The Alans were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity. The name Alan is an Iranian dialectical form of Aryan. Related to the Massagetae, the Alans have been connected by modern historians with the Central Asian Yancai and Aorsi of Chinese and Roman sources, respectively. Having migrated westwards and become dominant among the Sarmatians on the Pontic Steppe, they are mentioned by Roman sources in the 1st century AD. At the time, they had settled the region north of the Black Sea and raided the Parthian Empire and the Caucasian provinces of the Roman Empire. From 215–250 AD, their power on the Pontic Steppe was broken by the Goths. Upon the Hunnic defeat of the Goths on the Pontic Steppe around 375 AD, many of the Alans migrated westwards along with various Germanic tribes, they crossed the Rhine in 406 AD along with the Vandals and Suebi, settling in Valence. Around 409 AD, they joined the Vandals and Suebi in the crossing of the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, settling in Lusitania and Carthaginensis.
The Iberian Alans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths in 418 AD and subsequently surrendered their authority to the Hasdingi Vandals. In 428 AD, the Vandals and Alans crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into North Africa, where they founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until its conquest by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century AD; the Alans who remained under Hunnic rule founded a powerful kingdom in the North Caucasus in the Middle Ages, which ended with the Mongol invasions in the 13th century AD. These Alans are said to be the ancestors of the modern Ossetians; the Alans spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian. The various forms of Alan – Greek: Ἀλανοί Alanoi; this word was preserved in the modern Ossetian language in the form of Allon. These and other variants of Aryan were common self-designations of the Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryans and Iranian peoples to whom the Alans belonged.
Rarer spellings include Halani. The Alans were known over the course of their history by another group of related names including the variations Asi, As, Os, it is this name, the root of the modern Ossetian. The first mentions of names that historians link with the Alani appear at the same time in texts from the Mediterranean, Middle East and China. In the 1st century AD, the Alans migrated westwards from Central Asia, achieving a dominant position among the Sarmatians living between the Don River and the Caspian Sea; the Alans are mentioned in the Vologeses inscription which reads that Vologeses I, the Parthian king between around 51 and 78 AD, in the 11th year of his reign, battled Kuluk, king of the Alani. The 1st century AD. Josephus reports in the Jewish Wars how Alans living near the Sea of Azov crossed the Iron Gates for plunder and defeated the armies of Pacorus, king of Media, Tiridates, King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologeses I: 4. Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have mentioned somewhere as being Scythians, living around Tanais and Lake Maeotis.
This nation about this time laid a design of falling upon Media, the parts beyond it, in order to plunder them. This king gave; these Alans therefore plundered the country without opposition, with great ease, proceeded as far as Armenia, laying waste all before them. Now, Tiridates was king of that country, who met them and fought them but was lucky not to have been taken alive in the battle. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this sight, laid waste the country, drove a great multitude of the men, a great quantity of the other booty from both kingdoms, along with them, retreated back to their own country; the fact that the Alans invaded Parthia through Hyrcania shows that at the time many Alans were still based north-east of the Caspian Sea. By the early 2nd century AD the Alans were in firm control of Kuban; these lands had earlier been occupied by the Aorsi and the Siraces, whom the Alans absorbed, dispersed and/or destroyed, since they were no longer mentioned in contemporaneous accounts.
It is that the Alans' influence stretched further westwards, encompassing most of the Sarmatian world, which by possessed a homogenous culture. In 135 AD, the Alans made a huge raid into Asia Minor via the Caucasus, ravaging Armenia, they were driven back by Arrian, the governor of Cappadocia, who wrote a detailed report (Ektaxis kata Alanoon or'War Ag
Gothic persecution of Christians
Two main outbreaks of persecution of Christians by the 4th-century Gothic authorities are recorded, in 347/8 under Aoric and between 367 and 378 under Aoric's son, the iudex Athanaric. The persecution of Christians under Athanaric shows that Christians were still a minority among the Tervingi in the 370s, but that they had become numerous enough to be considered a threat to Gothic culture, it is remarkable that Athanaric did not persecute Christians in general, but converted Goths, while Christian foreigners were left alone. Athanaric's motive was thus the protection of the Gothic nation and its gods and not the persecution of Christianity as such; the Terving ruler Athanaric opposed the spread of Christianity among the Goths, fearing that the new faith would destroy Gothic culture. According to the historiographer Sozomenos, Athanaric appointed Winguric to eradicate the Christian faith from the Gothic lands. In Crimea, Winguric placed an idol in a chariot and paraded it before a tent used by Christians for their church service.
