Queen's University at Kingston is a public research university in Kingston, Canada. Founded on 16 October 1841, via a royal charter issued by Queen Victoria, the university predates Canada's founding by 26 years. Queen's holds more than 1,400 hectares of land throughout Ontario and owns Herstmonceux Castle in East Sussex, England. Queen's is organized into ten undergraduate and professional faculties and schools; the Church of Scotland established Queen's College in 1841 with a royal charter from Queen Victoria. The first classes, intended to prepare students for the ministry, were held 7 March 1842 with 13 students and two professors. Queen's was the first university west of the maritime provinces to admit women and to form a student government. In 1883, a women's college for medical education affiliated with Queen's University was established. In 1888, Queen's University began offering extension courses, becoming the first Canadian university to do so. In 1912, Queen's ended its affiliation with the Presbyterian Church, adopted its present name.
Queen's is a co-educational university with more than 23,000 students and over 131,000 alumni living worldwide. Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders and 57 Rhodes Scholars. Queen's was a result of an outgrowth of educational initiatives planned by Presbyterians in the 1830s. A draft plan for the university was presented at a synod meeting in Kingston in 1839, with a modified bill introduced through the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada during a session in 1840. On 16 October 1841, a royal charter was issued through Queen Victoria establishing Queen's College at Kingston. Queen's resulted from years of effort by Presbyterians of Upper Canada to found a college for the education of ministers in the growing colony and to instruct youth in various branches of science and literature, they modelled the university after the University of Glasgow. Classes began on 7 March 1842, in a small woodframe house on the edge of the city with two professors and 15 students; the college moved several times during its first eleven years, before settling in its present location.
Prior to Canadian Confederation, the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, the Canadian government, private citizens financially supported the college. After Confederation, the college faced ruin when the federal government withdrew its funding and the Commercial Bank of the Midland District collapsed, a disaster which cost Queen's two-thirds of its endowment; the college was rescued after Principal William Snodgrass and other officials created a fundraising campaign across Canada. The risk of financial ruin worried the administration until the century's final decade, they considered merging with the University of Toronto as late as the 1880s. With the additional funds bequeathed from Queen's first major benefactor, Robert Sutherland, the college staved off financial failure and maintained its independence. Queen's was given university status on 17 May 1881. In 1883, Women's Medical College was founded at Queen's with a class of three. Theological Hall, completed in 1880 served as Queen's main building throughout the late 19th century.
In 1912, Queen's separated from the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and changed its name to Queen's University at Kingston. Queen's Theological College remained in the control of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, until 1925, when it joined the United Church of Canada; the theological college merged with the Queen's department of religious studies and the program closed in 2015. The university faced another financial crisis during World War I from a sharp drop in enrollment due to the military enlistment of students and faculty. A $1,000,000 fundraising drive and the armistice in 1918 saved the university. 1,500 students fought in the war and 187 died. On 18 August 1939, weeks prior to the start of World War II, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Queen's to accept an honorary degree. In a broadcast heard around the world, the President voiced the American policy of mutual alliance and friendship with Canada. During World War II, 2,917 graduates from Queen's served in the armed forces, suffering 164 fatalities.
The Memorial Room in Memorial Hall of the John Deutsch University Centre lists Queen's students who died during the world wars. Queen's grew after the war, propelled by the expanding postwar economy and the demographic boom that peaked in the 1960s. From 1951 to 1961, enrolment increased from just over 2,000 students to more than 3,000; the university embarked on a building program, constructing five student residences in less than ten years. After the reorganization of legal education in Ontario in the mid-1950s, Queen's Faculty of Law opened in 1957 in the new John A. Macdonald Hall. Other construction projects at Queen's in the 1950s included the construction of Richardson Hall to house Queen's administrative offices and Dunning Hall. By the end of the 1960s, like many other Canadian universities, Queen's tripled its enrolment and expanded its faculty and facilities, as a result of the baby boom and generous support from the public sector. By the mid-1970s, the university had 10,000 full-time students.
Among the new facilities were three more residences and separate buildings for the Departments of Mathematics, Physics and Psychology, Social Sciences and the Humanities. During this period, Queen's created the Schools of Music, Public Administration, Rehabilitation Therapy, Urban and Regional Planning were established at Queen's; the establishment of the Faculty of Education in 1968 on land about a kilometre west of the university inaugurated the university's west c
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
City National Bank (California)
City National Bank is a bank holding company headquartered at City National Plaza in Los Angeles, California. CNB is a subsidiary of the Toronto-based Royal Bank of Canada and it is the 37th largest bank in the United States as of March 31, 2018. CNB has been dubbed the "Bank to the Stars" due to its extensive relationships with numerous Hollywood entertainment industry clients, deals with many exclusive and premier clients from various media, including television, film and the arts; the bank had total assets of $51.1 billion. It offers a full complement of banking and investment services through 71 offices, including 19 full-service regional centers, in Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, New York City, Nashville, Washington, DC and Atlanta. After the closure or merger of many Los Angeles banks, it has become the largest bank headquartered in the Greater Los Angeles Area, it acts as a processing bank, providing back office services such as checking account processing and check clearance services for smaller local banks that do not do their own processing.
