The Findel Glacier is a valley glacier in the Monte Rosa massif east of Zermatt in the Pennine Alps. It has a length of 8 km and covers an area of 19 km2, the starting point of the Findel Glacier is on the Cima di Jazzi at 3,803 m above sea level, on the border between Switzerland and Italy. From there the glacier flows to the west between the Rimpfischhorn and Strahlhorn on the north and the Stockhorn on the south, the end of glacier tongue is located at 2,500 m above sea level. In October 2009, a group of Swiss scientists from the University of Zurich carried out an experiment to measure the length of the glacier, comparing their results with a previous experiment in 2005. Their results showed that the glacier had lost 49 million cubic metres of ice, Swiss glacier monitoring network Swiss Scientists measure glacial melting with light Home
Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols.
For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level
The Weisshorn is a major peak of the Alps and Switzerland, culminating at 4,506 metres above sea level. It is part of the Pennine Alps and is located between the valleys of Anniviers and Zermatt in the canton of Valais, in the latter valley, the Weisshorn is one of the many 4000ers surrounding Zermatt, with Monte Rosa and the Matterhorn. The Weisshorn was first climbed in 1861 from Randa by the Irish physicist John Tyndall, the Weisshorn Hut is used on the normal route. The Weisshorn is considered by mountaineers to be the most beautiful mountain in the Alps and Switzerland for its pyramidal shape. In April and May 1991, two consecutive rockslides took place from a cliff above the town of Randa on the east side of the massif, the Weisshorn is situated in the southern canton of Valais, about 25 km southwards from the Rhone between Sierre and Visp. The Weisshorn faces the slightly higher Dom across the Mattertal, with the village of Randa 3100 metres below these two summits, after the Dom, the Weisshorn is the second-highest Alpine summit situated completely out the main chain and fully within Switzerland.
On both sides of the Weisshorn range, the end up in the Rhone, through the Navissence. The Weisshorn has a shape and its faces are separated by three ridges descending steeply from the summit. Two of these are nearly in a line, one running approximately north. The third ridge is nearly at right angles to two, running almost due east. In the compartment between the northern and eastern spurs lies the Bis Glacier and it is connected with the summit by long and extremely steep slopes of snow. In the compartment between the eastern and southern spurs lies the Schali Glacier, ranges of steep rocks rise round the whole basin of this glacier, except in one or two places where they are interrupted by couloirs of snow. Finally, on the side the mountain presents one gigantic face of rocky precipice. This face rises above the Weisshorn Glacier and the Moming Glacier, the northern spur forks out at a considerable distance below the summit into two branches enclosing the Turtmann Glacier. The eastern branch connects the mountain with the Bishorn, across the Weisshornjoch, the Weisshorn is the culminating point of the Dent Blanche nappe, a klippe belonging to the Austroalpine nappes.
The mountain is composed of gneisses, the west face is composed of sedimentary rocks from the cretaceous period. The mountain was first climbed on 19 August 1861 by the 29-year-old physicist John Tyndall, with guides J. J. Bennen and their itinerary corresponds to the normal route for climbing the mountain today, the east ridge, starting from the Weisshorn Hut. In 1860 an attempt was made by C. E. Mathews by the southern face and he came to Zermatt with Melchior Anderegg, and engaged Johann Kronig as second guide
Riffelalp is a hamlet in the municipality of Zermatt in the canton of Valais. It is located at a height of 2,222 metres above sea level, just above the tree line, once the site of the prestigious Riffelalp Grand Hotel, today Riffelalp mainly consists of a large hotel complex, the Riffelalp Resort 2222m, and a chapel. Riffelalp is connected to Zermatt by the Gornergrat railway, although Riffelalp railway station is located some distance from the resort, the 675 metres long Riffelalp tram links the two together. The famous Zermatt hotelier Alexander Seiler first spotted the potential of the Riffelalp meadow, with its view of the Matterhorn, in 1856 and it wasnt, until 1878 that construction of the Riffelalp Grand Hotel got underway, and the hotel opened in 1884. In 1898, the Gornergrat railway was opened, and the year the hotel built the Riffelalp tram to connect it to the railway. Around this time, the capacity of the hotel reached 280 rooms, during the night of 14 February 1961, the Riffelalp Grand Hotel was destroyed in a fire.
In 1986 worked commenced on the refurbishment of the two annex, which had survived the fire, and 1988 the Riffelalp was again open to visitors, in 1998, work started on the construction of the new Riffelalp Resort on the site of the old grand hotel. Media related to Riffelalp at Wikimedia Commons Riffelalp Resort
It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since reduced to just two, Google Earth and Google Earth Pro, which is now free and is intended for commercial use. The third original option, Google Earth Plus, has been discontinued. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is available for use on computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel,2.6 or later. Google Earth is available as a plugin which was released on May 28,2008. It was available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28,2008, as a free download from the App Store. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, as of October 2011, Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earths surface, Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters.
Most areas in Google Earth are only shown in 2D aerial imagery, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view almost the entire earth in three dimensions, since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, some people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client, Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language. In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called Geographic Web that includes integration with Wikipedia, in Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates.
