472 hectares of Forested land in Kildare, accounting for 5% of the county's total land area. 4,056 hectares of this is Coniferous, while there is 2,963 hectares of Broadleaf and the remaining area are Unclassified Species. Coillte and Dúchas own 47% of the forestry. Coillte run Donadea Forest Park, in North-Central Kildare; the forest is the largest forest park in Kildare. Kildare was shired in 1297 and assumed its present borders in 1832, following amendments to remove a number of enclaves and exclaves.
The county was the home of the powerful Fitzgerald family. Parts of the county were part of the Pale area around Dublin. Kildare County Council is the local authority for the county; the Local Electoral Areas of Kildare are Athy, Celbridge - Leixlip, Kildare - Newbridge and Naas. The Council has 40 members; the current council was elected in May 2013. Under the Local Government Reform Act 2014 the towns of Leixlip, Naas and Athy ceased to have separate town councils and were absorbed into their corresponding local electoral area. For elections to Dáil Éireann, there are two constituencies in the area of the county. In the Irish general election, 2016, Kildare North returned Catherine Murphy, James Lawless, Frank O'Rourke and Bernard Durkan, while Martin Heydon, Fiona O'Loughlin and Sean O Fearghail were returned for Kildare South; as part of the Mid-East Region, it is within the purview of the Mid-East Regional Authority. For elections to the European Parliament, it is part of the Midlands North-West constituency which returns four MEPs.
The county's population has nearly doubled to some 186,000 in 1990-2005. The north eastern region of Kildare had the highest average per-capita income in Ireland outside County Dublin in 2003. East Kildare's population has increased for example the amount of housing in the Naas suburb of Sallins has increased sixfold since the mid-1990s; as of 2016 the population of the county was 222,504. Ethnically, the 2016 census recorded County Kildare as 84% white Irish, 9% other white ethnicities, 2% black, 2% Asian, 1% of other ethnicity, 2% not stated. For religion, the census recorded a population, 80% Catholic, 9% of other stated religions, 10% with no religion and 2% not stated. Kildare contains the European base of electronics firms and Hewlett Packard, two of the largest employers in this sector in the entire island. Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has its European Manufacturing base in Newbridge, with another plant in nearby Newcastle in County Dublin. Major pizza-making, soft drinks, frozen food enterprises are located in Naas.
Large supermarket distribution centres are located in Naas and Kilcock. Kerry Group has developed a Global Innovation Centre in Millennium Park in Naas and employs over 1,000 people across 3 developments. Further developments including a new Education Campus are to be constructed in Millennium Park in the future; the Irish Army's largest military base containing its command headquarters and training centre is located at the Curragh. Kildare is the centre of the Irish horse industry. Kildare has more stud farms than any other county in Ireland. Several prominent international breeders have substantial stud farms in Kildare, including many from the Arab world. Racecourses The Irish National Stud farm The National Equestrian Centre Equine auction centre. County Kildare is the richest county in Ireland outside of Dublin and has the lowest unemployment rates in Ireland, throughout the economic recession of the 1980s. House prices in the county but in the North East of the county e.g. Naas and Maynooth have always been higher than the other counties in the country outside Dubl
Shades of green
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Green is common in nature in plants. Many plants are green because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll, involved in photosynthesis. Many shades of green are related to plants. Due to varying ratios of chlorophylls, the plant kingdom exhibits many shades of green in both hue and value; the chlorophylls in living plants have distinctive green colors, while dried or cooked portions of plants are different shades of green due to the chlorophyll molecules losing their inner magnesium ion. Artichoke is a color, a representation of the color of a raw fresh uncooked artichoke. Another name for this color is artichoke green; the first recorded use of "artichoke green" as a color name in English was in 1905.
This is the color called artichoke green in Pantone. The source is Pantone 18-0125 TPX Asparagus is a tone of green, named after the vegetable. Crayola created this color in 1993 as one of the 16 to be named in the Name the Color Contest, it is the color of a wild asparagus plant blowing in the wind of the 1949 classic film Sands of Iwo Jima. Another name for this color is asparagus green; the first recorded use of "asparagus green" as a color name in English was in 1805. Avocado is a color, a representation of the color of the outer surface of an avocado; the color avocado is a dark yellow-green color. Avocado was a common color for metal surfaces, as well as the color harvest gold, during the whole decade of the 1970s, they were both popular colors for shag carpets. Both colors went out of style by the early 1980s. Dark green is a dark shade of green. A different shade of green has been designated as "dark green" for certain computer uses. Fern green is a color. A Crayola crayon named fern was created in 1998, a lighter shade of the top color shown on the right.
