Kaliningrad Oblast referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. As an oblast, its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects, its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad known as Königsberg. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 941,873; the oblast is an exclave, bordered by Poland to the south and Lithuania to the east and north, so residents may only travel visa-free to the rest of Russia via sea or air. The territory was the northern part of East Prussia, with the southern part now being Poland's Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. With the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the territory was annexed by the Soviet Union. Following the post-war migration and Flight and expulsion of Germans, the territory was populated with citizens from the Soviet Union. Today no ethnic Germans remain. Early in the 21st century, the hitherto fledgling economy of Kaliningrad Oblast became one of the best performing economies in Russia.
This was helped by a low manufacturing tax rate related to its "Special Economic Zone" status. As of 2006, one in three televisions manufactured in Russia came from Kaliningrad; the territory's population was one of the few in Russia, expected to show strong growth after the collapse of the USSR. During the Middle Ages, the territory of what is now Kaliningrad Oblast was inhabited by tribes of Old Prussians in the western part and by Lithuanians in the eastern part; the tribes were divided by the rivers Alna. The Teutonic Knights established a monastic state. On the foundations of a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the city of Königsberg. Germans assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians; the Lithuanian-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania Minor. Speakers of the old Baltic languages became extinct around the 17th century, having been assimilated and Germanised. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia.
The duchy was nominally a fief of the Polish crown. It merged with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Königsberg was the duchy's capital from 1525 until 1701; as the centre of Prussia moved westward, the position of the capital became too peripheral and Berlin became the new Prussian capital city. During the Seven Years' War it was occupied by the Russian Empire; the region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773. The territory of the Kaliningrad Oblast lies in the northern part of East Prussia; the annexation of the territory, while on a temporary basis, was approved by the "Big Three" allied leaders of World War II in the Potsdam Agreement in 1945. Three years after the annexation by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the remaining two-thirds of East Prussia was annexed by Poland and is today organised into the Warmian-Masurian province. In 1824, shortly before its merger with West Prussia, the population of East Prussia was 1,080,000 people.
Of that number, according to Karl Andree, Germans were more than half, while 280,000 were ethnically Polish and 200,000 were ethnically Lithuanian. As of 1819 there were 20,000 strong ethnic Curonian and Latvian minorities as well as 2,400 Jews, according to Georg Hassel. Similar numbers are given with a breakdown by county. However, the majority of East Prussian Polish and Lithuanian inhabitants were Lutherans, not Roman Catholics like their ethnic kinsmen across the border in the Russian Empire. Only in Southern Warmia Catholic Poles - so called Warmiaks - comprised the majority of population, numbering 26,067 people in county Allenstein in 1837. Another minority in 19th century East Prussia, were ethnically Russian Old Believers known as Philipponnen - their main town was Eckersdorf. In year 1817, East Prussia had 796,204 Evangelical Christians, 120,123 Roman Catholics, 864 Mennonites and 2,389 Jews. East Prussia was an important centre of German culture. Many important figures, such as Immanuel Kant and E. T. A. Hoffmann, came from this region.
Despite being damaged during World War II and thereafter, the cities of the oblast still contain examples of German architecture. The Jugendstil style showcases cultural importance of the area. By the early 20th century, Lithuanians formed a majority only in rural parts of the north-eastern corner of East Prussia. A similar fate befell the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki who had settled the coast of East Prussia between Gdańsk and Klaipėda; the rest of the area, with the exception of the Slavic Masurians in southern Prussia, was overwhelmingly German-speaking. The Memel Territory part of north-eastern East Prussia as well as Lithuania Minor, was annexed by Lithuania in 1923. In 1938, Nazi Germany radically altered about a third of the place names of this area, replacing Old Prussian and Lithuanian names with newly invented German names. Slavic and Jewish populations under Nazi Germany were classified as subhuman and were the target of a campaign of genocide by the German state, with the eventual goal of their
Horlivka known by its Russian name Gorlovka or Gorlowka, is a city of regional significance in the Donetsk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. In 2001, the city's population was 292,000, which declined to 256,714 by 2013. Economic activity is predominantly the chemical industry; the Horlivka State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages has a two building campus in the city centre. The city was damaged during the War in Donbass and has since been under control of pro-Russian forces. Suburbs of Horlivka stayed under Ukrainian army control. In 1779 the city was founded as Gosudarev Posad and in 1869 it was renamed after Pyotr Gorlov as Gorlovka; the workers' town provided basic services to and organization of a series of mining camps. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, it was the scene of an armed uprising. In April 1918 troops loyal to the Ukrainian People's Republic took control of Horlivka. Subsequently, under Soviet control, by the 1930s it had expanded and become a major center for mining operations in the Ukrainian SSR.
