Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Ardmillan is a residential suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland. The boundary north of Ardmillan is bordered by the area of Dalry. To the west is the area of Gorgie, to the east is the area of Fountainbridge. Polwarth and North Merchiston are to the south of Ardmillan; the name means the "high bare place" in Scottish Gaelic. The area contains many tenements as well as "Diggers" pub, so called because the gravediggers from the large graveyard in the Ardmillan-Dalry area would go in there after work. Another pub in the area, the Caledonian Sample Room, is mistakenly assumed to be owned by the nearby Caledonian Brewery. Ardmillan has two churches; the first is St Michael's Parish Church, an ecumenical church. Building of the church began in 1879 and was completed for services in 1883. There is an old congregation of Wesleyan Methodists in the area. Ardmillan is home to a large, modern health centre called Ardmillan House; the health centre is the location of the South East Scotland Breast Screening Centre. On the southern boundary with North Merchiston is a large public park - Harrison Park.
The origins of the park lie with a public purchase of land by Edinburgh City Council in 1886, with additional land expanding the park being bought in 1930
Dalry is an area of the Scottish capital city of Edinburgh. It is located close to the city centre, between Gorgie; the area is now residential. It is centred around Dalry Road, which has numerous shops and small businesses. Lying outside the old city walls and west of the castle, the area began as part of the agricultural estate of Dalry House, the exception being the Dalry Mill, recorded as the oldest paper mill in Scotland, now demolished. In the Victorian period industrial development followed along with large scale tenement construction, new road layouts and the addition of railway infrastructure, all of which came to occupy the former fields. By the early 21st century most of the industry of Dalry has disappeared, with the former sites converted to private housing; the name Dalry may derive from Dail Rig or Dail Ruigh, Scottish Gaelic for the "Place of the Fields" or "King's Field" respectively. "Field of the heather" from Dail and Scottish Gaelic fhraoich, has been suggested as a derivation.
Dalry is centred on Dalry Road. The area is mentioned along with the neighbouring area of Gorgie to the southwest, the joint name Gorgie-Dalry is used by the City of Edinburgh Council; the border with Gorgie runs through the large site of the North British Distillery in one area, to the Tynecastle Stadium in the south-west. The West Approach Road with the area of Fountainbridge beyond marks the south-eastern boundary of Dalry. Fountainbridge is accessed via the Telfer Subway; the subway was built in the mid-19th century to provide access between Dalry and Fountainbridge under the Caledonian Railway main line but it remained as a primary pedestrian route following the replacement of the railway by the West Approach Road in the 1970s. Dalry borders the Edinburgh areas of Ardmillan to the south, Roseburn to the north-west and Haymarket to the north. Dalry has a range of shops and leisure facilities. Princes Street, in central Edinburgh, is ten to fifteen minutes' walk from the area. Many of Edinburgh's major employers are within walking distance.
The nearest railway station is Haymarket railway station, located directly adjacent to the northern boundary of Dalry. Dalry is first recorded around 1328. Dalry Mill was located on these lands and is stated to have existed in various forms from at least 1478 to sometime in the mid-18th century; the mill was engaged in paper production in 1590, the first paper mill recorded to exist in Scotland. The paper mill produced'white writing and printing papers' for the nearby city centre printing and publishing. Today it would be considered to be in the Roseburn area rather than Dalry. With the exception of the mill the area was agricultural land, lying outside the Old Town of Edinburgh; the former mansion house, Dalry House, built about 1661 still exists. The house, once set in extensive grounds, is now surrounded by tenements and is located on Orwell Place, it was built for and owned and occupied by the Chiesley family. The house was reputedly haunted by a member of the family called John Chiesley. John Chiesley, the local landowner was married to Margaret Nicholson.
The marriage was said to be unhappy and Margaret took her husband to court for aliment. She was awarded 1,700 merks by Sir George Lockhart of Carnwath, the Lord President of the Court of Session. Furious with the result, John Chiesley shot the judge, dead near his home in Old Bank Close off the Lawnmarket as he walked home from church on Easter Sunday, 31 March 1689. Chiesley made no attempt to escape and confessed at his trial, held before the Lord Provost the next day. Two days he was taken from the Tolbooth to the Mercat Cross on the High Street, his right hand was cut off before he was hanged, the pistol he had used for the murder was placed round his neck. According to Robert Chambers writing in 1824, "The body was stolen from the gallows, as was supposed, by his friends, it was never known what had become of it, till more than a century after, when, in removing the hearth-stone of a cottage in Dairy Park, near Edinburgh, a human skeleton was found, with the remains of a pistol near the situation of the neck.
No doubt was entertained that these were the remains of Chiesly," Ironically, only five years in 1694, Robert Chieslie, John's brother, served as Lord Provost of Edinburgh. Dalry House and the surrounding lands passed to the Walker family between 1790 and 1812. In 1870 the house was sold to the Scottish Episcopal Church and from the late 19th century to about 1960 it was used as a teacher training college and by the Edinburgh & Leith Old People's Welfare Committee for social activities, classes and a lunch club until closed down in 2002; the actor Alastair Sim taught at the college between 1922 and 1924. The house was renovated and converted into private flats in the early 21st century. Dalry was intensively developed in the 19th century and contains a mix of traditional tenements, "colonies"; the Dalry Colonies are accessed from Dalry Place off the east end of Dalry Road and comprise eight streets: Lewis Terrace, Walker Terrace, Douglas Terrace, Cobden Terrace, Argyll Terrace, Bright Terrace, Atholl Terrace and McLaren Terrace and Breadalbane Terrace.