The first recorded use of fern green as a color name in English was in 1902. Forest green refers to a green color said to resemble the color of the trees and other plants in a forest; the first recorded use of forest green as the name of a color in the English language was in 1810. Displayed at right is the color green earth. Hooker's green is a dark green color created by mixing Prussian Gamboge, it is displayed on the right. Hooker's green takes its name from botanical artist William Hooker who first created a special pigment for leaves. Displayed at right is the color jungle green. In 1990, Crayola formulated this specific tone of jungle green; the first recorded use of jungle green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1926. Laurel green is a medium light hue of greenish lighter; the first recorded use of laurel green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1705. Light green is a light tint of green. Mantis is a color, a representation of the color of a praying mantis.
The first use of mantis as a color name in English was when it was included as one of the colors on the Xona.com color list, promulgated in 2001. Moss green is a tone of green; the first recorded use of moss green as a color name in English was in 1884. Myrtle green called myrtle, is a color, a representation of the color of the leaves of the myrtle plant; the first recorded use of myrtle green as a color name in English was in 1835. Myrtle is the official designation of the green stripes on Waterloo rugby club's shirts, the green of Hunslet rugby league club, the green stripes of the South Sydney Rabbitohs and the green of the blazers, sports kit and scarf of St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, it is one of the school colors of Lane Technical College Prep High School in Chicago, the other being old gold. The baggy green, the cricket cap worn by Australian Test cricketers since around the turn of the twentieth century, is myrtle green in color. Pine green is a rich shade of spring green, it is an official Crayola color.
The first recorded use of pine tree as a color name in English was in 1923. Reseda green is a shade of greyish green in the classic range of colors of the German RAL colour standard, in which it is named "RAL 6011"; the name derives from the color of the leaves of Reseda odorata known as mignonette. Sap green is a green pigment, traditionally made of ripe buckthorn berries. However, modern colors marketed under this name are a blend of other pigments with a basis of Phthalocyanine Green G. Sap green paint was used on Bob Ross' TV show, The Joy of Painting. Shamrock green is a tone of green that represents the color of a symbol of Ireland; the first recorded use of shamrock as a color name in English was in the 1820s. This green is defined as Irish green Pantone 347; this green is used as the green on the national flag of the Republic of IrelandIt is customary in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States to wear this or any other tone of green on St. Patrick's Day, March 17; the State of California uses this shade of green of the grass under the bear on their state flag.
The Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association use this shade for their uniforms and other memorabilia. Tea g
D. Napier & Son
D. Napier & Son Limited was a British engineering company best known for its luxury motor cars in the Edwardian era and for its aero engines throughout the early to mid-20th century. Napier was founded as a precision engineering company in 1808 and for nearly a century produced machinery for the financial and munitions industries. In the early 20th century it moved for a time into internal combustion engines and road vehicles before turning to aero engines, its powerful Lion dominated the UK market in the 1920s and the Second World War era Sabre produced 3500 hp in its versions. Many world speed records on land and water, as well as the Hawker Typhoon and Tempest fighter planes, were powered by Napier engines. During the Second World War the company was taken over by English Electric, engine manufacture ceased. Today, Napier Turbochargers is a subsidiary of the American company Wabtec. David Napier, second son of the blacksmith to the Duke of Argyll, was born in 1785. While cousins became shipbuilders, he took engineering training in Scotland before coming to London.