In addition, the company manages $71.7 billion in client investment assets. It is a national bank, regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency of the United States Department of the Treasury, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of the Royal Bank of Canada since 2015. The bank was founded in 1954 by Alfred S. Hart, he hired Benjamin N. Maltz as the first Chairman of the Board, its offices were in Beverly Hills at 400 North Roxbury Drive until 2004 when its headquarters were relocated to Arco Plaza in Los Angeles. In 1963, when Frank Sinatra's son was kidnapped, the bank put up the $240,000 demanded as ransom money. In 1970, its stock began trading over the counter. In the 1990s, it acquired seven banks: First Los Angeles Bank, Ventura County National Bank, Frontier Bank, Riverside National Bank, Harbor Bank, North American Trust Company, American Pacific State Bank. In 2000, the bank expanded into Northern California in with the purchase of The Pacific Bank, followed by the acquisition of the Oakland-based Civic BanCorp in 2002.
It had acquired The Pacific Bank in 2000 as well as Reed, Conner & Birdwell and the People's Bank of California in 2001. In 2002, City National opened an office in New York City to serve its California-based clientele who do business on both coasts, as well as prospective clients in Manhattan. In that decade, it continued to acquire more banks: Convergent Capital Management, LLC, Business Bank of Nevada, Convergent Wealth Advisors, Lee Munder Capital Group, Imperial Capital Bank, it acquired two more banks in 2010: 1st Pacific Bank and Sun West Bank. In mid-2011, the bank opened a branch in Tennessee. In 2012, it acquired First American Equipment Finance. City National Bank was known as City National Bank of Beverly Hills and changed its name to City National Bank in February 1964. On January 22, 2015, City National announced a "definitive agreement" to be acquired by the Royal Bank of Canada. On April 11, 2017, City National opened its first full-service branch at RBC Plaza in Minneapolis, in conjunction with RBC Wealth Management.
On October 25, 2018, City National announced that Kelly Coffey would become its first female CEO from February 2019 becoming only the 4th CEO in the bank's history. The most notable of City National Bank's sponsorships is its sponsorship of the Vegas Golden Knights of the National Hockey League which includes the naming rights to the team headquarters and practice facility City National Arena, it sponsored the LA Galaxy amongst other sports teams. The Bank is the Official Bank of the Los Angeles Clippers, as well as the main sponsor of The Tony Awards. Official website
Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho
RBC Bank is the trading name of RBC Bank, N. A. the United States-based retail banking division of the Royal Bank of Canada, targeted toward Canadian snowbirds and frequent tourists. The brand name was used by RBC Bank USA, formed in 2001 when RBC acquired the Raleigh, North Carolina-based Centura Bank. In 2012, RBC Bank USA's banking division for American clients was sold to PNC Financial Services while RBC's cross-border banking services for Canadians were transferred to the newly incorporated RBC Bank, N. A. subsidiary. On November 2, 1990, Peoples Bancorp and Planters Corp. of Rocky Mount, North Carolina, merged to form Centura Bank. In June 2001, Royal Bank of Canada rebranded them as RBC Centura. RBC announced on January 17, 2008, that it would abandon the "Centura" brand in April 2008 and the unit would operate as RBC Bank. Over 1000 employees continued to work in Rocky Mount as of 2011, in such areas as information technology and mortgage processing. RBC Centura purchased Tucker Federal Bank parent company Eagle Bancshares in 2002, giving it a more substantial customer base in the Atlanta area after its 1998 purchase of Security First Network Bank which had only one office.
The bank merged with Flag Bank. RBC continued to grow in the Southeast after acquiring 39 branches of Birmingham, Alabama-based AmSouth Bank on March 9, 2007. RBC Centura had no locations in Alabama. RBC's footprint in Alabama and Florida expanded after its acquisition of Alabama National BanCorporation. RBC received U. S. approval February 5, 2008, on April 14, 51 branches re-opened as RBC Bank. The remaining branches re-opened by June 2008. ANB operated in three states through eleven different subsidiaries. Construction of the RBC Plaza, now PNC Plaza, in 2008, was not the first major move by RBC to become a major part of the community in Raleigh, NC. In 2002, RBC purchased the naming rights for the Raleigh Entertainment & Sports Arena, home to the Carolina Hurricanes of the National Hockey League and North Carolina State University basketball; the arena became the RBC Center, with a 20-year lease at a cost of $80 million. In June 2006, the RBC Center hosted the NHL's Stanley Cup Finals, on June 19, 2006, the Carolina Hurricanes defeated the Edmonton Oilers in the arena to win the Stanley Cup.
