A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Granite City, Illinois
Granite City is a city in Madison County, United States, within the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area; the population was 29,849 at the 2010 census, making it the second-largest city in the Metro East and Southern Illinois regions, behind Belleville. Founded in 1896, Granite City was named by the Niedringhaus brothers and Frederick, who established it as a steel making company town for the manufacture of kitchen utensils made to resemble granite; the area was settled much earlier than Granite City's official founding. In the early 19th century, settlers began to farm the rich fertile grounds to the east of St. Louis. Around 1801, the area saw the establishment of Six Mile Settlement, a farming area that occupied the area of present-day Granite City, six miles from St. Louis. Soon after, around 1806, the National Road was to be constructed through the area, but it was never completed. By 1817, the area became to distinguish it from Six Mile Township. By 1854, the first railroad was built. In 1856, the area known as Six Mile would be changed to Kinder.
Granite City was founded in 1896 to be a planned company city similar to Pullman, Illinois, by German immigrant brothers Frederick G. and William Niedringhaus for their Granite ware kitchen supplies factory. Since 1866, the brothers had been operating the St. Louis Stamping Company, an iron works company, that made kitchen utensils in St. Louis, Missouri. In the 1870s, William discovered an enamelware process in Europe whereby metal utensils could be coated with enamel to make them lighter and more resistant to oxidation. At the time, most enamelware was just one color as the additions of any colors to the process was inefficient. On June 1, 1878, William applied for Patent 207543 to improve the efficiency whereby a pattern could be applied to enamelware while the enamel was still wet by placing a thin piece of paper with an oxidized pattern on top of it; the paper would fall off in the drying process and the pattern was embedded. The brothers' pattern made; the resulting product was enormously popular.
The brothers opened the Granite Iron Rolling Mills in St. Louis to provide tin to its prospering kitchen supplies manufacturer; the imported tin had a $22 per ton tariff. Frederick ran for Congress in Missouri in 1888. During his one term in the 51st Congress, he urged the passage of a new tariff of 50 percent of value on imported iron and tin. With the increased tariff, the U. S. steel industry took off. As they planned expansion of their Bessemer process steel works, they were blocked by the city of St. Louis which did not want the expansion; as well, the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis planned to tax coal crossing the Mississippi River into Missouri. In 1891, the brothers bought 3,500 acres from business tycoon Lars Kovala; this land extended from the Mississippi River across the Chicago and Quincy Railroad tracks for their new Granite City. With the help of the St. Louis City Engineer, a street grid was laid out with streets listed in alphabetic order plus numbered streets, the only exception being Niedringhaus Avenue.
The Niedringhaus family required. Houses were purchased with Niedringhaus mortgages. Unlike Pullman, they did not exert major control over the day-to-day lives of their employees and left the government of the city up to the residents. African-Americans were not instead congregated in Brooklyn, Illinois; the plant would grow to occupy 1,250,000 square feet and employ more than 4,000 people. The plant prospered until the 1950s when aluminum, stainless steel, pyrex replaced iron-based utensils; the granite pattern in kitchen utensils in roasting pans, remains popular. In 1896, Granite City was incorporated as a City within Madison County, Illinois; the first seven years went as planned with rapid growth. Henry Fossiek was hired as the first policeman, a School Board of Directors was appointed by the Mayor, four schools opened, the 1st Church of the Concordian Lutheran Church was built, Stamping Company changed its name to National Enameling & Stamping Company, lots were sold for a new subdivision to be named ‘Granite Park’.
In 1903, a massive flood covered all of West Granite while the rest of the town stayed dry. In 1906, a different kind of flood occurred. Ten thousand persons emigrated to Granite City from Macedonia, Bulgaria and other parts of Central and Eastern Europe, during a two-year period; the majority of these immigrants those from the country of Hungary, moved to present-day Lincoln Place. At the time, this area was called ‘Hungary Hollow’. During the Panic of 1907, the neighborhood of Hungary Hollow was nicknamed ‘Hungry Hollow’, as many immigrants starved during this period; the following year, one of the founding fathers of the city and of NESCO, William Niedringhaus, would die, leading to the beginning of a new era in both the company and the city's future. It was during this period that St. Joseph Catholic Church was organized and a canal and levee system were built. Methody Bulgarian Church in America was built in Hungary Hollow for the large number of Macedonians and Bulgarians living there. At the time, Granite City had the largest concentration of Bulgarians in the country and boasted the only American newspaper printed in the Bulgarian language.