There in 1808 he founded the firm, to become D. Napier & Son in Lloyds Court, St Giles, London, he designed a steam-powered printing press, some of which went to Hansard, as well as newspapers. The company moved to Lambeth, South London in 1830. Between 1840 and 1860, Napier was prosperous, with a well-outfitted factory and between 200 and 300 workers. Napier made a wide variety of products, including a centrifuge for sugar manufacturing and drills, ammunition-making equipment for the Royal Arsenal and railway cranes. David's younger son James Murdoch, born 1823, joined the firm in 1837 and became a partner in 1847, resulting in a change in the private company's name to D. Napier & Son. James succeeded his father as head of the firm in 1867, after his father's death in 1873, specialised in beautifully crafted precision machinery for making coins, printing stamps and banknotes. James proved an excellent engineer, but a poor businessman, considering salesmanship undignified, it became so bad that there were as few as seven employees in 1895, James attempted to sell the business, but failed.
James' son Montague, born 1870, inherited the business in 1895, along with his father's engineering talents. Montague was a hobby racing cyclist, at the Bath Road Club, he met "ebullient Australian" S. F. Edge Edge persuaded Napier to improve his Panhard, converting from a tiller to a steering wheel and improving the oiling. Dissatisfied, Napier offered to fit an engine of his own design, an 8 hp vertical twin, with electric ignition, superior to the Panhard's hot tube type. Edge was sufficiently impressed to encourage Napier to make his own car and collaborated with Harvey du Cros, his former boss at Dunlop, to form the Motor Power Company, based in London, which agreed to buy Napier's entire output; the first of an initial order of six, three each two-cylinder 8hp and four-cylinder 16hp, all with aluminium bodies by Arthur Mulliner of Northampton and chain drive, was delivered 31 March 1900. In 1903 the manufacturing business moved from Lambeth to larger premises in Acton and in 1906 it became a limited liability company, D. Napier & Son Limited, although it remained in effect a private company for the next few years.
Outside the racing program, Napier gained fame in 1904 by being the first car to cross the Canadian Rockies: Mr and Mrs Charles Glidden, sponsors of the Glidden Tours, covered 3,536 miles from Boston to Vancouver. Recognising the value of publicity gained from racing, which no other British marque did, in spring, Edge entered an 8 hp Napier in the Thousand Miles Trial of the Automobile Club on behalf of Mary Eliza Kennard. By June 1900, eight "16 hp"s had been ordered, Edge entered one in the 837 mi Paris-Toulouse-Paris race, with the. Hon. Charles S. Rolls as riding mechanic; the 301.6 cu in sidevalve suffered problems with its ignition coils and cooling system, failed to finish. For 1901, Montague designed a car sure not to lack speed, having a 16.3-litre sidevalve four capable of 103 bhp at 800 rpm, on a wheelbase of 115 inches with four-speed gearbox and chain drive. Called the "50 hp", only two or three were completed, including one for Rolls. Edge entered one in the 1901 Gordon Bennett Cup, only able to test it en route, Montague serving as his riding mechanic.
In the concurrent Paris-Bordeaux rally, it retired with clutch trouble. For the 1902 Gordon Bennett, three entrants contested for France, with Edge in a Napier and two Wolseleys; the Napier was a three-speed, shaft-drive 6.44-litre four of 44.5 hp. Piloted by Edge and his cousin, Cecil, it wore what would become known as British racing green, won at an average 31.8 mph. It
Kilcullen, formally Kilcullen Bridge, is a small town on the River Liffey in County Kildare, Ireland. Its population of 3,473 (2011 Census makes it the 12th largest settlement in County Kildare and the fastest growing in the county, having doubled in population from 1,483 in the census of 2002, it is situated in the Barony of Kilcullen, with part in the Barony of Naas South, subsidiary areas include Logstown, Harristown and Brannockstown, Gilltown and Castlemartin. Kilcullen Bridge replaced the original settlement of Kilcullen, now Old Kilcullen, in the centuries following the building of the great bridge at the future site of the town. Other local historical features include Dun Ailinne, New Abbey and Castlemartin, for many years the home of media magnate Tony O'Reilly and his wife, horse-breeding shipping heiress Chryss Goulandris, now owned by US billionaire John Malone. In the town's hinterland are a number of stud farms. Kilcullen is situated off the Dublin to Waterford motorway, between Naas and Kilkenny, is centred on the crossroads of the R413 and R448 regional roads.