The city was occupied by German troops from 1941-1943. During World War II retreating Nazis perpetrated mass shootings. Nonetheless, the city's population had risen to over 400,000 by the end of the war. In recent years many mines have closed; the population fell by more than ten percent during the 1990s. In the middle of April, 2014, shortly thereafter, pro-Russian separatists captured several towns in Donetsk Oblast. A group of separatists seized the police station in Horlivka on April 14; the mayor of the city, Yevhen Klep, was detained by the separatists on June 11, not released until July 18. Local chief of police Andriy Kryschenko was badly beaten by the insurgents. A Horlivka city council deputy, Volodymyr Rybak, was kidnapped by the pro-Russian militants on 17 April, his body was found in a river on 22 April. The city administration building was seized on 30 April, solidifying separatist control over Horlivka. Self-proclaimed mayor of Horlivka Volodymyr Kolosniuk was arrested by the SBU on suspicion of participation in "terrorist activities" on 2 July.
On July 21 and 22, 2014, the city saw heavy fighting. The Ukrainian army retook parts of Horlivka on July 21. After the Ukrainian army had retaken Lysychansk on July 25, 2014, the recapture of Horlivka became a priority, for the city was seen as "a direct path to the regional center - Donetsk"; as of 28 July, the city was reported to be surrounded by Ukrainian troops, with rebels holding their positions inside. However, Horlivka continued to be controlled by separatist forces; as of June 2015 it was situated 10 kilometers from the war front. Suburbs of Horlivka stayed under Ukrainian army control. In November 2017 they regained control of the villages of Hladosove north of Horlivka; as reported by the city administration, from the beginning of the conflict till late January 2015 274 local civilians were wounded and 92 killed, including 9 children. Because of the conflict the city's population shrank to 180,000. Ethnic composition as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001: First language as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001: Russian 85.1% Ukrainian 13.9% Belarusian 0.1% Armenian 0.1% Despite the fall of communism a statue of Lenin still stands in a central square bearing his name.
Horlivka is well served by CNG-buses, but much of the city's Soviet-era infrastructure shows signs of deterioration. By contrast, a number of modern shops and a new cathedral in the town center indicate some rejuvenation. On the eastern side of Horlivka there is an abandoned chemical plant which used to produce toxic explosives and has been reported to be in a dangerous condition. Mining activity has resulted in large spoil tips being visible around the city, but a tree-planting project and ongoing forestry maintenance has revitalised an area to the north; the city was damaged during the War in Donbass. The city is divided into three city districts: Mykytivka and City Center; the city municipality includes several towns and villages. Most of populated places belongs to the City Center district, while Hladosove and Zaitseve is part of Mykytivka district. Towns: Holmivsky, Panteleymonivka villages: Mykhailivka, Ryasne hamlets: Hladosove, Piatykhatky, Fedorivka, Shyroka Balka Sergei Baranov, Russian volleyball player Yuriy Boyko, Ukrainian politician Valeriy Horbunov and Soviet football player Nikolai Kapustin, Russian composer and pianist Ihor Petrov, Ukrainian professional football coach and a former player Aleksandr Ponomarev, Soviet Ukrainian football player and manager Ruslan Ponomariov, Ukrainian chess player Serhiy Rebrov, Ukrainian footballer Oleksandr Savanchuk, Ukrainian football striker Arkady Shevchenko, Soviet defector Mykyta Shevchenko, Ukrainian football goalkeeper Evgeny Ukhanov, Ukrainian-Australian pianist Alexander Volkov, Soviet-Russian cosmonaut Horlivka is twinned with: Barnsley, United Kingdom, since 1987 Pensacola, United States Buffalo, United States, since 2007 Gorlovka Portal Gorlovka Vedi Video of Gorlovka Yellow Pages of Horlivka Things to do in Horlivka
Moscow Oblast, or Podmoskovye, is a federal subject of Russia. With a population of 7,095,120 living in an area of 44,300 square kilometers, it is one of the most densely populated regions in the country and is the second most populous federal subject; the oblast has no official administrative center. Moscow Oblast borders Tver Oblast in the northwest, Yaroslavl Oblast in the north, Vladimir Oblast in the northeast and east, Ryazan Oblast in the southeast, Tula Oblast in the south, Kaluga Oblast in the southwest, Smolensk Oblast in the west. In the center stands the federal city of Moscow, a separate federal subject in its own right; the oblast is industrialized, with its main industrial branches being metallurgy, oil refining, mechanical engineering, food and chemical industries. The oblast is flat, with some hills with the height of about 160 meters in the western and extensive lowlands in the eastern part. From the southwest to northeast, the oblast is crossed by the border of the Moscow glacier to the north of the common ice-erosion form with moraine ridges, to the south – only erosional landforms.
The western and northern parts of the oblast contain the Moscow Uplands. Their average height peaks at about 300 meters near Dmitrov and the upper point of 310 meters lies near the village of Shapkino in Mozhaysky District; the northern part of the Moscow Uplands is steeper than the southern part. The uplands contain lakes such as Lakes Nerskoye and Krugloye. To the north of the Moscow Uplands lies the alluvial Verhnevolzhsk Depression. To the south stretches a hilly area of the Moskvoretsko-Oksk plain, its greatest height of 254 meters lies within the Moscow city limits. The plain has defined river valleys in the south parts, occasional karst relief in Serpukhovsky District. In the extreme south, after the Oka River, lies the Central Russian Upland, it contains numerous gullies and ravines and has average height above 200 m with the maximum of 236 m near Pushchino. Most of the eastern part of Moscow Oblast is taken by the vast Meshchera Lowlands with much wetland in their eastern part, their highest hill peaks at 214 meters but the average heights are 120–150 meters.
Most lakes of the lowlands, such as Lakes Chyornoye and Svyatoye, are of glacial origin. Here lies the lowest natural elevation of the water level of Oka River at 97 meters. Moscow Oblast is located in the central part of the East European craton. Like all cratons, the latter is composed of the crystalline sedimentary cover; the basement consists of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks and the cover is deposited in the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras. The lowest depth of the basement is to the south of Serebryanye Prudy, in the south area of the oblast, the largest is to the east of Sergiyev Posad, in the northeast region. Tertiary deposits are absent within the oblast. More abundant are deposits of the Carboniferous and Jurassic periods. In the Cretaceous period, a sea was covering Moscow Oblast, as evidenced by phosphate deposits and a variety of sands. Cretaceous sediments are most common in the north of the oblast; the sea was wider in Jurassic than in Cretaceous period. Typical Jurassic deposits, in the form of black clay, are found within and around the city of Moscow and in the valley of the Moscow River.
Carboniferous deposits in Moscow Oblast are represented by dolomite and marl. Coal deposits rich in organic remains occur in the south in Serpukhovsky District, in the western regions. Devonian deposits were found within the region. Quaternary deposits are distributed in Moscow Oblast, it is believed. The first occurred in the Lower Pleistocene and spread to the east-west part of the Oka River valley, it left no trace in the region. In the Middle Pleistocene, there were two powerful glaciations; the Dnieper glacier covered a large part of the Russian Plain, whereas the Moscow glaciation stopped just south of the present city of Moscow. The last glaciation, the Valdai glaciation, occurred in the Late Pleistocene; the glaciers left behind a moraine loam with pebbles and boulders of various rocks, such as granite, quartzite, dolomite and sandstone. Its thickness varies between a few meters at 100 m at moraine ridges. Moscow Oblast is rich in minerals. Sands from the sediments of different periods are of high quality and are used in construction.
Quartz sand is used in the glass industry, their production is conducted from the end of 17th century near Lyubertsy. Much of the production is halted due to environmental concerns, only the Yeganovskoye field is being exploited. Sand and gravel deposits are abundant within the Smolensk-Moscow Upland. Sandstone deposits are developed in Dmitrovsky Districts. There are numerous clay deposits within the oblas
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Odintsovsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-six in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is located in the western central part of the oblast and borders with the federal city of Moscow in the east, Leninsky District in the southeast, Naro-Fominsky District in the south, Ruzsky District in the west, Istrinsky District in the north, with Krasnogorsky District in the northeast; the area of the district is 1,289.628 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the city of Odintsovo. Population: 316,696; the population of Odintsovo accounts for 43.9% of the district's total population. The Moskva River with its tributaries flow through the district; the district was established on January 13, 1965. Major attractions include Grebnevskaya Church. Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «Об отнесении города Озёры Озёрского района Московской области к категории города областного подчинения Московской области, упразднении Озёрского района Московской области и внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"».
Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г.. Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №64/2005-ОЗ от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Одинцовского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №7/2012-ОЗ от 17 февраля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Одинцовского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости.
Подмосковье", №42, 10 марта 2005 г
Guryevsky District, Kaliningrad Oblast
Guryevsky District is an administrative district, one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Guryevsky Urban Okrug, it is located in the west of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,284 square kilometers, its administrative center is the town of Guryevsk. Population: 52,988 ; the population of Guryevsk accounts for 23.5% of the district's total population. The district is situated around the administrative center of the oblast. For this reason the main railway lines and roads pass through the district. To the north the district reaches the Curonian Lagoon, to the southwest—the Vistula Lagoon. In the west, parted from the rest of the district by Kaliningrad, the town of Svetly is located on the Vistula Lagoon. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Guryevsky District is one of the fifteen in the oblast; the town of Guryevsk serves as its administrative center. As a municipal division, the district has been incorporated as Guryevsky Urban Okrug since May 31, 2013.
Prior to that date, the district was incorporated as Guryevsky Municipal District, subdivided into one urban settlement and seven rural settlements. Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №112, 26 июня 2010 г.. Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №170, 15 сентября 2011 г.. Калининградская областная Дума.
Закон №229 от 29 мая 2013 г. «Об объединении поселений, входящих в состав Гурьевского муниципального района, и организации местного самоуправления на объединённой территории». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №92, 31 мая 2013 г
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st