Around 1903, Granite City expelled its African American residents. In 1967, the Congress of Racial Equality alleged. Mayor Donald Partney acknowledged that the city was understood to
Madison County, Illinois
Madison County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 269,282; the county seat is Edwardsville, its largest city is Granite City. Madison County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the pre-Columbian city of Cahokia Mounds. Edwardsville is home to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. To the north, Alton is known for its American Civil War-era history, it is the home of Southern Illinois University Dental School. Godfrey, the village named for Captain Benjamin Godfrey, offers Lewis and Clark Community College the Monticello Female Seminary. Madison County was established on September 14, 1812, it was named for President James Madison. At the time of its formation, Madison County included all of the modern State of Illinois north of St. Louis, as well as all of Wisconsin, part of Minnesota, Michigan's Upper Peninsula. In the late 19th century, Madison County became an industrial region, in the 20th century was known first for Graniteware, for its steel mills, oil refineries, other heavy industries.
The county had a large working population, the county and surrounding area was a center of strength for the Democratic Party. Industrial restructuring reduced the population; the county now is part of semi-rural, sparsely populated east of the St. Louis metropolitan area, as is neighboring St. Clair County. In 2009, the EPA issued an air pollution report that ranked Madison County as the county with the second-highest cancer risk in the country due to air pollution, second only to Los Angeles County, California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles, of which 716 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. Madison County is on the Mississippi River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Edwardsville have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 90 °F in July, although a record low of −27 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches in January to 4.24 inches in May.
Climate Zone 4A per the International Energy Conservation Code. Madison County Transit serves 85 miles of bike trails; as of the 2010 census, there were 269,282 people, 108,094 households, 71,756 families residing in the county. The population density was 376.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 117,106 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.2% white, 7.9% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.7% were German, 14.9% were Irish, 10.5% were English, 7.5% were American, 5.7% were Italian. Of the 108,094 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98.
The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $51,941 and the median income for a family was $64,630. Males had a median income of $50,355 versus $35,543 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,127. About 9.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Holiday Shores Mitchell Rosewood Heights Madison County is divided into twenty-four townships: Like much of southern Illinois, Madison County was a predominantly Democratic area for much of its history, but in recent elections has been moving towards the Republicans. Mitt Romney narrowly carried the county in the 2012 presidential election, becoming the first Republican presidential nominee to do so since 1984. In 2016, Donald Trump carried the largest share of the vote for any presidential candidate since 1972; the county supported the Republican candidates for governor in 2010 and 2014. National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Illinois The Invincible Thieves Madison County website A History of Madison County Illinois Madison Historical: The Online Encyclopedia and Digital Archive for Madison County, Illinois
Highland is a city in Madison County, United States. The population was 9,919 at the 2010 census. Highland began as a Swiss settlement and derived its name from German immigrants. Highland is a sister city of Sursee in Switzerland. Highland, because it is located in Madison County, Illinois, is a part of the Metro-East region of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area. Highland, Illinois was settled in the early 19th century by Swiss-German settlers; the town was founded in 1837 and celebrated its 175th Jubilee in 2012. It was first named Helvetia in accordance with the Heritage of the town's Swiss-German founding members; the town voted to change its name to the English version - Highland, in the early 20th century, as well as stopping production of its German language newspaper, in part to avoid negativity towards those of Germanic heritage at the advent of the First World War. Around the same time, a small town in northern Illinois started calling itself Highland; the town in northern Illinois became Highland Park.
Highland has been home to many well-known businesses including Pet Milk and the Wicks Organ Company. For the past 60 years, Highland Supply Corporation has been producing and selling Floral Grass - a traditional decorative product used to line Easter baskets. Highland is home to The Korte Company. Highland has a rich history including extended visits by such notables as Abraham Lincoln. On November 21, 1915, the Liberty Bell passed through Highland on its nationwide tour returning to Pennsylvania from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. After that trip, the Liberty Bell will not be moved again; the current mayor is Joseph R. Michaelis. Highland is in the process of implementing citywide availability of a municipal broadband network using Fiber to the home technology. According to the 2010 census, Highland has a total area of 7.591 square miles, of which 6.55 square miles is land and 1.041 square miles is water. The following highways run through or around Highland: IL-160, IL-143, US-40, I-70.
