Secular humanism, or humanism, is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason and philosophical naturalism while rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making. Secular humanism posits that human beings are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or a god, it does not, assume that humans are either inherently good or evil, nor does it present humans as being superior to nature. Rather, the humanist life stance emphasizes the unique responsibility facing humanity and the ethical consequences of human decisions. Fundamental to the concept of secular humanism is the held viewpoint that ideology—be it religious or political—must be examined by each individual and not accepted or rejected on faith. Along with this, an essential part of secular humanism is a continually adapting search for truth through science and philosophy. Many secular humanists derive their moral codes from a philosophy of utilitarianism, ethical naturalism, or evolutionary ethics, some advocate a science of morality.
Humanists International is the world union of more than one hundred humanist, irreligious, Bright, Ethical Culture, freethought organizations in more than 40 countries. The "Happy Human" is recognised as the official symbol of humanism internationally, used by secular humanist organizations in every part of the world; those who call themselves humanists are estimated to number between four and five million people worldwide. The meaning of the phrase secular humanism has evolved over time; the phrase has been used since at least the 1930s by Anglican priests, in 1943, the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Temple, was reported as warning that the "Christian tradition... was in danger of being undermined by a'Secular Humanism' which hoped to retain Christian values without Christian faith." During the 1960s and 1970s the term was embraced by some humanists who considered themselves anti-religious, as well as those who, although not critical of religion in its various guises, preferred a non-religious approach.
The release in 1980 of A Secular Humanist Declaration by the newly formed Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism gave secular humanism an organisational identity within the United States. However, many adherents of the approach reject the use of the word secular as obfuscating and confusing, consider that the term secular humanism has been "demonized by the religious right... All too secular humanism is reduced to a sterile outlook consisting of little more than secularism broadened by academic ethics; this kind of'hyphenated humanism' becomes more about the adjective than its referent". Adherents of this view, including the International Humanist and Ethical Union and the American Humanist Association, consider that the unmodified but capitalised word Humanism should be used; the endorsement by the IHEU of the capitalization of the word Humanism, the dropping of any adjective such as secular, is quite recent. The American Humanist Association began to adopt this view in 1973, the IHEU formally endorsed the position in 1989.
In 2002 the IHEU General Assembly unanimously adopted the Amsterdam Declaration, which represents the official defining statement of World Humanism for Humanists. This declaration makes exclusive use of capitalized Humanist and Humanism, consistent with IHEU's general practice and recommendations for promoting a unified Humanist identity. To further promote Humanist identity, these words are free of any adjectives, as recommended by prominent members of IHEU; such usage is not universal among IHEU member organizations, though most of them do observe these conventions. Historical use of the term humanism, is related to the writings of pre-Socratic philosophers; these writings were lost to European societies until Renaissance scholars rediscovered them through Muslim sources and translated them from Arabic into European languages. Thus the term humanist can mean a humanities scholar, as well as refer to The Enlightenment/ Renaissance intellectuals, those who have agreement with the pre-Socratics, as distinct from secular humanists.
In 1851 George Holyoake coined the term "secularism" to describe "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life". The modern secular movement coalesced around Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh and their intellectual circle; the first secular society, the Leicester Secular Society, dates from 1851. Similar regional societies came together to form the National Secular Society in 1866. Holyoake's secularism was influenced by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and of modern sociology. Comte believed human history would progress in a "law of three stages" from a theological phase, to the "metaphysical", toward a rational "positivist" society. In life, Comte had attempted to introduce a "religion of humanity" in light of growing anti-religious sentiment and social malaise in revolutionary France; this religion would fulfil the functional, cohesive role that supernatural religion once served. Although Comte's religious movement was unsuccessful in France, the positivist philosophy of science itself played a major role in the proliferation of secular organizations in the 19th century in England.
Richard Congreve visited Paris shortly after the French Revolution of 1848 where he met Auguste Comte and was influenced by his positivist system. He founded the London Positivist Society in 1867, which attracted Frederic Harrison, Edward Spencer Beesly, Vernon Lushington, James Cotte
Anna Eva Fay
Anna Eva Fay Pingree was a famous medium and stage mentalist of the twentieth century. Fay was born Ann Eliza Heathman in Ohio, she married a medium, who went by the name Henry Melville Fay. She began to perform as a stage medium, she became famous for her stage performances in the 1890s. Through her career, Fay was exposed as a fraudulent medium. Fay was known for employing assistants including several who would dig up information about séance sitters in the towns that she visited. In the early 1870s the American stage mentalist Washington Irving Bishop was the manager of Fay's spiritualist acts, but in 1876 exposed her trick methods to the media. In 1883 the ex-medium John W. Truesdell revealed her method of freeing her hands from cotton bandages, her first husband died in 1908. Her second husband was stage manager David H. Pingree, who died in 1932, her son John Fay a magician, married to Anna Norman committed suicide in 1908. Fay applied for a membership to The Magic Circle and in 1913 during a tour in Britain, she was elected the first Honorary Lady Associate of The Magic Circle in London.
