Eastertide or Paschaltide is a festal season in the liturgical year of Christianity that focuses on celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. It begins on Easter Sunday, which initiates Easter Week in Western Christianity, Bright Week in Eastern Christianity. There are several Eastertide customs across the Christian world, including sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs, a symbol of the empty tomb; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches throughout Eastertide. Other Eastertide customs include egg hunting, eating special Easter foods and watching Easter parades. Eastertide is the period of fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday, it is celebrated as a single joyful feast, indeed as the "great Lord's Day". Each Sunday of the season is treated as a Sunday of Easter, after the Sunday of the Resurrection, they are named Second Sunday of Easter, Third Sunday of Easter, etc. up to the Seventh Sunday of Easter, while the whole fifty-day period concludes with Pentecost Sunday.
Easter Sunday and Pentecost correspond to pre-existing Jewish feasts: The first day of Pesach and the holiday of Shavu'ot. In the Jewish tradition, the 49 days between these holidays are known as Counting of the Omer ; the first eight days are celebrated as solemnities of the Lord. Since 2000 the Second Sunday of Easter is called Divine Mercy Sunday; the name "Low Sunday" for this Sunday, once common in English, is now used. The solemnity of the Ascension of the Lord is celebrated on the fortieth day of Eastertide, except in countries where it is not a Holy Day of Obligation. In such countries it is celebrated on the following Sunday; the nine days from that feast until the Saturday before Pentecost are days of preparation for the Holy Spirit the Paraclete, which inspired the form of prayer called a novena. Before the 1969 revision of the calendar, the Sundays were called First Sunday after Easter, Second Sunday after Easter, etc; the Sunday preceding the feast of the Ascension of the Lord was sometimes, though not called Rogation Sunday, when the Ascension had an octave, the following Sunday was called Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension, but when this octave was abolished in 1955, it was called Sunday after the Ascension.
Pentecost was followed by an octave. When the Anglican and Lutheran churches implemented their own calendar and lectionary reforms in 1976, they adopted the same shortened definition of the Easter season as the Roman Catholic Church had promulgated six years earlier. In the Church of England, the Easter season begins with the Easter Vigil and ends after Evening Prayer on the Day of Pentecost; some Anglican provinces continue to label the Sundays between Easter and the Ascension "Sundays After Easter" rather than "Sundays of Easter". Paschal Tide is a season of joy; the colour for the Office de tempore is white. On Sundays the "Asperges" is replaced by the "Vidi Aquam" which recalls the solemn baptism of Easter eve. There is no feast day from Easter until Ascension; the Armenians during this period do away with the abstinence on Fridays. Prayers are said standing, not kneeling. Instead of the "Angelus" the "Regina Caeli" is recited. From Easter to Ascension many churches, about the tenth century, said only one Nocturn at Matins.
Pope Gregory VII limited this privilege of Pentecost. Some dioceses in Germany however, retained it far into the nineteenth century for 40 days after Easter. In every Nocturn the three psalms are said under one antiphon; the Alleluia appears as an independent antiphon. Instead of the "suffragia sanctorum" in the semidouble and ferial Offices, a commemoration of the Holy Cross is used; the iambic hymns have a special Easter doxology. The feasts of the holy Apostles and martyrs have their own commune from Easter to Pentecost. At Mass the Alleluia is added to the Introit and Communion. Paschal Tide was the period during which every member of the faithful who has attained the year of discretion was bound by the positive law of the Church to receive Holy Communion. During the early Middle Ages from the time of the Synod of Agde, it was customary to receive Holy Communion at least three times a year—Christmas and Pentecost. A positive precept was confirmed by the Council of Trent. According to these decrees the faithful of either sex, after coming to the age of discretion, must receive at least at Easter the Sacrament of the Eucharist.
Otherwise during life they are to be prevented from entering the church and when dead are to be denied Christian burial. The paschal precept is to be fulfilled in one's parish church. Although the precept of the Fourth Lateran to confess to the parish priest fell into disuse and permission was given to confess anywhere, the precept of
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in each of the four canonical Gospels. In most liturgical churches Palm Sunday is celebrated by the blessing and distribution of palm branches or the branches of other native trees representing the palm branches the crowd scattered in front of Christ as he rode into Jerusalem; the difficulty of procuring palms in unfavorable climates led to their substitution with branches of native trees, including box, olive and yew. The Sunday was named after these substitute trees, as in Yew Sunday, or by the general term Branch Sunday. In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place a week before his resurrection. Only the Gospel of John shows a timeline of the event, dated six days before the Passover. Before this, Jesus talked to two of his disciples, taking to himself the ancient Greek word of Lord, written with a capital letter in the original text, as a proper noun.
The raising of Lazarus is mentioned only in the previous chapter. The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches which follows the Byzantine Rite, commemorate it on Lazarus Saturday, following the text of the Gospel. In fact, the Jewish calendar dates begin at sundown of the night beforehand, conclude at nightfall. Christian theologians believe that the symbolism is captured prophetically in the Old Testament: Zechariah 9:9 "The Coming of Zion's King – See, your king comes to you and victorious, lowly and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey", quoted in the Gospels, it suggests. According to the Gospels, Jesus Christ rode a donkey into Jerusalem, the celebrating people there laid down their cloaks and small branches of trees in front of him, singing part of Psalm 118: 25–26 – Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord. We bless you from the house of the Lord; the symbolism of the donkey may refer to the Eastern tradition that it is an animal of peace, unlike the horse, the animal of war.
A king would have ridden a horse when he was bent on war and ridden a donkey to symbolize his arrival in peace. Jesus' entry to Jerusalem would have thus symbolized his entry as the Prince of Peace, not as a war-waging king, thus there have been two different meanings: an historical meaning happening according to the Gospels, a secondary meaning in the symbolism. In Luke 19:41 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and weeps over it, foretelling his coming Passion and the suffering that awaits the city in the events of the destruction of the Second Temple. In many lands in the ancient Near East, it was customary to cover in some way the path of someone thought worthy of the highest honour; the Hebrew Bible reports that son of Jehoshaphat, was treated this way. Both the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John report. In the synoptics the people are described as laying their garments and cut rushes on the street, whereas John specifies fronds of palm. In Jewish tradition, the palm is one of the Four Species carried for Sukkot, as prescribed for rejoicing at Leviticus 23:40.
In the Greco-Roman culture of the Roman Empire, which influenced Christian tradition, the palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory. It became the most common attribute of Victoria. For contemporary Roman observers, the procession would have evoked the Roman triumph, when the triumphator laid down his arms and wore the toga, the civilian garment of peace that might be ornamented with emblems of the palm. Although the Epistles of Paul refer to Jesus as "triumphing", the entry into Jerusalem may not have been pictured as a triumphal procession in this sense before the 13th century. In ancient Egyptian religion, the palm was carried in funeral processions and represented eternal life; the palm branch was used as a symbol of Christian martyrs and their spiritual victory or triumph over death. In Revelation 7:9, the white-clad multitude stand before Lamb holding palm branches. Palm Sunday, or the "Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem" as it may be called in Orthodox Churches, is one of the Twelve Great Feasts of the liturgical year.
The day before Palm Sunday, Lazarus Saturday, believers prepare palm fronds by knotting them into crosses in preparation for the procession on Sunday. The hangings and vestments in the church are changed to a festive color – most green; the Troparion of the Feast indicates that the resurrection of Lazarus is a prefiguration of Jesus's own Resurrection: In the Russian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Catholic Church, Ruthenian Catholic Church, Polish and Austrian Roman Catholics, various other Eastern European peoples, the custom developed of using pussy willow instead of palm fronds because the latter are not available that far north. There is no canonical requirement as to what kind of branches must be used, so some Orthodox believers use olive branches. Whatever the kind, these branches are blessed and distributed together with candles either during the All-Night Vigil on the Eve of the Feast, or before the Divine Liturgy on Sunday morning; the Great Entrance of the Divine Liturgy commemorates the "Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem", so the meaningfulness of this moment is punctuated on Palm Sunday as everyone stands, holding their branches and lit candles.
The faithful take these bran
Pisanica is a decorated Croatian Easter egg that comes from an old Slavic custom dating back to pagan times. During Easter, eggs would be painted with bright colors, would be given as gifts to young children or a significant other. Before paint became common, villagers would have to use whatever resources they had available around them to make the dyes and paints themselves; the most common color for eggs was red, due to the abundance of other vegetables. In the Međimurje area, soot would be mixed with oak to make a dark brown color. Green plants would be used for green dye; the word pisanica is derived from the Croatian word that means "writing." The most common phrase put on pisanicas is Happy Easter, or "Sretan Uskrs." Other common decorations are doves, flowers, traditional designs, other slogans wishing health and happiness. The day before Easter, Roman Catholics and other Christians go to a late night mass carrying a basket of traditional food (including bread and eggs. During the mass, priests bless the food.
On Easter day, a traditional game is played in which at least two people choose eggs and hold them vertically while one person taps the end of the other egg with their end, to see whose will crack. Anyone whose egg cracks must choose another and tap the other person's egg, they continue until all the eggs have been used and cracked but the last one. Whoever holds the strongest egg in the end which wins. Easter egg Egg decorating in Slavic culture Pisanka Pysanka Croatian Easter USKRSNI OBIČAJI U HRVATSKOJ
This article describes the Paschal candle of the Western Churches. For the Paschal triple-candle used in Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine rite see Paschal trikirion. A Paschal candle is a white candle used in liturgies in Western Christianity. A new Paschal candle is blessed and lit every year at Easter, is used throughout the Paschal season, during Easter and throughout the year on special occasions, such as baptisms and funerals; the equivalent of the Paschal candle in the Western Orthodox Church is the Paschal trikirion which differs both in style and usage. The term "Paschal" comes from the Latin word "Pascha", which came from the Hebrew word Pesach, which in Hebrew means Passover, relates to the Paschal mystery of salvation, it is sometimes referred to as the "Easter candle" or the "Christ candle." For congregations that use a Paschal candle, it is the largest candle in the worship space. In most cases today the candle will display several common symbols: The cross is always the central symbol, most identifying it as the Paschal candle The Greek letters alpha and omega signify that God is the beginning and the end The current year represents God in the present amidst the congregation Five grains of incense are embedded in the candle during the Easter Vigil to represent the five wounds of Jesus: the three nails that pierced his hands and feet, the spear thrust into his side, the thorns that crowned his head.
In the Church, Paschal candles reached a stupendous size. The Paschal candle of Salisbury Cathedral was said to have been 36 feet tall. Today, in the United States and Southern Europe the candle is 2 inches in diameter and 36 to 48 inches tall. On Maundy Thursday of the same week the entire church is darkened by extinguishing all candles and lamps; this represents the darkness of a world without God. At the opening of the Easter Vigil a "new fire" is lit and blessed; the minister will trace the symbols on the Paschal candle, saying words similar to: "Christ and today, the beginning and the ending. To Christ belongs all time and all the ages. Amen." The Paschal candle is the first candle to be lit with a flame from this sacred fire, representing the light of Christ coming into the world. This represents the risen Christ, as a symbol of light dispelling darkness; as it is lit, the minister may say words similar to: "The light of Christ, rising in Glory, dispel the darkness of our hearts and minds."
The worshiping assembly processes into the church led by the Paschal candle. The candle is raised three times during the procession, accompanied by the chant "The light of Christ" to which the assembly responds "Thanks be to God". Following the procession the Exultet is chanted, traditionally by a deacon, but it may be chanted by the priest or a cantor; the Exultet concludes with a blessing of the candle: Accept this Easter candle, a flame divided but undimmed, a pillar of fire that glows to the honor of God. Let it mingle with the lights of heaven and continue bravely burning to dispel the darkness of this night! May the Morning Star which never sets find this flame still burning: Christ, that Morning Star, who came back from the dead, shed his peaceful light on all humanity, your Son, who lives and reigns for and ever. Amen. From the New Roman Missal: On this, your night of grace, O holy Father, accept this candle, a solemn offering, the work of bees and of your servants’ hands, an evening sacrifice of praise, this gift from your most holy Church.
But now we know the praises of this pillar, which glowing fire ignites for God’s honor, a fire into many flames divided, yet never dimmed by sharing of its light, for it is fed by melting wax, drawn out by mother bees to build a torch so precious. O blessed night, when things of heaven are wed to those of earth, divine to the human. Therefore, O Lord, we pray you that this candle, hallowed to the honor of your name, may persevere undimmed, to overcome the darkness of this night. Receive it as a pleasing fragrance, let it mingle with the lights of heaven. May this flame be found still burning by the Morning Star: the one Morning Star who never sets, Christ your Son, coming back from death’s domain, has shed his peaceful light on humanity, lives and reigns for and ever. R. Amen. In some traditions, the base of the candle may be ritually immersed in the baptismal font before proceeding with the remainder of the service; this candle is traditionally the one. The candle remains lit at all worship services throughout Easter season, during which time it is located in the sanctuary close to the altar.
After the Easter season, it is placed near the baptismal font. Before 1955, the option existed of blessing the baptismal font on the Vigil of Pentecost, this was the only time the Paschal candle would be lit at services after Ascension; the Paschal candle is lit during baptisms to signify the Holy Spirit and
Burning of Judas
The burning of Judas is an Easter-time ritual in many Orthodox and Catholic Christian communities, where an effigy of Judas Iscariot is burned. Other related mistreatment of Judas effigies include hanging and exploding with fireworks. Anthropologists generalize these types of activities as "scapegoating rituals". A similar ritual would be the hanging in his ten sons during Purim. Though not an official part of the Easter liturgical cycle, the custom is a part of the reenactment of the story of the Passion, practiced by the faithful during Easter. Customs vary, but the effigy of Judas is hanged on Good Friday burned on the night of Easter Sunday. In many parts of Latin America this practice occurs on the eve of the new year as a symbol of ridding one's self of evil and beginning a new year in spiritual purity; some communities observe this ritual using various effigies, including the biblical Judas. This custom, during which the effigy is burned on a stake, is called "Quema del Judas" in Uruguay and Argentina, "Quema del Año Viejo" in other places.
The burning of Judas was once practiced across Europe, is still practiced in parts of Greece, Brazil, Spain, Venezuela, Cyprus where it is called'lambratzia', the Philippines, Paraguay where it is called'Judas kái' and elsewhere. Judas burnings took place in the district of Dingle, in Liverpool, England, in the early 20th Century, until it was banned by the authorities; the burning of Judas is not traditional to England, although a similar custom of burning Catholic rebel Guy Fawkes in effigy exists. The practice was once cited in the United States State Department's Religious Freedom Report for Greece; the report incorrectly referred to the custom as the "burning of the Jew", whereas in Greece the term always used is "burning of Judas". In response, Archbishop Christodoulos head of the Greek Orthodox Church, denied such allegations, stating that this practice refers to the image of "Judas the traitor" and not Jews in general. In Latin America, despite the controversial nature of anti-Semitism associated with the "burning of the Jew", although the practice does exist in the above stated form it is not regarded as an act of hostility towards the Jewish nation or ethnicity but is representative of "evil", thus not differing in any way from the other effigies listed.
Wikibooks:The Golden Bough/The Fire-Festivals of Europe
Bernardo Bellotto, was an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities. He was the pupil and nephew of the famous Giovanni Antonio Canal Canaletto and sometimes used the latter's illustrious name, signing himself as Bernardo Canaletto. In Germany and Poland, Bellotto called himself by Canaletto. Bellotto's style was characterized by elaborate representation of architectural and natural vistas, by the specific quality of each place's lighting, it is plausible that Bellotto, other Venetian masters of vedute, may have used the camera obscura in order to achieve superior precision of urban views. Bellotto was born in Venice, the son of Lorenzo Antonio Bellotto and Fiorenza Canal, sister of the famous Canaletto, studied in his uncle's workshop. In 1742 he moved to Rome. In 1744 and 1745 he traveled northern Italy. Among others, he worked for Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy. From 1747 to 1758 he moved following an invitation from King August III of Poland.
He created their surroundings. Today these paintings preserve a memory of Dresden's former beauty, destroyed by bombing during World War II, his international reputation grew, in 1758 he accepted an invitation from Empress Maria Theresa to come to Vienna, where he painted views of the city's monuments. In 1761 Bellotto left Vienna for Munich, where he spent a year. In a letter to her cousin Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Empress Maria Theresia had praised Bellotto's artistic achievements at the Viennese court. Logically, he was commissioned works by the ruling family of Bavaria, he painted a panoramic view of Munich and two vedute of Nymphenburg Palace for the elector of Bavaria. At the end of 1761, Bellotto returned to Dresden; when King August III of Poland an Elector of Saxony, who lived in Dresden, died in 1763, Bellotto's work became less important in Dresden. As a consequence, he left Dresden to seek employment in Saint Petersburg at the court of Catherine II of Russia. On his way to Saint Petersburg, Bellotto accepted an invitation in 1764 from Poland's newly elected King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski to become his court painter in Warsaw from 1768.
Here he remained some 16 years, for the rest of his life, as court painter to the King, for whom he painted numerous views of the Polish capital and its environs for the Royal Castle in Warsaw, complement of the great historical paintings commissioned by Poniatowski from Marcello Bacciarelli. His initial commissions included painted decoration of the Ujazdów Castle between 1767-1770, of which a study of illusionistic vault is the only preserved example of profuse decoration lost in 1784 during the reconstruction of the castle into military barracks. In 1769 the painter and his son Lorenzo accomplished another large royal commission - fourteen views of Rome and papal, based on the collection of etchings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi entitled Vedute di Roma; the collection was dispersed in the early nineteenth century and today various paintings can be admired in different museums in Russia - The Roman Forum as seen from the Capitol to the south-east and Piazza della Rotonda with Pantheon, View of the Piazza Navona, View of S. Maria Maggiore and in private collections.
His paintings of Warsaw, 26 vedute painted between 1770-80 to embellish the so-called Panorama Room at the Royal Castle in Warsaw and relocated to Russia, were restored to the Polish Government in 1921 and were used in rebuilding the city after its near-complete destruction by German troops during World War II. Bellotto's early work bears strong features of his uncle's style, becoming more individual and distinguished in years with clear inspiration of Dutch landscape painting with massed clouds, cast shadows and rich foliage, his colouring is characterized by a steely grey. The last period of the artist's work is assessed as distinct from the earlier stages with emphasis on the immediacy of observation, striving for a generic treatment of staffage, ability to capture the atmosphere of the place and visible transformation of his painting which become more colorful with warmer tones. For the first time he undertook historical subjects including Election of Stanislaus Augustus for the King and Entry of Jerzy Ossoliński into Rome in 1633 commissioned by Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński.
Bellotto created a school of painting, continued and developed by Zygmunt Vogel and Marcin Zaleski. Bernardo Bellotto was buried in Capuchin Church at Miodowa Street, his younger brother was named Pietro Bellotto and after collaborating with Canaletto and his brother, moved to France, where he was known as le Sieur Canalety and Pietro Bellotti di Caneletty. The brother was referred to as Belloti, Beloty, or Bellottit; the Grand Canal in Venice Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Beddington, Charles. Bernardo Bellotto and His Circle in Italy. Part I: Not Canaletto but Bellotto. Burlington Magazine 146, no. 1216: 665–674. "Belotto Bernardo, zwany Canaletto", Encyklopedia Polski, p. 42. STEPHANE LOIRE, HANNA MALACHOWICZ, KRZYSTOF POMIAN, ANDRZEJ ROTTERMUND. "Bernardo Bellotto, Un pittore veneziano a Varsavia". Book edited by Andrzej Rottermund, Director of the Royal Castle at Warszawa and Henry Loirette, Director of the Louvre Museum, from the Louvre Museum Exhibition of Bernardo Bellotto at the Warszawa Royal Castle from 7 Octob
The Paschal cycle, in the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the cycle of the moveable feasts built around Pascha. The cycle consists of ten weeks before and seven weeks after Pascha; the ten weeks before Pascha are known as the period of the Triodion. This period includes the three weeks preceding Great Lent, the forty days of Lent, Holy Week; the 50 days following Pascha are called the Pentecostarion. The Sunday of each week has a special commemoration, named for the Gospel reading assigned to that day. Certain other weekdays have special commemorations of their own; the entire cycle revolves around Pascha. The weeks before Pascha end on Sunday; this is. Starting on Pascha, the weeks again begin on Sunday. While the Pentecostarion closes after All Saints Sunday, the Paschal cycle continues throughout the entire year, until the beginning of the next Pre-Lenten period; the Tone of the Week, the Epistle and Gospel readings at the Divine Liturgy, the 11 Matins Gospels with their accompanying hymns are dependent on it.
Zacchaeus Sunday or Sunday of the Canaanite: 11th Sunday before Pascha The Publican and the Pharisee: 10th Sunday before Pascha The Prodigal Son: 9th Sunday before Pascha The Last Judgment.