Four of the streets are named after politicians, prominent in the Anti-Corn Law League.
Gorgie is a densely populated area of Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located in the west of the city and borders Murrayfield and Dalry; the name is thought to be Brythonic in origin. Early forms suggest it derives from gor gyn – upper wedge – which may refer to the tapering shape of the land between the Water of Leith and the Craiglockhart hills. An alternative derivation is'big field' from Cumbric gor cyn. Gorgie is recorded in 12th century charters of Holyrood Abbey, when in 1236 it came into the possession of Sir William Livingston. In 1799, the Cox family who owned a mill bought most of the former estate from the residual Livingston family, they developed a glue factory on the site, redeveloped under a new Post Office Telecommunications telephone exchange in 1969. From 1527, the landowners lived in Gorgie House, situated on Alexander Drive, its remnants were demolished in 1937, to allow construction of the Pooles Roxy cinema and some housing. Gorgie developed at a slower pace than nearby Dalry, allowing the continued operation of the 10 acres Gorgie pig farm until 1885.
Robb's Loan is named after Robert Robb and his son James who farmed at Gorgie Mains for much of the nineteenth century. By 1800, only the area between Robertson Avenue and Saughton Park had any housing, served by a school and a church mission. With grain whisky consumption growing in the industrialised and railway connected Victorian era, independent whisky blenders needed access to a high quality and high volume producer of grain whisky spirit. In 1885, major shareholders Andrew Usher, William Sanderson and John M. Crabbie, with numerous other whisky-blenders as shareholders, established the North British Distillery Company, which bought the former pig farm, began developing a distillery; the distillery gained access to the Edinburgh Suburban and Southside Junction Railway, which began developing a railway station in Gorgie. This brought about the 1888 development of Stewart Terrace, Wardlaw Place, Wardlaw Street, the tenement flats of Tynecastle Terrace and Ardmillan Terrace. McVitie & Price Ltd was established in 1830 on Rose Street in Edinburgh.
The firm moved to various sites in the city, before completing the St. Andrews Biscuit Works factory on Robertson Avenue in 1888. Though the factory burned down in 1894, it was rebuilt the same year, it is one of the claimed sites of. The site was closed in 1969, when production ceased and operations were transferred to Levenshulme in Manchester, Harlesden in London. After closure, Ferranti occupied the buildings as an electronics factory until the 1980s. In 1906, pharmaceutical research company T&H Smith Ltd moved from Canongate to the district. Now merged with two other Edinburgh-based medical research companies, they form leading global medicinal-opiate producer MacFarlan Smith; the chemical plant of Cox's glue and gelatin works, the Caledonian Brewery developed in the area. Most of the large industrial works closed from the late-1960s to the mid-1980s, bringing high unemployment to the area; the recent refurbishment of many of the older buildings has brought a more cosmopolitan nature to the district, allowing it to retain several smaller businesses.
The area is served by Tynecastle High School. Gorgie City Farm was established by local people in 1982 on the site of a derelict railway goods yard. Set up as a community project with the aim of improving education in agriculture and rural crafts for people living in the area. In 2012, Gorgie was the centre of a Legionnaire's Disease outbreak believed to originate from factory cooling towers in the area; the Gorgie area is within the Edinburgh South West constituency for the Westminster Parliament and is represented by the Rt Hon Joanna Cherry MP of the Scottish National Party. At the Scottish Parliament, the area falls within Edinburgh Central, represented by Marco Biagi MSP of the Scottish National Party; the area, as part of the Sighthill/Gorgie ward, elects four councillors to the City of Edinburgh Council. The current representation is: Denis Dixon and Catherine Fullerton and Eric Milligan and Donald Wilson; the area was traversed by both the Caledonian Railway and the North British Railway and was served by Gorgie East Station on the Edinburgh Suburban and Southside Junction Railway.
It was opened on 1 December 1884 and served the area until it was closed in 1962 when passenger rail services were withdrawn from the Edinburgh Suburban line as part of the British Railways rationalisation programme known as the Beeching Axe. No trace of the station remains but the route continues to be used for freight services to this day, so freight trains avoid Edinburgh's main stations of Edinburgh Waverley and Edinburgh Haymarket, diverted passenger trains pass along this line. A local campaigning group, the Capital Rail Action Group, ran a campaign for the ESSJR line to be re-opened to passenger services, proposed that it should be operated either as a commuter rail service or as a light rail system to form an extension of the forthcoming Edinburgh Tram Network. Following a petition submitted to the Scottish Parliament in 2007, the proposal was rejected in 2009 by transport planners due to anticipated cost. After Heart of Midlothian F. C. was formed in 1874, the club played at sites in the Meadows and Powderhall.
Hearts first moved to Gorgie in 1881. This pitch stood on the site of the present-day Wardlaw Wardlaw Terrace; as this site was regarded as being "out of town", Hearts would sometimes stage two matches for the price of one, or set an admission price much