A gorsedd is a community or meeting of modern-day bards. The word is of Welsh origin, meaning "throne", it is spelled gorsedh in Cornwall and goursez in Brittany, reflecting the spellings in the Cornish and Breton languages, respectively. When the term is used without qualification, it refers to the national Gorsedd of Wales, namely Gorsedd Cymru. However, other gorseddau exist, such as the Cornish Gorsedh Kernow, the Breton Goursez Vreizh and Gorsedd y Wladfa, in the Welsh Settlement in Patagonia. Gorseddau exist to promote the creation of poetry and music; as part of this, their most visible activity can be seen at Eisteddfodau – Welsh language festivals. Gorsedd Cymru was founded as Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain in 1792 by Edward Williams known as Iolo Morganwg, who invented much of its ritual based on the activities of the ancient Celtic Druidry. Nowadays, much of its ritual has Christian influence, were given further embellishment in the 1930s by Archdruid Cynan; the Gorsedd made its first appearance at an Eisteddfod at the Ivy Bush Inn in Carmarthen in 1819, its close association with the Festival has remained.

It is an association of poets, musicians and individuals who have made a significant and distinguished contribution to Welsh language and culture. The fictitious origin of these ceremonies was established by Professor G. J. Williams in works touching on Iolo Morganwg; the symbol used to represent a Gorsedd is a triple line, the middle line upright and the outer two slanted towards the top of the centre, thus: /|\. This symbol, called "awen", is explained as representing the sun; the word "awen" means "muse" in Welsh. Archdruid Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain Gorsedh Kernow Goursez Vreizh Gorsedd stones Order of Bards and Druids Oireachtas na Gaeilge Mòd

Road to Rio (1931 film)

Road to Rio is a 1931 German crime film directed by Manfred Noa and starring Maria Matray, Oskar Homolka and Oskar Marion. It premiered on 15 January 1931, it was shot at the Babelsberg Studios in Potsdam. The film's sets were designed by the art directors Hans Otto Erdmann. Maria Matray as Inge Weber - das Opfer Oskar Homolka as Ricardo Oskar Marion as Karl Plattke Senta Söneland as Berta Andersen, Hotel Manager Louis Ralph as Felice Hertha von Walther as Marietta Kurt Gerron as Director for Casino Julius Falkenstein as Muchica, Pantagenbesitzer Eduard von Winterstein as Polizeikommissär Alexa von Porembsky as Die Unerfahrene Eugen Rex Maria Forescu Ernst Reicher Gustav Püttjer Karl Platen Fritz Greiner Erwin van Roy Georg Schmieter Loo Hardy Angelo Ferrari Aruth Wartan Grange, William. Cultural Chronicle of the Weimar Republic. Scarecrow Press, 2008. Road to Rio on IMDb

Cattewater Wreck

Cattewater Wreck is a wooden three-masted, skeleton-built vessel, one of many ships that have wrecked in Cattewater, Plymouth Sound, England. This wreck is close to the entrance of Sutton Harbour, its name is still unknown but it is believed to be from the 16th Century; the wreck was found in 1973 when a dredger being used to deepen the Cattewater brought up timber wreckage and parts of some iron guns. An underwater investigation of the site in 1973 was instigated by the National Maritime Museum and the Department for the Environment; the investigation produced a provisional site plan and included the more controlled recovery of loose wreckage including concreted fragments of an iron muzzle loading cannon. The hull structure was the lowest section of hull from one end past the midships area, where the dredging work had caused extensive damage. Based on the assessments the site was recommended for designation under the British Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 and the site was designated under order No 1.

Further recording and excavation work on the site was carried out between 1974 and 1978. A substantial portion of the structure and a wide variety of finds were recovered, including pottery, worked wood, a brass pin and buckle, various lead objects, rope, animal bone and a number of wrought iron stave built guns on sledges; the present knowledge is based on less than 50% of the surviving structure. The Cattewater ship belongs to a period of developing ship design bordering the revolution in naval construction taking place around 1480 to 1525 and the appearance of the first English evidence for mathematically based formula for ship lines c. 1580. Positive identification of the ship has not been possible although the archaeological evidence suggests an early 16th-century merchantman of between 200 and 300 tons burthen. More recent work has been undertaken on the site by the University of Plymouth and 3H Consulting Ltd; the site was resurveyed in 2006 using a sub-bottom profiler and in 2007 using a multibeam echo sounder, sidescan sonar and a caesium magnetometer.

The survey work identified a number of magnetic and sub-bottom targets around the site and determined the correct position for the remaining hull structure. Part of this work involved constructing and publishing a comprehensive and integrated digital model of the site in Site Recorder that includes all the data from previous fieldwork along with data from recent geophysical surveys. Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 Redknap, Mark, 1997, The Cattewater Wreck: a contribution to 16th century maritime archaeology, in Cederlund, C. O. Postmedieval Boat and Ship Archaeology BAR International Series 256 Redknap, Mark, 1997 Artefacts From Wrecks: dated assemblages from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution, Oxbow monograph 84, ISBN 1-900188-39-2, ISBN 978-1-900188-39-5, Oxbow Books Fenwick V. & Gale A. 1998, Historic Shipwrecks, Tempus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-1416-X, pp102–103 Holt, Peter, 2008, High-Resolution Magnetometer Survey of the Cattewater Wreck, in Nautical Archaeology Winter 2008, Nautical Archaeology Society DCMS Advisory Committee Report on Historic Wreck Sites, 2000 Submerged Publications English Heritage PastScape