Kilcullen straddles the River Liffey and is about 50 km from Dublin, under 5 km from Newbridge, close to Kildare Town and Naas. There is just one bridge in the town, none to the north / west for some distance, until Athgarvan, though there are three to the south / east, in Harristown / Brannockstown, one on a public road, one a road bridge hidden on the old Harristown Estate, one a former railway viaduct on private land. First built in the 1310s, the six-arch bridge over the Liffey was last reconstructed c. 1850, renovated and widened in the early 1970s. Upstream of the town the Liffey is joined by what is called locally the Mill Stream, coming from the direction of New Abbey, forming the last stage of the substantial Kilcullen Stream, a nationally-monitored waterway. At the western edge of the town is the Pinkeen Stream, a minor tributary of the Liffey, which forms one boundary of Castlemartin Estate. At least two small streams lie further downstream in the Castlemartin area; the town comprises one main street, with a few connecting roads.
The main street slopes from Old Kilcullen and the Athy Road and motorway access, after joining with the Newbridge Road, down to the Liffey, back up again, more steeply. Schools and churches are concentrated at the south-western edge, businesses spread along the main street and near the old market square, the town hall and theatre and heritage centre, a bank, lie just to the north east of the bridge; the current town and the barony of the same name are named for an earlier settlement, Kilcullen, on a hilltop a few kilometres to the south, now known as Old Kilcullen. Begun as a monastic settlement, in the mid-5th century, it was at its peak an Anglo-Norman walled town with seven gates and seven, or eight, roads. Little now remains visible beyond a churchyard; this town was related to the nearby Dun Ailinne, a ceremonial and possible palace site related to the kings of Leinster, though Dun Ailinne precedes any known settlement at Old Kilcullen. Old Kilcullen was raided by Vikings, landing at the location of the modern town, at least twice, in 936 and 944.
The current town known and recorded on legal documents, as Kilcullen Bridge, developed after 1319 when a bridge was constructed here across the River Liffey by a canon, Maurice Jakis, of Kildare Cathedral. It took over, from the previous settlement; as shown on maps as late as the late 18th century, the new settlement was wholly on the eastern bank of the Liffey, outside the Barony of Kilcullen. Kilcullen was influenced for much of its history by the Eustace family, one of whose seats was at Castlemartin; the town was in the vicinity of the Battle of Kilcullen in the 1798 Rebellion, Castlemartin the base of operations for the British Army in Kildare, under Dundas. In 1837, the official town area had a population of 699, one principal street of 112 buildings, chiefly on the western bank of the Liffey, a market on Saturdays and fairs on 2 February 25 March, 22, 8 June and 29 September 2 October and 8 December. There was a police station and a dispensary, petty sessions were held. At that time, the population of the rural area of Old Kilcullen still exceeded that of the town by a multiple.
On a hill around three kilometres south and east from Kilcullen is the site of the original settlement, now known as Old Kilcullen, featuring an historic church and graveyard, with an extant round tower. Old Kilcullen may have related to the reputed site of a palace or ceremonial place of the Kings of Leinster at Dun Ailinne, on an adjacent hill. Local groups have constructed an interpretative site for Dun Ailinne at Nicholastown, about a kilometre from the modern town centre, featuring a sculpture by local sculptor and art teacher Noel Scullion; the site was informally launched at the Spring Equinox, formally in summer, 2008. In April 2009, it was announced that Dun Ailinne might form part of a bid for World Heritage Site status, along with other royal sites from around Ireland. Adjacent to the modern town are at least one tumulus, on the hill opposite Castlemartin, one barrow, on a small enclosed green at Logsto
Port Laoise, or Portlaoise is the county town of County Laois, Ireland. It is located in the South Midlands in the province of Leinster; the 2016 census shows that the town's population increased by 9.5% to 22,050, well above the national average of 3.8%. It is the most populous and the most densely populated town in the Midlands Region, which has a total population of 292,301 at the 2016 census; this makes it the fastest growing of the top 20 largest towns and cities in Ireland. It was an important town in the medieval period, as the site of the Fort of Maryborough, a fort built by English settlers in the 16th century. Port Laoise is fringed by the Slieve Bloom mountains to the west and north-west and the Great Heath of Maryborough to the east, it is notable for its architecture and transport connections. On the national road network, Port Laoise is located 80 km south-west from Dublin on the M7, 170 km north-east from Cork on the M8/M7 and 113 km east-northeast of Limerick on the M7, it was once famous for the manufacture of iron and steel buildings, tennis balls, rubber seals and electrical cabling.
