Royal North Shore Hospital
The Royal North Shore Hospital is a major public teaching hospital in Sydney, located in St Leonards. It serves as a teaching hospital for Sydney Medical School at the University of Sydney and has 600 beds, it is the referral hospital for Northern Sydney. Its primary referral area accommodates 5.7% of the Australian population or 17% of the NSW population. The Royal North Shore Hospital is a leading tertiary teaching hospital of The University of Sydney, the Sydney University of Technology, the Australian Catholic University, it is a major Trauma Centre which provides specialised services in the areas of severe burns, neonatal intensive care, spinal cord injury and interventional radiology. The Kolling Institute of Medical Research is a health and medical research centre with a focus on research training, it began as a cottage hospital located in Crows Nest. The foundation stone was laid by Sir Henry Parkes, 18 June 1887; the hospital was opened with accommodation for fourteen patients, with the requisite office and rooms for the medical and nursing staff.
Medical staff numbered nursing staff numbered five. The site of the original hospital was bounded by Willoughby Rd. Albany and Holterman Streets and Zig Zag Lane; the old site is now a busy part of the commercial centre of Crows Nest. In 1902, it opened on its current site with 48 beds available for patients. New departments and wards were added over the next fifty years, reflecting the increasing diversity and professionalisation of health care. Between 1935 and 1940, polio treatment pioneer Sister Kenny Kenny travelled extensively throughout Australia helping to set up clinics. In the mid-thirties, she set up one of her pioneering clinics at RNSH. In 1940, the New South Wales government sent Kenny to America to present her clinical method for treating polio victims to American doctors. Doctors in Minnesota convinced her to stay, her treatments, which revolutionised the care of polio, caused as much controversy in the United States, as they had in Australia. Royal North Shore became a teaching hospital of the University of Sydney in 1947.
The RNSH is a 600-bed hospital situated in St Leonards on Sydney's lower North Shore about 6 km from Sydney's Central Business District, surrounded by suburbs with some of the most stunning harbour views of Sydney. RNSH provides care to the local community, the Northern Sydney Health area, New South Wales and to the Pacific Island nations. New Teardrop shaped helipad capable of supporting two helicopters in an emergency Inpatient wards for medical and surgical patients with a combination of one-bed and four-bed rooms An outpatient center A new Comprehensive Cancer Care Centre Enhanced diagnostic services 18 operating theatres Capacity for a 58-bed intensive care unit with single rooms Automated guided vehicles to transport food and waste around the hospital 40 Maternity Beds 32 Neonatal Intensive Care Beds 12 Burns Unit Beds 24 Paediatric Beds 32 Beds for Mental Health Patients, as well as 12 beds allocated for High Dependence patients. There is 5,000 staff working at RNSH. Royal North Shore Hospital is a major teaching hospital located in the Northern Sydney Local Health District.
RNSH provides local health services to four local government areas north of Sydney Harbour – Lane Cove, North Sydney and Willoughby and Ryde. RNSH has statewide responsibilities in the provision of healthcare, it is one-of-seven major trauma centres in NSW and is the only trauma centre capable of providing care for major burns, spinal injuries, serious injuries during pregnancy. The RNSH emergency and trauma services are complemented by comprehensive intensive care and diagnostic clinical support services. RNSH is a major referral and tertiary hospital for the area extending north of Sydney Harbour, up to the southern shore of Lake Macquarie, west to Wiseman’s Ferry. RNSH caters for more than 1,110,600 people, which equates to 1 out of every 20 Australians, 1 in 5 people living in NSW population; as a major teaching hospital, RNSH has acted as an education facility for University of Sydney undergraduate medical students for more than 60 years and acts as the main headquarters for the program’s Northern Clinical School.
The hospital’s teaching program involves students of Allied Health and nursing students from University of Technology, Sydney. RNSH provides facilities and support for postgraduate students and clinicians undertaking research programs in a variety of fields; the RNSH campus comprises the Acute Services Building, the Douglas Building and The Clinical Services Building is due to open in December 2014. The overall area of the RNSH grounds is 13 hectares, 11.6 hectares in functional area. It is known as the Royal North Shore Hospital Campus. RNSH has a maximum capacity to hold 420 acute medical and surgical beds. Overall, including acute overnight and day-only beds, it has a total of 600 beds. In 2010, there were 56,354 presentations to the Emergency Department and since the opening of the new Acute Services Building increased presentations have occurred with 61,739 patients requiring assessment and treatment in 2012/13. 3,000 babies are born annually at RNSH. Acute Dialysis Unit Audiology Bone Densitometry Major Burns Cancer Centre Cardiac Cath Labs Cardiology Paediatrics Dermatology Emergency Department Endocrinology Endoscopy Haematology Intensive Care Unit Medical Day Procedure Mental Health Neonatal Intensive Care Neurodiagnostics Neurosurgery Nuclear Medicine Ophthalmology Physiotherapy Sexual Assault Urology The Hospital has undergone redevel
Gosford is a New South Wales suburb located in the heart of the Central Coast Region, about 76 kilometres north of the Sydney CBD. The suburb is situated at the northern extremity of Brisbane Water, an extensive northern branch of the Hawkesbury River estuary and Broken Bay; the suburb is the administrative centre and CBD of the Central Coast region, the third largest urban area in New South Wales after Sydney and Newcastle. Following its formation from the combination of the previous Gosford City and Wyong Shire Councils, Gosford has been earmarked as a vital CBD spine under the NSW Metropolitan Strategy; the population of the suburb was 3,499 in the 2016 census. But there were 169,053 people in the Gosford area in 2016; until white settlement, the area around Gosford was inhabited by the Guringai peoples, who were principally coastal-dwellers, the Darkinjung people that inhabited the hinterland. Along with the other land around the Hawkesbury River estuary, the Brisbane Water district was explored during the early stages of the settlement of New South Wales.
Gosford itself was explored by Governor Phillip between 1788 and 1789. The area was difficult to access and settlement began around 1823. By the late 19th century the agriculture in the region was diversifying, with market gardens and citrus orchards occupying the rich soil left after the timber harvest; as late as 1850, the road between Hawkesbury and Brisbane Water was a cart wheel track. Typical of early Colonial settlement, convicts worked in the Gosford area. In 1825, Gosford's population reached 100. East Gosford was the first centre of settlement. Gosford was named in 1839 after Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford – a friend of the Governor of New South Wales George Gipps. Acheson's title derives its name from Gosford, a townland of Markethill in County Armagh in Northern Ireland. In 1887, the rail link to Sydney was completed, requiring a bridge over the Hawkesbury River and a tunnel through the sandstone ridge west of Woy Woy; the introduction of this transport link and the Pacific Highway in 1930 accelerated the development of the region.
Gosford became a town in 1885 and was declared a municipality in 1886. At the 2016 census, there were 3,499 people in Gosford. 59.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were India 4.5%, England 2.9%. 65.2% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin at 3.7%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.9% and Catholic 18.2%. Gosford has a humid subtropical climate with mild winters. In summer, temperatures average about 27-28 °C in the day with high humidity and about 17-18 °C at night. Winters are mild with cool overnight temperatures and mild to warm daytime temperatures with lower humidity. Average rainfall is 1333 mm, much of which falls in autumn. Records range from a maximum of 44.8 °C on 18 January 2013, to a low of −4.2 °C on 16 July 1970. Gosford proper is located in a valley with President's Hill on the city's western border, Rumbalara Reserve on its eastern border, Brisbane water to the city's south.
Mann Street, Gosford's main street and part of the Pacific Highway, runs north-south and contains the frontage for much of the commercial district. In the centre of Gosford is a shopping and community precinct, including Kibble Park, William Street Mall, Gosford City Library, the Imperial Shopping Centre and a full range of shops, cafes and services. A renewed period of optimism has followed demolition of several derelict buildings and several infrastructure investment projects including the full fibre optic telecommunications rollout of the National Broadband Network in 2012 in the city's CBD as well as the so-called Kibbleplex project, announced in 2013 that plans to house the new regional library, tertiary teaching rooms and associated organisations. Gosford Classic Car Museum opened in 2016 at nearby suburb of West Gosford. Recent residential apartments have been built in various areas of the Gosford Central Business District. Gosford is situated along an identified business growth corridor between Erina, the West Gosford light industrial zone and Somersby.
Connectivity of main roads and rail travel times between Sydney, the Central Coast, Lake Macquarie and the city of Newcastle are key issues for corporate business relocation to the region. Aged and personal care and retail are major employers in Gosford; as an entertainment hub, Mann Street enjoys good public transport links and is one of the Central Coast's most popular spots for pubs and clubs and in close proximity to cultural and sporting events. Yacht and other boat building has been undertaken by East Coast Yachts since 1964 in West Gosford. Gosford is home to: Gosford Hospital – the largest hospital on the NSW Central Coast Laycock Street Community Theatre - the only professional, proscenium arch theatre venue on the Central Coast The Central Coast Conservatorium Central Coast Stadium in Grahame Park, adjacent to the Central Coast Leagues Club. Built for the Central Coast Bears team in the NRL rugby league competition, since 2005 it is the home of the successful Central Coast Mariners A-League soccer / association football team and was the home venue of the Central Coast Rays rugby union Australian Rugby Championship team.
Central Coast Leagues Club - is the largest community sporting and social club in the region The Entertainment Grounds known as Gosford Racecourse Gosford Showground The headquarters of the Government of New South Wales workplace health and safety regulator, SafeWo
University of Newcastle (Australia)
The University of Newcastle, informally known as Newcastle University, is an Australian public university established in 1965. It has a primary campus in a suburb of Newcastle, New South Wales; the university operates campuses in Ourimbah, Port Macquarie, Newcastle CBD and Sydney CBD. The University of Newcastle Medical School has implemented the problem-based learning system for its undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine program – a system mandated for use by the Australian Medical Council throughout Australia, it pioneered use of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test in the early 1990s. UMAT has since been accepted by different medical schools across Australia as an additional selection criteria; the University of Newcastle is a member of Universities Australia and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The earliest origins of the present-day University of Newcastle can be traced to the Newcastle Teachers College and Newcastle University College. NUC was created as an offshoot of the New South Wales University of Technology and was co-located with the Newcastle Technical College at Tighes Hill.
At the time of its establishment, NUC had just five full-time students and study was restricted to engineering and science. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Newcastle residents campaigned for NUC to be re-constituted as a university in its own right; the campaign was successful, with the University of Newcastle being established as an autonomous institution on 1 January 1965 by gubernatorial proclamation under the University of Newcastle Act 1964. The new university was granted a heraldic coat of arms by the College of Arms in London, an event seen by many in the community as signifying the new institution's independence. In 1966, the University relocated from Tighes Hill to a undeveloped bushland site in Shortland; as enrolments grew, the University embarked on a major building program and redeveloped the Shortland site into the Callaghan campus, named for Sir Bede Callaghan, foundation member of the University council and chancellor from 1977 to 1988. Students at the university celebrate Autonomy Day on 1 July of each year.
According to unverified sources, official autonomy was marked on 1 January 1965 with a "symbolic ceremonial bonfire held at the site of the Great Hall". This celebration is said to have been officiated by Professor Godfrey Tanner, said to have poured wine libations onto the ground as to "sanctify the land upon which the University rests". Since the university technically became autonomous on 1 January 1965 autonomy day should be held on 1 January. 1 July coincided with the New South Wales University of Technology’s autonomy from the Public Service Board’s authority on 1 July 1954. According to Don Wright, students interpreted Autonomy Day as celebrating the autonomy of the University of Newcastle from the University of New South Wales; the students were entitled to give the celebration. The fact that they called it ‘autonomy day’ heightened the students’ sense of the importance of autonomy and their need to defend it against outside interference. In 1989, the Dawkins reforms amalgamated the Hunter Institute of Higher Education with the University of Newcastle.
Newcastle Teachers College had been established in 1949 and was renamed the Newcastle College of Advanced Education and the Hunter Institute of Higher Education as it had expanded its educational offerings beyond teacher education to nursing, other allied health professions and fine arts. The Hunter Institute was located in a series of buildings on land adjacent to the University at Callaghan and amalgamation expanded the campus to some 140 hectares. Under the reforms, the University gained the Newcastle branch of the NSW Conservatorium of Music located in the city's central business district. In 1998, the university established a partnership with the Institut Wira, a Malaysian private business school. In 2002, Ian Firms, a lecturer, failed a large number of student papers from Wira for academic dishonesty, but his actions were reversed by the Newcastle administration and he was discharged, he appealed to the New South Wales Independent Commission Against Corruption, which made a finding of corruption against Dr. Paul Ryder, a failure by Vice Chancellor Roger Holmes in the execution of his duty and recommended disciplining the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Professor Brian English.
In 2003, the University of Newcastle, together with five other Australian universities established Innovative Research Universities Australia. Forty years after obtaining autonomy, the University of Newcastle has developed a reputable position in national and international university standings; the university unveiled a new logo on 31 March 2007 as part of a brand refresh to align the university's image more with its new strategic direction. On 11 May 2007, the university launched a campus at the PSB Academy's two main campuses in Singapore. On 30 July 2015, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete was the first head of state to be awarded an honorary degree by the university; the university offers online, face-to-face, or a mix of the two, with campuses at Callaghan, Port Macquarie and Sydney CBD. The university has three premises within the Newcastle city centre; the Callaghan campus is the university's largest campus. It is located in the Newcastle s
A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft. While helicopters and powered lift aircraft are able to operate on a variety of flat surfaces, a fabricated helipad provides a marked hard surface away from obstacles where such aircraft can land safely. Larger helipads, intended for use by helicopters and other vertical take-off and landing aircraft, may be called vertiports. An example is Vertiport Chicago, which opened in 2015. Helipads may be located at a heliport or airport where fuel, air traffic control and service facilities for aircraft are available. Most helipads are located remote from populated areas due to sounds, winds and cost constraints, some skyscrapers maintain a helipad on their roofs in order to accommodate air taxi services; some basic helipads are built on highrise buildings for evacuation in case of a major fire outbreak. Major police departments may use a dedicated helipad at heliports as a base for police helicopters. Large ships and oil platforms have a helipad on board for emergency use.
In such a case, the term "helideck" or "helodeck" has been used in the meaning of a helipad on board. Helipads are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate medical evacuation or air ambulance transfers of patients to trauma centers or to accept patients from remote areas without local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency medicine required. In urban environments, these heliports are located on the roof of the hospital. Rooftop helipads sometimes display a large two-digit number, representing the weight limit of the pad. In addition, a second number may be present. Location identifiers are but not always, issued for helipads, they may be issued by the appropriate aviation authority. Authorized agencies include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, Transport Canada in Canada, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Air Transport Association; some helipads may have location identifiers from multiple sources, these identifiers may be of different format and name.
Helipads are constructed out of concrete and are marked with a circle and/or a letter "H", so as to be visible from the air. However, they are not always constructed out of concrete. Rig mats may be used to build helipads. Landing pads may be constructed in extreme conditions such as on ice; the world's highest helipad, built by India, is located on the Siachen Glacier at a height of 21,000 feet above sea level. The world's largest heliport is in Morgan City and has a total of 46 helipads, used to support offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. A portable helipad is a helipad structure with a rugged frame that can be used to land helicopters in any areas with slopes of up to 30 degrees, such as hillsides and boggy areas. Portable helipads can be transported by helicopter or powered-lift to place them where a VTOL needs to land, as long as there are no insurmountable obstructions nearby. Helicopter deck Helicopter landing officer Heliport de Voogt, A. J. 2007. Helidrome Architecture. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.
ICAO 1995. Heliport manual. Montreal, Canada: ICAO Publications
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
A health system sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as evolutionary rather than revolutionary; the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system, is promoting a goal of universal health care: to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.
According to WHO, healthcare systems' goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, fair means of funding operations. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency and equity, they have been described in the United States as "the five C's": Cost, Consistency and Chronic Illness. Continuity of health care is a major goal. Health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective, for example reducing it to healthcare system. In many publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably; some authors have developed arguments to expand the concept of health systems, indicating additional dimensions that should be considered: Health systems should not be expressed in terms of their components only, but of their interrelationships. The World Health Organization defines health systems as follows: A health system consists of all organizations and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health.
This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services, it includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health. Healthcare providers are individuals providing healthcare services. Individuals including health professionals and allied health professions can be self-employed or working as an employee in a hospital, clinic, or other health care institution, whether government operated, private for-profit, or private not-for-profit, they may work outside of direct patient care such as in a government health department or other agency, medical laboratory, or health training institution. Examples of health workers are doctors, midwives, paramedics, medical laboratory technologists, psychologists, chiropractors, community health workers, traditional medicine practitioners, others.
There are five primary methods of funding health systems: general taxation to the state, county or municipality national health insurance voluntary or private health insurance out-of-pocket payments donations to charitiesMost countries' systems feature a mix of all five models. One study based on data from the OECD concluded that all types of health care finance "are compatible with" an efficient health system; the study found no relationship between financing and cost control. The term health insurance is used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses, it is sometimes used more broadly to include insurance covering disability or long-term nursing or custodial care needs. It may be provided from private insurance companies, it may be purchased by individual consumers. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from unexpected health care expenses. By estimating the overall cost of health care expenses, a routine finance structure can be developed, ensuring that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.
The benefit is administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a