Fay died on May 20, 1927. She is buried at Wyoming Cemetery in Melrose Massachusetts. In 1942, Harry Price of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research exposed the'mechanical stool' trick of Fay. In a series of experiments in London at the house of William Crookes in February 1875, Fay managed to fool Crookes into believing she had genuine psychic powers. Crookes had Fay hold two electrodes in an electrical circuit connected with a galvanometer in an adjoining room. Movement of objects occurred in the room and a music instrument was played. Crookes was convinced. Psychical researchers pointed out that Fay could have used other parts of her body or a resistance coil to maintain the electric current intact whilst her hands could be free to produce the phenomena during the experiment. Frank Podmore described the experiment in detail. Fay used magic tricks to accomplish her mediumship feats, she confessed in 1913 to Eric Dingwall that she had duped other scientists. She was investigated by the magician Harry Houdini, to whom after her retirement in 1924 she confessed fraud and revealed the tricks that she had used.
Fay told Houdini the trick she had used on the Crookes galvanometer test: she gripped one handle of the battery beneath her knee joint, keeping the circuit unbroken, leaving one hand free. Magic historian Barry Wiley suggested that Fay had beaten the galvanometer tests by working with a secret accomplice Charles Henry Gimingham, an assistant of Crookes who had built the experimental apparatus. Hereward Carrington.. The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism. Herbert B. Turner & Co. pp. 149 -- 152 reveals the "Cotton Bandage Test" trick. Harry Houdini.. A Magician Among the Spirits. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108027489 William Henry James Shaw.. The Annie Eva Fay Cotton Bandage Test. In Magic up to Date, or, Shaw's Magical Instuctor. Chicago. Pp. 65–70 Barry H. Wiley.. The Indescribable Phenomenon: The Life and Mysteries of Anna Eva Fay. Hermetic Press
Free Inquiry is a bi-monthly journal of secular humanist opinion and commentary published by the Council for Secular Humanism, a program of the Center for Inquiry. Philosopher Paul Kurtz was the editor-in-chief until he stepped down in 2010, Tom Flynn is the current editor. Feature articles cover a wide range of topics from a freethinking perspective. Common themes are separation of church and state and religion, dissemination of freethought, applied philosophy. Regular contributors include well-known scholars in the fields of philosophy. In Free Inquiry's April–May 2006 issue, the magazine published four of the cartoons that had appeared in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten and that had sparked violent worldwide Muslim protests. Kurtz, editor-in-chief of Free Inquiry said, "What is at stake is the precious right of freedom of expression"; the Borders Group refused to carry this issue in their Borders and Waldenbooks stores because of the cartoons. The reason given by Borders for their decision fear of violence.
The story made national and international news and the implications of this self-censorship were discussed, including by CBS News, the Washington Post, the New York Times. The "blogosphere" condemned the decision of Borders to ban the magazine and columnist Christopher Hitchens lamented the action in an article. Regular columnists include: Ophelia Benson – Author and blogger Russell Blackford – Author and Professor of Philosophy Greta Christina - Author and blogger Shadia Drury – Professor of Philosophy and Political Science Tibor Machan – Professor of Philosophy Mark Rubinstein – Economist Faisal Saeed Al Mutar – Commentator and social critic Editor in Chief: Paul Kurtz Editor: Thomas W. Flynn Assistant Editors: Julia Lavarnway, Nicole Scott Senior Editors: Bill Cooke, Richard Dawkins, Ed Doerr, James Haught, Jim Herrick, Ronald A. Lindsay, Taslima Nasrin Managing Editor: Andrea Szalanski Free Inquiry website Dogma Free America podcast interview with Tom Flynn, editor of Free Inquiry
Florence Cook was a medium who claimed to materialise a spirit, "Katie King". The question of whether the spirit was real or a fraud was a notable public controversy of the mid-1870s, her abilities were endorsed by Sir William Crookes but many observers were skeptical of Crookes's investigations, both at the time and subsequently. Cook was a teenage girl who started to claim mediumistic abilities in 1870 and in 1871–2 she developed her abilities under the established mediums Frank Herne and Charles Williams. Herne was associated with the spirit "John King", Florence became associated with "Katie King", stated to be John King's daughter. Herne was exposed as a fraud in 1875. Katie King developed from appearing as a disembodied face to a physical materialisation; the spirit was said to have appeared first between 1871 and 1874 in séances conducted by Florence Cook in London, in 1874–1875 in New York in séances held by the mediums Jennie Holmes and her husband Nelson Holmes. Katie King was believed by Spiritualists to be the daughter of John King, a spirit control of the 1850s through the 1870s that appeared in many séances involving materialised spirits.