Today Port Laoise is a commercial centre, with the economy dominated by the service sector, an important shopping, transport and conference hub. The site of the present town is referred to in the 16th century Annals of the Four Masters as Port Laoighisi; the present town originated as a settlement around the old fort, "Fort of Leix" or "Fort Protector", the remains of which can still be seen in the town centre. Its construction began in 1548 under the supervision of the Lord Deputy Sir Edward Bellingham, in an attempt to secure English control of the county following the exile of native Celtic chieftains the previous year; the fort's location on rising ground, surrounded to the south and east by the natural defensive barricades of the River Triogue and an esker known locally as'the Ridge' added to its strategic importance. The town proper was established by an act of Parliament during the reign of Queen Mary in 1557. Though the early fort and its surrounding settlement had been known by a number of names, such as Governor, Port Laois and Fort Protector, the new town was named Maryborough and the county was named Queen's County in Mary's honour.
In about 1556, Port Laoise acquired its first parish church—Old St Peter's—situated to the west of Fort Protector. Although first built as a Catholic church, due to Queen Mary's re-establishment of Roman Catholicism, the church was used for Protestant services after the accession to the English throne of Mary's half-sister, Elizabeth; the area had been a focus of the rebellion of Ruairí Óg Ó Mórdha, a local chieftain who had rebelled and had lost his lands, which the Crown wanted to be settled by reliable landowners. For the next fifty or so years, the new English settlers in Maryborough fought a continual, low-scale war with the Gaelic chieftains who fought against the new settlement; the town had been burnt several times by the end of the 16th century. Port Laoise was granted a market in 1567, in 1570, a charter of Queen Elizabeth I raised the town to the rank of borough; this allowed the establishment of a Corporation of the Borough, a body which consisted of a burgomaster, two bailiffs, a town clerk, a sergeant at arms, as well as various other officers and freemen.
Until the Act of Union took effect in 1801 and the abolition of its franchise, the town returned two members to the Irish Parliament. The Corporation itself existed until 1830. In 1803-04, a new Church of Ireland church was built to replace the Old St Peter's; the building is attributed to architect James Gandon. Other notable buildings constructed in Port Laoise in the 19th century included the now-destroyed French Renaissance-style Town Hall on Market Square. In 1929, a few years after the foundation of the Irish Free State, the town was renamed Portlaoighise and the county was renamed County Laois. A number of other towns in the Free State reverted to their Irish names during this period; the town forms part of the Portlaoise Municipal District Local Electoral Area for elections to Laois County Council. This includes the urban Port Laoise area and Ballinakill and surrounding rural areas. Port Laoise's Town Council was abolished in 2014. Port Laoise is twinned with Coulounieix-Chamiers in the Dordogne département of France.
Portlaoise is one of Ireland's fastest growing towns, with a 37.9% increase in population from 2006 to 2011. Non-Irish nationals accounted for 21.7% of the population compared with a national average figure of 12.0%. Polish were the largest group, followed by Lithuanians. Portlaoise is known for having one of the highest percentages of black residents in the country; the former Mayor, Rotimi Adebari, was the first person of African descent to become a mayor in Ireland. Portlaoise has the highest percentage of people under the age of 18 in Ireland. Due to rapid population growth and its location in the commuter belt, Portlaoise has some of the country's best services; these include a large swimming leisure complex. Portlaoise has five new primary schools. Due to the rapid population growth Portlaoise will see the opening of a new 1,000 student secondary school. Portlaoise has the highest percentage of youth i
Peking to Paris
The Peking to Paris motor race was an automobile race held in 1907, between Peking Qing China and Paris, France, a distance of 14,994 kilometres. The idea for the race came from a challenge published in the Paris newspaper Le Matin on 31 January 1907, reading: "What needs to be proved today is that as long as a man has a car, he can do anything and go anywhere. Is there anyone who will undertake to travel this summer from Peking to Paris by automobile?"The race started from the French embassy in Peking on 10 June 1907. The winner Prince Scipione Borghese arrived in Paris on 10 August 1907. There were forty entrants in the race, but only five teams ended up going ahead with shipping the cars to Peking; the race was held despite the race committee cancelling the race. Itala, Italian, 7 litre engine, finished 1st, driven by Prince Scipione Borghese and Ettore Guizzardi Spyker, finished 2nd, driven by Charles Godard with Jean du Taillis Contal, did not finish, three-wheeler Cyclecar, driven by Auguste Pons DeDion 1, finished 3rd, driven by Georges Cormier DeDion 2, finished 4th, driven by Victor Collignon There were no rules in the race, except that the first car to Paris would win the prize of a magnum of Mumm champagne.