A total of 308 people died in the fire. This happened in or close to the year 375. A few years during the reign of Valentinian and Theodosius, the widow of a peer of Winguric's, her daughter Dulcilla gathered the remains of twenty-six martyrs and with he help of some priests and a layman named Thyellas transferred them to Cyzicus; the martyrs who died under Athanaric's persecution known by name are 18 laypeople. To this are added the four children of Wereka and Batwin, plus an anonymous man who came to the tent and confessed Christ as Winguric was about to burn it and was martyred together with the others, to arrive at the number of "twenty-six martyrs" whose remains were transported by Gaatha; the 21 martyrs known by name are recorded with multiple variants in manuscript tradition: Werekas, a papa or priest, Batwin, a bilaifs Arpulas, a monk, eleven laymen: Abippas, Ruias, Eskoes, Sigetzas, Swemblas and Philgas, seven laywomen Anna, Baren, Kamika and Anemais,The list includes Syrian and Phrygian names though the victims were all Goths.
This may reflect the Christian practice of assuming a new "Christian name" at baptism, in any case documents the close connection of the Gothic church with those of Asia Minor. The "26 Gothic martyrs" are commemorated in Orthodox Christianity on 26 March, but in the Gothic calendar fragment on 29 October; the same fragment for 23 October proscribes remembrance of "the many martyrs among the Gothic people, of Fridaric", Fridaric being an otherwise unknown Gothic martyr. Eastern Orthodox martyrologies enumerate "Twenty-six Martyred Goths", listing the 21 names given above, but adding one Constans as a twelfth layman, plus queen Gaatha along with her daughter Dulcilla and her son Agathon. Sabbas the Goth was martyred in 372 in. Nicetas the Goth was martyred in 372. Gothic paganism Gothic Christianity Germanic Christianity Peter Heather, John Matthews, "Martyrs and Martyrologies" in: Goths in the Fourth Century, 96-123. Herwig Wolfram, Thomas J. Dunlap, History of the Goths, 81-83. Holweck, F. G. A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints.
St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924. Lives of all saints commemorated on March 26
Athanaric or Atanaric was king of several branches of the Thervingian Goths for at least two decades in the 4th century. Throughout his reign, Athanaric was faced with invasions by the Roman Empire, the Huns and a civil war with Christian rebels, he is considered the first king of the Visigoths, who settled in Iberia, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom. Athanaric made his first appearance in recorded history in 369, when he engaged in battle with the Roman Emperor Valens and negotiated a favorable peace for his people. During his reign, many Thervings had converted to Arian Christianity, which Athanaric vehemently opposed, fearing that Christianity would destroy Gothic culture. According to the report of Sozomenos, more than 300 Christians were killed in Athanaric's persecution during the 370s. Fritigern, Athanaric's rival, was an Arian and had the favor of Valens, who shared his religious beliefs. In the early 370s, Athanaric successively fought Fritigern in a civil war. Along with his generals Muderic and Lagarimanus, Athanaric was defeated by the invading Huns.
Temporarily fleeing to Caucaland in the Carpathians, Athanaric was warmly received by Theodosius in Constantinople in 381, where he signed a treaty of friendship with the Roman Empire. Socrates Scholasticus and Zosimus refer to conflicts between Fritigern and Athanaric. Ammianus Marcellinus and Philostorgius do not record such conflicts. According to Socrates and Athanaric were rival leaders of the Goths; as this rivalry grew into warfare, Athanaric gained the advantage, Fritigern asked for Roman aid. The Emperor Valens and the Thracian field army intervened and Fritigern defeated Athanaric, Fritigern converted to Christianity, following the same teachings as Valens followed. Sozomen follows Socrates' account. According to Zosimus, Athanaric was the king of the Goths. Sometime after their victory at Adrianople, after the accession of Theodosius, Fritigern and Saphrax moved north of the Danube and defeated Athanaric, before returning south of the Danube. In 376, Valens permitted Fritigern's people to cross the Danube River and settle on Roman soil to avoid the Huns, who had conquered the Greuthungs and were now pressing the Thervings living in Dacia.