The Highland Community Unit School District serves Highland area students including those from Alhambra, Grantfork and New Douglas, Illinois. Kindergarten through sixth grade schools are located in each of the districts municipalities while the district's middle and high schools are located in Highland. Starting in August 2014 6th grade is located at the Highland Middle School. In September 2014, the district's teachers staged a strike for the first time in the district's history. Additionally, Highland has a local parochial school named St. Paul Catholic School offering Kindergarten through eighth grade education; the Louis Latzer Memorial public library has a collection of more than 48,000 print volumes, a substantial media collection, public computer access along with access to subscription databases and a genealogy collection. It is a member of the Illinois Heartland Library System; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,919 people, 4,013 households, 2,633 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,561.1 people per square mile.
There were 3,610 housing units at an average density of 667.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.00% White, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 2,633 families. 50.3 % of the families have younger. There are 2,017 husband-wife families. 29.5% of all the households were made up of one individual and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 23% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. Of the total population 4,714 are males and 5,205 are females; the median income for a household in the city was $39,524, the median income for a family was $52,240. Males had a median income of $36,536 versus $25,620 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $21,101. About 3.6% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. Highland is the setting for the first song on the Illinois album by Sufjan Stevens, titled'Concerning the UFO sighting near Highland, Illinois', in which Stevens mentioned a 21st-century UFO sighting by the owner of the local mini-golf course. Highland was mentioned on The Daily Show on 9 Feb 2006. A report mentioned local pharmacist and state legislator Ron Stephens, who protested an executive order by Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich requiring a pharmacist to fill emergency contraception prescriptions. Kaspar Köpfli, Swiss doctor, founder of the town; the twin town partnership with Sursee, home of Köpfli, reminds of him. John Baptist Meÿenberg, inventor of condensed milk, emigrated from Switzerland to Highland. Heinrich Bosshard, Swiss teacher, poet and farmer. Composer of the Sempacherlied. There is a monument for him in Highland.
James Head, mixed martial artist in the Ultimate Fighting Championship Ken Oberkfell, third baseman with six Major League Baseball teams. He played for Highland High
Bethalto is a village located in Madison County, United States. Bethalto, like the rest of Madison County, is part of the Illinois Metro East portion of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area; the population of Bethalto was 9,521 at the 2010 census. Bethalto is located at 38°54′15″N 90°2′48″W. According to the 2010 census, Bethalto has a total area of 7.6 square miles, of which 7.52 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. Bethalto was founded in 1834, incorporated April 19, 1869, under a special charter and again in 1873 under the State of Illinois' general law, it is governed by six trustees elected at large. The original name of Bethalto was Bethel. However, when the first post office was established, it was discovered that there was a Bethel, Illinois. There is a general consensus that the name "Bethalto" came from the first four letters of Bethel and the first four letters of nearby Alton; the Bethalto Village Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,454 people, 3,810 households, 2,647 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,437.3 people per square mile. There were 4,007 housing units at an average density of 609.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.84% White, 0.76% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 3,810 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $42,201, the median income for a family was $50,764. Males had a median income of $41,512 versus $22,981 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,697. About 6.5% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. As a bedroom community, Bethalto is home to a branch of RF Technologies, North America's largest independent service center for drive-through communication systems. Local restaurants include Geno's 140 Club, The Eagle's Nest, El Mezcal, Roma's Pizza. In late October 2006, the segment of four-lane, controlled-access Illinois Route 255 between Illinois Route 143 and Fosterburg Road was opened; this highway provides Bethalto residents with convenient access to the area's freeway system and provides greater through traffic to further economic development for the region. The main park in Bethalto consists of a stage amphitheater, lighted tennis courts, baseball fields, skateboard park, a newly re-modeled basketball court.
The Bethalto Homecoming is held at the park every year. The park is located in the center of town, directly adjacent to the village hall; the Bethalto Arboretum is an arboretum on the east end of town, developed in 1966 after the demise of the railroad era in Bethalto. It is one of the few arboretums in the area. A directory of trees and bushes contained in the arboretum may be viewed in the mayor and clerk's offices. There are many plaques, in memory of Bethalto's notable persons, placed next to many of the trees in the park; the park is centered on a road truck on top of a short slab of railroad track. The short piece of track remains in its original position as part of the old railroad tracks that existed to transport coal to and from the area. Known as Culp Lane Park until 2014, it is on the northwest end of town. Features include a fishing lake, a children's play area, walking paths, pavilions, a playground, stretches of attractive landscaping; the park was named for former mayor Steve Bryant, instrumental in transforming the town lagoon into a family park.
The Bethalto Sports Complex is located on the north side of town just off Culp Lane. The complex was completed in 2006 and is made up of two baseball fields, two softball fields, two soccer fields, a grandstand, a concession stand; the complex, maintained by the Village of Bethalto, replaced the old baseball and soccer fields located at Civic Memorial High School for varsity and junior varsity baseball and soccer teams. The Indians, the Bethalto Legion team calls the complex home; the Bethalto Khoury League Diamonds are located on the south side of town in the Chateaux residential area. The complex consists of four lighted diamonds with a concession stand in the center; the fields are set up to handle all of the local Boys & Girls Clubs of America youth baseball and softball games. The fields are home to a number of private and select league baseball teams that play there every summer. Bethalto Unit Schools are the largest employer in Bethalto and have the greatest impact in terms of land area and government spending.
The school district, Bethalto Unit School District 8, is made up o
Old Shawneetown, Illinois
Old Shawneetown is a village in Gallatin County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the village had a population of 193, down from 278 at the 2000 census. Located along the Ohio River, Shawneetown served as an important United States government administrative center for the Northwest Territory; the village was devastated by the Ohio River flood of 1937. The village's population was moved several miles inland to New Shawneetown. At least one record suggests that a village was established here by the Pekowi Shawnee led by Peter Chartier about 1748. In early November 1803, Lewis and Clark are believed to have stopped at Old Shawneetown on their way to Fort Massac, just down the Ohio River. After the American Revolution, Shawneetown served as an important United States government administrative center for the Northwest Territory. Shawneetown and Washington, D. C. share the distinction of being the only towns chartered by the United States government. Old Shawneetown is the site of the first bank chartered in Illinois, in 1816.
In a log cabin, it was replaced in 1822 with a brick structure now known as the John Marshall House. Local legend states that the Shawneetown Bank refused to buy the first bonds issued by the city of Chicago on the grounds that no city located that far from a navigable river could survive. Another historic bank building, the Bank of Illinois, was constructed in 1839-41 to house the offices of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, it housed numerous other financial institutions before it was closed in the 1930s. This fine example of Greek Revival architecture survives as the Shawneetown Bank State Historic Site. Residents long remembered the visit by Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette of France to the city on May 8, 1825, as a high point for the early community's social history. Claudia Cassidy and drama critic for the Chicago Tribune Peter Chartier, Shawnee Indian chief Robert G. Ingersoll, orator Michael Kelly Lawler, Union Army officer John McLean, U. S. congressman John Alexander McClernand, Civil War general and U.
S. congressman Bluford Wilson, Union Army officer James Harrison Wilson, Union Army general Old Shawneetown is located in southeastern Gallatin County at 37°41′54″N 88°8′13″W, on the northwest bank of the Ohio River. Illinois Route 13 passes through the village. To the east it crosses the Shawneetown Bridge over the Ohio, becoming Kentucky Route 56 and leading 13 miles to Morganfield, Kentucky. To the west, IL 13 leads 3 miles to Shawneetown, the Gallatin County seat, 23 miles to Harrisburg. According to the 2010 census, Old Shawneetown has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 278 people, 100 households, 69 families residing in the village. The population density was 531.7 people per square mile. There were 146 housing units at an average density of 279.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the village was 99.64% White and 0.36% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 100 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families.