PNC acquired the naming rights with the purchase of RBC, the name changed to PNC Arena on March 15, 2012. At the time PNC acquired RBC, it had a total of 5,000 employees with 500 located in the Raleigh area. In November 2007, RBC Centura was involved in the "Dunmore Homes" project in Sacramento, California that stopped all construction on August 8, 2007, due to liquidity issues with the home builder; the company was subsequently sold to a mortgage loan officer for $500 and incorporated in New York. The company filed for bankruptcy in Manhattan. After details of the sale became known to RBC Centura Bank, a major Dunmore Homes creditor, the bank sued on November 7; the company alleged in a lawsuit filed in Fresno County that the sale of all the assets for a mere $500 wasn't adequate and was done to "hinder and defraud the creditors," including RBC. RBC financed four Dunmore projects from Bakersfield to Yuba City, it loaned Dunmore Homes a total of $105 million and, according to an affidavit by a Dunmore Homes official, is still owed $39 million.
As collateral, it has secured claims against those projects. But the company says. Nine major lenders, including RBC, are owed a combined total of $196 million on Dunmore Homes' 26 new-home communities, according to the builder. On June 19, 2011, PNC Financial Services agreed to buy RBC Bank USA from Royal Bank of Canada for $3.45 billion. The sale of RBC Bank closed in March 2012. Upon acquisition, all RBC Bank branches were rebranded as PNC branches and the RBC Bank brand became dormant for US customers. RBC Insurance, RBC Wealth Management and RBC Investing remained subsidiaries of RBC. RBC returned to offering retail banking services to American customers with its acquisition of Los Angeles-based City National Bank in 2015. Official website
Order of Ontario
The Order of Ontario is the most prestigious official honour in the Canadian province of Ontario. Instituted in 1986 by Lieutenant Governor Lincoln Alexander, on the advice of the Cabinet under Premier David Peterson, the civilian order is administered by the Lieutenant Governor-in-Council and is intended to honour current or former Ontario residents for conspicuous achievements in any field; the Order of Ontario is intended to honour any current or former longtime resident of Ontario who has demonstrated a high level of individual excellence and achievement in any field, demonstrating "the best of Ontario's caring and diverse society and lives have benefited society in Ontario and elsewhere." Canadian citizenship is not a requirement and elected or appointed members of a governmental body are ineligible as long as they hold office. There are no limits on how many can belong to the order or be invested at one time, though the average number of new members stands at 24 per year; the process of finding qualified individuals begins with submissions from the public to the Ontario Honours and Awards Secretariat, which consists of the Chief Justice of Ontario, the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, the Secretary of the Cabinet, up to six members of the Order of Ontario.
This committee meets once or twice yearly to make its selected recommendations to the Cabinet and works with that body in narrowing down the potential appointees to a list that will be submitted to the lieutenant governor. Since appointments to the Order of Ontario rely in part on ministerial advice, records of such proceedings are not publicly revealed, as affirmed in court proceedings undertaken in 2002 by an individual, mistakenly informed that she had been appointed to the order. Posthumous nominations are not accepted, though an individual who dies after his or her name was submitted to the Honours and Awards Secretariat can still be retroactively made a Member of the Order of Ontario; the lieutenant governor, ex officio a Member and the Chancellor of the Order of Ontario makes all appointments into the fellowship's single grade of membership by an Order in Council that bears the viceroyal sign-manual. Upon admission into the Order of Ontario, new Members are presented with the order's insignia.
The main badge consists of a gold medallion in the form of a stylized trillium, the official provincial flower. The obverse is white enamel with gold edging, bearing at its centre the escutcheon of the arms of Ontario, all surmounted by a St. Edward's Crown symbolizing the Canadian monarch's role as the fount of honour; the name of the Member is engraved on the reverse, along with the date of her investiture. The order's ribbon is patterned with vertical stripes in red, green and gold, reflecting the colours within the provincial coat of arms; the insignia is worn suspended from this ribbon at the collar. Members receive two lapel pins that can be worn during less formal occasions, an official certificate. To mark the 30th anniversary of the first investiture of the Order of Ontario, a collar featuring the insignia of the order and symbols of Canada and Ontario was unveiled for the use of the Lieutenant Governor as Chancellor of the Order of Ontario. Canadian order of precedence Symbols of Ontario Official website
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer