Linear Pottery culture
The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing c. 5500–4500 BC. It is abbreviated as LBK, is known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture, falls within the Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe; the densest evidence for the culture is on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, the upper and middle Rhine. It represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe; the pottery after which it was named consists of simple cups, bowls and jugs, without handles, but in a phase with lugs or pierced lugs and necks. Important sites include Nitra in Slovakia. Two variants of the early Linear Pottery culture are recognized: The Early or Western Linear Pottery Culture developed on the middle Danube, including western Hungary, was carried down the Rhine, Elbe and Vistula; the Eastern Linear Pottery Culture flourished in eastern Hungary. Middle and late phases are defined. In the middle phase, the Early Linear Pottery culture intruded upon the Bug-Dniester culture and began to manufacture musical note pottery.
In the late phase, the Stroked Pottery culture moved down the Elbe. A number of cultures replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, but without a one-to-one correspondence between its variants and the replacing cultures; the culture map, instead, is complex. Some of the successor cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Cucuteni-Trypillian, Boian-Maritza cultures; the term "Linear Band Ware" derives from the pottery's decorative technique. The "Band Ware" or Bandkeramik part of it began as an innovation of the German archaeologist, Friedrich Klopfleisch; the earliest accepted name in English was the Danubian of V. Gordon Childe. Most names in English are attempts to translate Linearbandkeramik. Since Starčevo-Körös pottery was earlier than the LBK and was located in a contiguous food-producing region, the early investigators looked for precedents there. Much of the Starčevo-Körös pottery features decorative patterns composed of convolute bands of paint: spirals, converging bands, vertical bands, so on.
The LBK appears to imitate and improve these convolutions with incised lines. The LBK only reached it toward the end of its time, it began in regions of densest occupation on the middle Danube and spread over about 1,500 km along the rivers in 360 years. The rate of expansion was therefore about 4 km per year, which can hardly be called an invasion or a wave by the standard of current events, but over archaeological time seems rapid; the LBK was concentrated somewhat inland from the coastal areas. The northern coastal regions remained occupied by Mesolithic cultures exploiting the fabulously rich Atlantic salmon runs. There are lighter concentrations of LBK in the Netherlands, such as at Elsloo, with the sites of Darion, Fexhe, or Waremme-Longchamps and at the mouths of the Oder and Vistula. Evidently, the Neolithics and Mesolithics were not excluding each other; the LBK at maximum extent ranged from about the line of the Seine–Oise eastward to the line of the Dnieper, southward to the line of the upper Danube down to the big bend.
An extension ran through the Southern Bug valley, leaped to the valley of the Dniester, swerved southward from the middle Dniester to the lower Danube in eastern Romania, east of the Carpathians. A good many C-14 dates have been acquired on the LBK, making possible statistical analyses, which have been performed on different sample groups. One such analysis by Stadler and Lennais sets 68.2% confidence limits at about 5430–5040 BC. The 95.4% confidence interval is 5600–4750 BC. Data continue to be acquired and therefore any one analysis should be taken as a rough guideline only. Overall, it is safe to say that the Linear Pottery culture spanned several hundred years of continental European prehistory in the late sixth and early fifth millennia BC, with local variations. Data from Belgium indicate a late survival of LBK there, as late as 4100 BC; the Linear Pottery culture is not the only food-producing player on the stage of prehistoric Europe. It has been necessary, therefore, to distinguish between it and the Neolithic, most done by dividing the Neolithic of Europe into chronological phases.
These have varied a great deal. An approximation is: Early Neolithic, 6000–5500; the first appearance of food-producing cultures in the south of the future Linear Pottery culture range: the Körös of southern Hungary and the Bug-Dniester culture in Ukraine. Middle Neolithic, 5500–5000. Early and Middle Linear Pottery culture. Late Neolithic, 5000–4500. Late Linear Pottery and legacy cultures; the last phase is no longer the end of the Neolithic. A "Final Neolithic" has been added to the transition between the Bronze Age. All numbers depend to some extent on the geographic region; the pottery styles of the LBK allow some division of its window in time. Conceptual schemes have varied somewhat. One is: Early: The
Cropmarks or crop marks are a means through which sub-surface archaeological and recent features may be visible from the air or a vantage point on higher ground or a temporary platform. Along with parch marks, soil marks and frost marks can reveal buried archaeological sites not visible from the ground. Crop marks appear due to the principle of differential growth. One of the factors controlling the growth of vegetation is the condition of the soil. A buried stone wall, for example, will affect crop growth above it, as its presence channels water away from its area and occupies the space of the more fertile soil. Conversely, a buried ditch, with a fill containing more organic matter than the natural earth, provides much more conducive conditions and water will collect there, nourishing the plants growing above; the differences in conditions will cause some plants to grow more and therefore taller, others less and therefore shorter. Some species will react through differential ripening of their fruits or their overall colour.
Effective crops that exhibit differential growth include cereal crops and potatoes. Differential growth will follow any features buried below. Although the growth differences may appear small close up, from the air the pattern they make is more visible, as the small changes can be seen as marked differences in tone or colour in the context of the growing surrounding vegetation; when the sun is low to the horizon, shadows cast by the taller crops can become visible. By their nature crop marks are visible only seasonally and may not be visible at all except in exceptionally wet or dry years. Droughts can be useful to cropmark hunters, as the differential growth can become apparent in hardy species such as grass; the drought of 2010 produced good conditions for observing crop marks in the UK. Pre-parching stress in crops and grass, others factors that may affect plant health, can be captured in near infra-red photography. An alternative approach is thermal imaging, where differential water loss can create temperature differences, which result in thermal crop marks that are visible at any time during crop growth.
Thermal imaging can reveal archaeological residues as a result of thermal inertia or differential evaporation. The interaction of the processes involved can be complex and the prediction of optimal imaging time, for a given site, further complicated by environmental conditions including temperature variation and relative humidity; the usefulness of cropmarks to archaeologists has been a fruit of inspection from aircraft, but the possibility was suggested by Rev. Gilbert White in The Natural History of Selborne, in a note appended to his Letter VI, to Thomas Pennant, apropos of local people's success in searching for bog oak for house construction, by discovering these trees "by the hoar frost, which lay longer over the space where they were concealed, than on the surrounding morass." To White it suggested the query "might not such observations be reduced to domestic use, by promoting the discovery of old obliterated drains and wells about houses. Examples of archaeological sites where cropmarks have been observed are Balbridie and Fetteresso in Scotland.
In 2009, investigation of crop marks near Stonehenge revealed a variety of 6,000-year-old prehistoric subterranean structures. Another example is the rediscovery of the Roman city Altinum, a precursor to the city of Venice, from a combination of visible and near-infrared photos of the area taken during a drought in 2007, which stressed the maize and soy crops; the multi period site at Mucking was discovered as a result of aerial photographs showing cropmarks and soil marks. The earliest photographs to reveal the site were taken by the Luftwaffe in 1943; the importance of the site was recognised following photographs taken by Kenneth Joseph in 1959. In 1982, Margaret Jones noted, she pointed out that some features do not produce crop marks and that some crop marks, when excavated, turn out not to be what they seem. Archaeological field survey Aerial archaeology Shadow marks Wilson, D. R. 2000 Air photo interpretation for archaeologists, London. Agache, R. 1963. Détection des fossés comblés. Bulletin de la société préhistorique française, 1963, vol.
60, n°9-10, p. 642-647 Lasaponara R. N. Masini. 2007. Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite QuickBird multispectral imagery. In: Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, pp. 214-221 Daily Mail article with photographs Kite Aerial Photographers - Archaeology
Stroke-ornamented ware culture
The Stroke-ornamented ware or Stichbandkeramik, Stroked Pottery culture, Danubian Ib culture of V. Gordon Childe, or Middle Danubian culture is the successor of the Linear Pottery culture, a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic in Central Europe; the STK flourishes during 4600-4400 BC. Centered on Silesia in Poland, eastern Germany and the northern Czech Republic, it overlaps with the Lengyel horizon to the south, the Rössen culture to the west; the STbK and the Notenkopfkeramik are a development of the LBK. Much of the Musical Note pottery features incised zig-zag bands going around the pot, with punctures at the line segment junctions; the STK abandons incision in favor bands of small punctures in zig-zag patterns, with a vertical band dividing each angle. The effect is a band pattern of contiguous A-frames. Where the Musical Note pottery expanded east over the Bug River, the STK moved down the Vistula and Elbe; the spread of this style must have been the transmission of cultural objects.
The homes of the STK people show a slight modification that became a major feature of cultures: one end of the long house was made shorter than the other to achieve a trapezoidal shape. The reason for this modification remains obscure; the STK people developed a preference for cremation rather than burial. The preceding early LBK had used both methods. An unusual structure associated with STK has been found at Gosek, south of Berlin: a large, double concentric ring of post holes pierced by gates and surrounded by a circular ditch; the placement of the gates and some of the posts lead some investigators to hypothesize an observatory similar to Stonehenge, but in wood rather than stone. Stichbandkeramik
A scenic route, tourist road, tourist route, tourist drive, holiday route, theme route, or scenic byway is a specially designated road or waterway that travels through an area of natural or cultural beauty. The designation is determined by a governmental body, such as a Department of Transportation or a Ministry of Transport. A tourist highway or holiday route is a road, marketed as suited for tourists. Tourist highways may be formed when existing roads are promoted with traffic signs and advertising material; some tourist highways such as the Blue Ridge Parkway are built for tourism purposes. Others may be roadways enjoyed by local citizens in areas of exceptional natural beauty. Still others, such as the Lincoln Highway in Illinois are former main roads, only designated as "scenic" after most traffic bypasses them. In the United States this type of roadway is termed a scenic highway. In Europe and other countries around the world they are marked with brown tourist signs with the individual route symbol or name, or both.
In the United States, a scenic route may refer to a type of special route of the U. S. highway system that travels through a beautiful area. These special routes, which boast "Scenic" banners are longer than the "parent route". There is only one route in the country that remains with the official scenic designation: U. S. Route 40 Scenic in Maryland. Scenic byways in the United States include state, National Scenic Byway, National Forest Scenic Byways and Bureau of Land Management Back Country Byways programs which designate roads or routes as scenic byways due to some unique characteristics. National Parkways are scenic roads in the National Park System built for recreational driving through scenic or historic areas. Unlike most scenic routes, National Parkways are built with a buffer of park land along both sides of the roadway, they may have large satellite parks or recreation areas built periodically along their length. Most National Historic Trails are commemorative motor routes. Theme routes are special theme-based tours, aimed at providing a visitor or tourist with a better insight on that theme.
Being popular in Europe, they can cover anything from an individual city, a wine growing region, Dutch tulip fields, Swiss Mountains, to Norwegian Fjords. Subjects can be architectural, historical, or cultural. Examples of theme routes: Bergstraße Bertha Benz Memorial Route Castle Road Cheese Route Deutsche Fährstraße European Route of Industrial Heritage German Wine Route Golden Ring of Russia of historical sites Liberation Route Europe Silver Ring of Russia of historical sites Romantic Road Scotland's Malt Whisky Trail Silver Road Trail of the Eagle's Nests, along a chain of medieval castles in Poland Upper Swabian Baroque Route Wild Atlantic Way Auxiliary route Scenic Drive Trail blazing Viewshed Scenic byways in the United States National Tourist Routes in Norway Marguerite route in Denmark Asian Route of Industrial Heritage
Burgenlandkreis is a district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The district was established as Landkreis Burgenland by the merger of the former Burgenlandkreis and Landkreis Weißenfels as part of the reform of 2007. On 16 July 2007, the district parliament decided to change the name to Burgenlandkreis, coming into effect on 1 August 2007. In 2015 the skeletal remains of an ancient inhabitant of Karsdorf dated from the Early Neolithic were analyzed; the Burgenlandkreis consists of the following subdivisions: 1 seat of the Verbandsgemeinde.
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
The Leipzig Bay or Leipzig Basin or Saxon Lowland or Saxon Bay is a lakeless and fertile landscape in Central Germany, in northwestern Saxony and southeastern Saxony-Anhalt. This region was covered with lakes, dense forests lakes and rivers. In the course of urbanization and lignite open pit mining, large areas were deforested and many rivers and streams canalised or diverted; the Leipzig Bay is bounded to the north by the Düben Heath, to the east by the River Elbe, to the south by the Ore Mountain Foreland and the Central Saxon Hills, by the River Saale to the west. The conurbation formed by the two cities of Leipzig and Halle lies in the centre of the Leipzig Bay. Other important towns are Delitzsch, Eilenburg and Borna; the Leipzig Bay is the southernmost part of the North German Plain. The landscape is a plain broken only by low eminences such as the Hohburg Hills and dissected by the valleys of the Saale, White Elster and Pleiße rivers; the Leipzig Bay was formed during the Tertiary period.
When the Ore Mountains and Vogtland were uplifted, a basin was formed as a compensating movement, into which weathering material from the mountain ranges was deposited. As a result of the creation of bogs and variable flooding, organic material was deposited in this basin, which in turn was overlaid by sediments. Brown coal or lignite was formed from these deposits, covered by layers of sand and loess; the landscape is well served by communications. A cardioid ring motorway runs around the Leipzig-Halle conurbation, the so-called Central German Loop. Leipzig/Halle Airport is an important transport hub in the eastern German states. Railway lines and Bundesstraßen run in all directions of the compass, linking the Leipzig Bay with other parts of the country. Only inland shipping has no direct access to this region, although work on the unfinished Elster-Saale Canal began in the mid 20th century; the Leipzig region is culturally and economically of huge importance to Central Germany. Although open-cast mining continues in the area, it is being developed from an environmental and tourist perspective, through the reclamation of old lignite pits and mining facilities and their conversion into recreation areas north and south of Leipzig.
By flooding some the open-cast mines many new lakes have been and are being created in the Leipzig Basin, which are changing the face of the landscape. List of landscapes in Saxony Dickinson, Robert E. Germany: A regional and economic geography. London: Methuen. ASIN B000IOFSEQ. Donath, Matthias. Leipziger Land. Kulturlandschaften Sachsens Bd. 2, Edition Leipzig, Leipzig