24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.36. In the village, the population was spread out with 33.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $18,214, the median income for a family was $20,625. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $13,750 for females; the per capita income for the village was $9,379. About 33.3% of families and 39.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 33.3% of those sixty five or over. List of cities and towns along the Ohio River 1887. History of Gallatin, Hamilton and Williamson Counties, Illinois.
Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co. Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002. Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 464 pages. Musgrave, Jon. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R. R.. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 608 pages. Waggoner, Horace Q. interviewer. 1978. "Lucille Lawler Memoir" Shawneetown Bank Project. Sangamon State University. Springfield, Ill
Goshen is a city in and the county seat of Elkhart County, United States. It is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Elkhart-Goshen Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn is part of the South Bend-Elkhart-Mishawaka Combined Statistical Area, it is located in the northern part of Indiana near the Michigan border, in a region known as Michiana. Goshen is located 10 miles southeast of Elkhart, 25 miles southeast of South Bend, 120 miles east of Chicago, 150 miles north of Indianapolis; the population was 31,719 at the 2010 census. The city is known as a major recreational vehicle and accessories manufacturing center, the home of Goshen College, a small Mennonite liberal arts college, the Elkhart County 4-H Fair, one of the largest county fairs in the United States. Goshen was platted in 1831, it was named after the Land of Goshen. The initial settlers consisted of old stock "Yankee" immigrants, who were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s; the New England Yankee population that founded towns such as Goshen considered themselves the "chosen people" and identified with the Israelites of the Old Testament and they thought of North America as their Canaan.
They founded a large number of towns and counties across what is known as the Northern Tier of the upper midwest. It was in this context; the Yankee migration to Indiana was a result of several factors, one of, the overpopulation of New England. The old stock Yankee population had large families bearing up to ten children in one household. Most people were expected to have their own piece of land to farm, due to the massive and nonstop population boom, land in New England became scarce as every son claimed his own farmstead; as a result, there was not enough land for every family to have a self-sustaining farm, Yankee settlers began leaving New England for the Midwestern United States. They were aided in this effort by the construction and completion of the Erie Canal which made traveling to the region much easier, causing an additional surge in migrants coming from New England. Added to this was the end of the Black Hawk War, which made the region much safer to travel through and settle in for white settlers.
These settlers were members of the Congregational Church, though due to the Second Great Awakening, many of them had converted to Methodism, some had become Baptists before coming to what is now Indiana. The Congregational Church has subsequently gone through many divisions, some factions, including those in Goshen, are now known as the Church of Christ and the United Church of Christ; when the New Englanders arrived in what is now Elkhart County there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie. They laid out farms, constructed roads, erected established post routes. On Palm Sunday, April 11, 1965, a large outbreak of tornadoes struck the Midwest; the most famous pair of tornadoes devastated the Midway Trailer Park, the Sunnyside Housing Addition in Dunlap, but a smaller F4 tornado struck neighborhoods on the southeast side of Goshen on the same day. Statewide, 137 Hoosiers died in the storms—55 of them in Elkhart County. Days President Lyndon B. Johnson visited the Dunlap site; the Goshen Historic district, added in 1983 to the National Registor of Historic Places is bounded by Pike, RR, Plymouth, Purl, the Canal, Second Sts. with the Elkhart County Courthouse at its center.
In April 2006, Goshen was the site for an immigration march. Officials estimated that from 2000 to 3000 people marched from Linway Plaza to the County Courthouse. For much of its history, Goshen was a "sundown town", forbidding African Americans from living in, or entering, the town under threat of violence. In March 2015, the city acknowledged this part of its past and saying that it no longer condones such behavior; the Elkhart County Courthouse, Fort Wayne Street Bridge, Goshen Carnegie Public Library, Goshen Historic District, William N. Violett House, Violett-Martin House and Gardens are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goshen is located at 41°34′55″N 85°50′12″W; the Elkhart River winds its way through the city and through a dam on the south side making the Goshen Dam Pond. Rock Run Creek runs through town; the city is divided east/west by north/south by Lincoln Avenue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.59 square miles, of which 16.23 square miles is land and 0.36 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 31,719 people, 11,344 households, 7,580 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,954.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,631 housing units at an average density of 778.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.2% White, 2.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 14.8% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.1% of the population. There were 11,344 households of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.2% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age in the city was 32.4 years. 27.4% of residents were under the age of 18.