Athanaric's people were left to their fate, but many of them found their own way across the river, as well. In 381, Athanaric unexpectedly came to Constantinople. According to Jordanes, he negotiated a peace with the new emperor, Theodosius I, that made some Thervings foederati, or official allies of Rome allowed to settle on Roman soil as a state within a state. Orosius and Zosimus affirm this, but another source, Ammianus Marcellinus tells us an different story. According to him, Athanaric was banished by his fellow tribesmen and forced to seek asylum on the Roman territory. Cf. Themistius, who describes Athanaric as a supplicant and a refugee. Athanaric was by no authority to negotiate with. A few weeks Athanaric died. A peace and a treaty with those Tervingi, who still fought the Romans in Thrace, was concluded in 382 and it lasted until Theodosius' death in 395. Athanaric's Wall
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas for the purpose of translating the Bible. The alphabet is an uncial form of the Greek alphabet, with a few additional letters to account for Gothic phonology: Latin F and G, a questionably Runic letter to distinguish the /w/ glide from vocalic /u/, the letter ƕair to express the Gothic labiovelar. Ulfilas is thought to have consciously chosen to avoid the use of the older Runic alphabet for this purpose, as it was connected with heathen beliefs and customs; the Greek-based script helped to integrate the Gothic nation into the dominant Greco-Roman culture around the Black Sea. Below is a table of the Gothic alphabet. Two letters used in its transliteration are not used in current English: thorn þ, hwair ƕ; as with the Greek alphabet, Gothic letters were assigned numerical values. When used as numerals, letters were written either with an overline. Two letters, have no phonetic value; the letter names are recorded in a 9th-century manuscript of Alcuin.
Most of them seem to be Gothic forms of names appearing in the rune poems. The names are given in their attested forms followed by the reconstructed Gothic forms and their meanings. Most of the letters have been taken over directly from the Greek alphabet, though a few have been created or modified from Latin and Runic letters to express unique phonological features of Gothic; these are:, appear to be derived from their Latin equivalents rather than from the Greek, although the equivalent Runic letters, assumed to have been part of the Gothic futhark played some role in this choice. However, Snædal notes that "Wulfila's knowledge of runes was questionable to say the least", as the extreme paucity of inscriptions attests that knowledge and use of runes was rare among the East Germanic peoples. No indisputably Gothic Runic inscriptions are known to exist; some variants of are shaped like a sigma and more derive from the Greek Σ. is only used in proper names and loanwords containing Greek Χ. Regarding the letters' numeric values, most correspond to those of the Greek numerals.
Gothic takes the place of Ϝ, takes the place of ξ, that of Ο, that of ψ. Diacritics and punctuation used in the Codex Argenteus include a trema placed on i, transliterated as ï, in general applied to express diaeresis, the interpunct and colon as well as overlines to indicate sigla and numerals; the Gothic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2001 with the release of version 3.1. The Unicode block for Gothic is U+10330– U+1034F in the Supplementary Multilingual Plane; as older software that uses UCS-2 assumes that all Unicode codepoints can be expressed as 16 bit numbers, problems may be encountered using the Gothic alphabet Unicode range and others outside of the Basic Multilingual Plane. Ring of Pietroassa Help:Gothic Unicode Fonts Braune, Wilhelm. Gotische Grammatik. Halle: Max Niemeyer. Cercignani, The Elaboration of the Gothic Alphabet and Orthography, in "Indogermanische Forschungen", 93, 1988, pp. 168–185. Dietrich, Franz. Über die Aussprache des Gotischen Wärend der Zeit seines Bestehens.
Germanic paganism refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic people from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages. Rooted in Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Germanic religion expanded during the Migration Period, yielding extensions such as Old Norse religion among the North Germanic peoples, Continental Germanic paganism among the continental Germanic peoples, Anglo-Saxon paganism among the West Germanic people. Among the East Germanic peoples, traces of Gothic paganism may be discerned from scant artifacts and attestations. According to John Thor Ewing, as a religion it consisted of "individual worshippers, family traditions and regional cults within a broadly consistent framework". Anglo-Saxon paganism Continental Germanic paganism Frankish paganism Gothic paganism Norse paganism Heathenry Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, translated by Stallybrass, James S. Dover Publications Buchholz, Peter, "Perspectives for Historical Research in Germanic Religion", History of Religions, University of Chicago Press, 8: 111–138 North, Pagan words and Christian meanings, Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-5183-305-8