There is a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World, More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30,2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio, in March 2010, Google removed the Geographic Web layer. The Panoramio layer became part of the layers and the Wikipedia layer was placed in the More layer. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature, starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. The flight simulator could be accessed by holding down the keys Ctrl, initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR-22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports
The Riffelalp tram is a high altitude tramway line located in the Swiss canton of Valais near the resort of Zermatt. The line links the Riffelalp Resort to Riffelalp station, on the Gornergrat railway, the Riffelalp tram is the highest tram line in Europe. The Riffelalp Grand Hotel, the predecessor of todays Riffelalp Resort, was opened by Alexander Seiler in 1884, in 1898, the Gornergrat railway was opened, linking Zermatt to the summit of the Gornergrat. The line included a station called Riffelalp, but this was situated some distance from the resort, in order to provide better access to the station, the hotel built the Riffelalp tram. The line opened on 13 July 1899, one year after the opening of the Gornergrat railway, the original track was 480 metres long and electrified, using a twin overhead line carrying a three-phase ac supply at 550 volts. The tram operated in the summer months only, during the night of 14 February 1961, the Riffelalp Grand Hotel was destroyed in a fire. In 1998, work started on the construction of the new Riffelalp Resort on the site of the old grand hotel, as part of this reconstruction, the tram line was relayed on its original route.
The wooden bodies of the cars had deteriorated in storage. The original cars were rebuilt with replacement bodies and using battery power. The new line was opened on 15 June 2001, the tram line follows the footpath that links the Riffelalp station, at 2,210 m above sea level, with the Riffelalp Resort, at 2,222 m above sea level. The line has a length of 675 metres and comprises a track of 800 mm gauge. At the station end of the line, the shares the building of the station and is linked to its cargo ramp. There is no connection to the Gornergrat railway, which is of 1,000 mm gauge. At the resort end of the line, there is a terminal loop, there are two trams in use, along with a goods trailer. Both trams are driven by a battery and two d. c. motors each delivering 10 kW, and a speed of 10 km/h. The battery is partially recharged during the electric braking operation, the service operates during the resorts summer season, which runs from June to September. It is the route recommended for its guests by the Riffelalp Resort.
During the resorts winter season, from December to April, a service is provided in place of the tram
The Matter Valley is located in southwestern Switzerland, south of the Rhone valley in the canton of Valais. The village of Zermatt is the most important settlement of the valley, located in the Pennine Alps, the Matter Valley is drained by the Matter Vispa, a tributary of the Rhone. The valley itself ends at Stalden where it meets the Saas Valley, the resulting Visp Valley continues for a few kilometres until it reaches the town of Visp on the young river Rhone. The valley starts between the high summits south of Zermatt on the border with Italy. The upper side is glaciated, the second largest glacier of the Alps, around the village of Randa are located the Weisshorn and the Dom. The difference of height between the talweg and the summits on both side reaches over 3 km, the total length of the valley is about 40 km. 5,600 inhabitants, is the largest and highest town in the valley, St. Niklaus follows with 2,400 inhabitants. Between them are located the villages of Täsch and Randa. The villages of Grächen, Embd and Törbel are located above the valley, located at the end of the valley, is the lowest village.
Since the end of the century the upper end of the valley is connected by rail from Visp. If the main road connect Zermatt from Visp, it cannot be used between Täsch and Zermatt, the latter being completely car-free, since 1930 the valley is directly connected to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panoramic train
The Klein Matterhorn is a peak of the Pennine Alps, overlooking Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais. At 3,883 metres above sea level, it is the highest place in Europe that can be reached by aerial tramway, as well as by any other means of transport. The Klein Matterhorn is part of the Breithorn massif and overlooks on its side the almost equally high flat glacier named Breithorn Plateau. The name Klein Matterhorn is a reference to its larger neighbour, the Matterhorn. Even before the license application was filed, the building promoter had to negotiate with the Swiss Alpine Club. These discussions resulted in two large natural reserve zones, the third area was designated as a tourist zone. Licensing was further delayed until 1969 by the citizens of Zermatt filing a complaint to the council of the Canton of Valais. In December 1970, the Swiss government finally gave permission for the cable way, eventually, on 17 December 1973, the Federal Council rejected objections and granted a construction license.
The next major obstacle proved to be the recruitment of a force to build the lift system. At altitudes of 3000 to 4000m above sea level, worker productivity would be reduced by up to 50% compared to normal levels, and workers would be required to live for weeks on end within the camps. The construction of cable car started in August 1976 at all three construction sites, the valley terminal, the three tower sites and the mountain terminal. Creation of the terminal was a difficult undertaking. Some 2000 cubic metres of concrete were used in the station, all of which had to be transported there by helicopter in specially insulated tanks, mixed with warm water. Weather conditions at the site in high mountain terrain were extreme, temperatures falling to minus 40 °C, snowfalls. It took several weeks to cover the distance of 3,600 meters, with an altitude of almost 1,000 meters. On December 1978, all four track cables were installed, the Cable car was built by Von Roll LTD Bern Switzerland. The Klein Matterhorn is at the end of a cable car journey from Zermatt, via Furi.
The last station lies at a height of 3,820 metres, a tunnel connects it with the Breithorn Plateau on the south side
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river