A spirit control is a powerful and communicative spirit that organises the appearance of other spirits at a séance. John King claimed to be the spirit of the buccaneer. At Hackney on 9 December 1873, lawyer William Volckman attended a séance held by Florence Cook, during which Katie King materialised and, as was customary, held the hands of participants. Suspicious of the spirit's similarity with Cook, Volckman seized the spirit's hand and waist, accusing it of being the medium masquerading as her ghost; the spirit was wrestled from Volckman's grasp by other participants and returned to a cabinet from which Cook emerged some minutes later. Volckman published his opinion. Supporters of Miss Cook denounced Volckman on the grounds that he had broken his agreement to proper etiquette required in the séance, thus negating his credibility as an investigator: Volckman was associated with another medium, Mrs Guppy, who might have wished to denigrate her rival. Moreover, it was argued that since spirits borrowed energy and matter from their medium, it was not surprising that Katie King resembled Cook.
Despite the defence of their position and her supporters were hurt by this incident – newspapers were referring to it as an "exposure" – and sought further support for their position. To this end, they turned to Crookes, a prominent and respected scientist. Between 1871 and 1874, Sir William Crookes investigated the preternatural phenomena produced by Spiritualist mediums, he described the conditions he imposed on mediums as follows: "It must be at my own house, my own selection of friends and spectators, under my own conditions, I may do whatever I like as regards apparatus". The alleged medium Daniel Dunglas Home asserted. A 15-year-old Cook, alone in Crookes' house with Crookes' friends and family as witnesses, was said to have materialised the spirit of Katie King, who walked about, allowed herself to be weighed and measured, held the family's baby. On one occasion, at a joint seance in Crookes's home in March 1874, Katie King was seen in company with "Florence Maple", a spirit materialised by the medium Mary Showers, exposed as a fraud shortly thereafter.
The sessions were held with the medium secluded in the dark, because Spiritualists believe that materialisation requires dim surroundings to succeed, though the spirits materialised in the light and some photographs were taken. As is typical of materialised spirits, Katie's exact height and weight varied, though Katie was always taller than Florence Cook, with a larger face, different hair and skin. According to those present, the two were both visible at the same moments, so that Florence could not have assumed the role of the spirit; the final appearances of Katie King in connection with Florence Cook took place in April and May 1874 at the Cook family home in Hackney. The audiences were invited to sit in a parlour opening onto a bedroom, in which Florence would start her trance. After some time Katie King would emerge. At some point the audience would be shown a figure Florence, lying on the floor of the bedroom with her head covered by a shawl while Katie King was still visible in the parlour.
A number of the witnesses, such as Edward W. Cox, recorded their doubts about the proceedings, while others claimed that they had seen the two such as Crookes and Florence Marryat, who claimed that she had seen Katie naked in Florence's company. Crookes' report, published in 1874, contained his assertion that Florence Cook, as well as the mediums Kate Fox and Daniel Dunglas Home, were producing genuine preternatural phenomena; the publication caused an uproar, his testimony about Katie King was considered the most outrageous and sensational part of the report. Cook was exposed as a fraud medium but she had been "trained in the arts of the séance" which managed to trick Crookes. In 1880 another of Cook's materialisations was interrupted by one of the witnesses, George Sitwell, who seized the spirit figure and revealed that the medium was not in her chair. After studying the reports science historian Sherrie Lynne Lyons wrote "Katie" was Florence herself and at other times an accomplice. Regarding Crookes, Lyons wrote "Here was a man with a flawless scientific reputation, who discovered a new element, but could not detect a real live maiden, masquerading as a ghost."