The race went without any assistance through countryside where there were no roadmaps. For the race, camels carrying fuel left Peking and set up at stations along the route, to provide fuel for the racers; the race followed a telegraph route. Each car had one journalist as a passenger, with the journalists sending stories from the telegraph stations throughout the race, it was held during a time when cars were new and the route traversed remote areas of Asia where people were not yet familiar with motor travel. The route between Peking and Lake Baikal had only been attempted on horseback; the race was won by Italian Prince Scipione Borghese of the Borghese family, accompanied by the journalist Luigi Barzini, Sr. He was confident and had taken a detour from Moscow to St Petersburg for a dinner, held for the team, afterwards headed back to Moscow and rejoined the race; the event was not intended to be a race or competition, but became one due to its pioneering nature and the technical superiority of the Italians' car, a 7,433 cc Itala 35/45 HP.
Second in the race was Charles Goddard in the Spyker. He was arrested for fraud near the end of the race; some of the other cars had difficulties in going up ravines, across mud and bridges across rivers not designed for vehicles. The Contal cyclecar became bogged down in the Gobi desert and was not recovered, with the crew lucky to be found alive by locals. Barzini published the book Peking to Paris in 1908, filled with hundreds of pictures. Several races have been held to re-enact the event, including the Great Auto Race of 1908 which raced from New York, west to Paris. During most of the twentieth century other re-enactments could not be held, because of the establishment of the USSR after the 1917 Russian Revolution. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, racers were again allowed to race. In 1990 the London To Peking Motor Challenge was held, which raced in the opposite direction to the original race, from London to Beijing. In 1997 there was "The Second Peking to Paris Motor Challenge", consisting of 94 vintage cars, which took a more southerly route through Tibet, Pakistan, Turkey and Italy.
It was won by the British pair Phil John Bayliss, driving a 1942 Willys Jeep. On 18 April 2005 a 1973 Fiat 500 made it from Bari, Italy, to Beijing in a 16,000-kilometre journey across the whole of Russia and passing through Vladivostok; the route was similar to the original one. Driven for 100 days by Danilo Elia and Fabrizio Bonserio, the old and tiny car was followed along its journey by newspapers and television from all over the world. After the long journey, Elia wrote a book entitled La bizzarra impresa, in Italian available in German by the National Geographic Deutschland. On 15 May 2005 five cars led by Lang Kidby departed Beijing for Paris, retracing the original route with similar cars to the originals; this journey was televised by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in a four-part documentary series entitled Peking to Paris. The show was hosted by Warren Brown, one of two drivers on the Itala and a cartoonist with Sydney newspaper The Daily Telegraph; the Australian team, driving westward, met the Italian Fiat 500, driving eastward, in an unplanned meeting, somewhere around Krasnojarsk, Russia.
In 2007 the Endurance Rally Association staged a rally to celebrate the centenary of the original 1907 race. Unlike the 1997 event staged by Philip Young, which took a southerly route, this event followed more faithfully the route taken by Prince Borghese in 1907 in the winning Itala. From Beijing, competitors went north to the Mongolian border at Zamyn-Üüd and, as with his original route, north to Ulaan Bataar; the route went west across Mongolia, crossing the Russian border at Tsagaannuur through Siberia to Moscow, on to St Petersburg and through the Baltic states to finish in Paris. 126 veteran and classic cars took part, the oldest being a 1903 Mercedes. The major challenge of the rally proved to be Mongolia and the Gobi desert with no conventional roads rutted tracks