"Cook, Florence Eliza". Oxford Di
Joe Nickell is an American prominent skeptic and investigator of the paranormal. He has helped expose such famous forgeries as the purported diary of Jack the Ripper. In 2002 he was one of a number of experts asked by scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr. to evaluate the authenticity of the manuscript of Hannah Crafts' The Bondwoman's Narrative the first novel by an African-American woman. At the request of document dealer and historian, Seth Keller, Nickell analyzed documentation in the dispute over the authorship of "The Night Before Christmas" supporting the Clement Clarke Moore claim. Nickell is Senior Research Fellow for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and writes for their journal, the Skeptical Inquirer, he is an associate dean of the Center for Inquiry Institute. He is the editor of over 30 books. Joe Nickell is the son of J. Wendell and Ella Nickell, grew up in West Liberty, Kentucky, his parents indulged his interest in magic and investigation, allowing him to set aside a room in their house as a crime lab.
In 1968, he avoided the draft by moving to Canada where he began his careers as a magician, a card dealer, a private investigator. When President Jimmy Carter granted unconditional pardons to draft dodgers in 1977, Nickell returned to the United States. In late 2003, Nickell reconnected with his college girlfriend, Diana G. Harris, learned he had a daughter and two grandsons and Chase. Harris and Nickell married April 1, 2006. Harris has assisted Nickell in his investigative work. Cherette had always been told that her biological father was her mother's first husband, although she questioned the lack of family resemblance. On her wedding day, one of the guests mentioned that her parents weren't married when she was conceived. Cherette asked her mother about her father and sensed an equivocation in the answer. More conversations with her mother and a DNA test proved. Nickell used his daughter's claim that her search was the result of an intuition as the basis for an article on the unconscious collection and processing of data.
Nickell concluded, Cautions notwithstanding, I must admit to a new appreciation of intuition, without which I would not have known of my wonderful daughter--and two grandsons! It's enough to warm an old skeptic's heart. In 1998, Nickell visited the grave of Tom Horn who in 1901 murdered Willie Nickell, a distant cousin of Nickell's. While suffering from a broken leg, Nickell managed "a sort of hot and skip" on the grave, feeling that it was appropriate. Nickell holds B. A. M. A. and Ph. D. degrees from the University of Kentucky. His Ph. D. is in English for graduate work focusing on literary folklore. Nickell has worked professionally as a stage magician, carnival pitchman, private detective, blackjack dealer, riverboat manager, university instructor and paranormal investigator, listing over 1000 personae on his website. Since the early 1980s, he has written, co-authored and edited books in many genres. In the 2007 horror film The Reaping, actress Hilary Swank plays an investigator of the paranormal.
Nickell was invited to the movie set to meet with Swank. Nickell said, "I liked the first 10 or 15 minutes, where the character seemed to be doing something similar to what I do, but it changed into the world of the supernatural, for good or evil, has never happened to me: I've never had frogs rain down upon me!"Nickell is consulted by news and television producers for his skeptical perspective. He was profiled by The New Yorker writer Burkhard Bilger who met Nickell during the summer of 2002 at Lily Dale, New York, where he had disguised himself to investigate Spiritualist psychics. Nickell is a recurring guest on the Point of Inquiry podcast and conducts the annual Houdini Seance at the Center for Inquiry every Halloween. Nickell explained his philosophy to Blake Smith of the Skeptic podcast MonsterTalk. I don't like debunkers and I don't like dismissers, people who are just trying to say, "Oh, humbug... Those people were drunk or lying or hoaxing." I just think. If I'm studying vampires, I don't have to believe they exist to talk about the history of vampires, the cultural and literary history.
There are all worthy of some scholarly discussion. Nickell's books can be divided into four main categories—religious, forensic and mysteries, he has written two books for young readers and two stand-alone books, one on UFOs, one on a regional alcoholic drink, several additional small press and "contributed to" books. Beginning in 1982 with his book, Inquest on the Shroud of Turin: Latest Scientific Findings, Nickell demonstrates his research model of collecting evidence and following that evidence to a sustainable conclusion, he updated the book in 1998 with more recent historical, forensic and chemical evidence, with special explanations of the radiocarbon dating process. In his 1993 book, Looking for a Miracle: Weeping Icons, Stigmata and Healing Cures, updated in 1998, Nickell applies the same research model to miracles claimed by various religions. For each incident, Nickell reviews the contemporaneous written accounts, explores various natural explanations, explains the cultural environment surrounding the events, speculates on the motivations of the affected religious community.
The miracles turned out to be either outright misinterpretations of natural phenomena. Viewing the weeping St. Irene icon in Queens, New York, Nickell said, The glistening varnish and certain surface irregularities created a play of light that produced the appearance of weeping. A religiou
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun