Balrogs are fictional creatures in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, they first appeared in print in his novel The Lord of the Rings, where the Fellowship of the Ring encounter one known as Durin's Bane in the Mines of Moria. Balrogs appeared in Tolkien's earlier writings, published posthumously in The Silmarillion and books. Balrogs are tall and menacing beings who can shroud themselves in fire and shadow, they appeared armed with fiery whips "of many thongs", used long swords. In Tolkien's conception, they could not be vanquished—a certain stature was required by the would-be hero. Only dragons rivalled their capacity for ferocity and destruction, during the First Age of Middle-earth, they were among the most feared of Morgoth's forces. According to The Silmarillion, the evil Vala Melkor corrupted lesser Maiar to his service in the days of his splendor before the making of Arda; these became known as "Demons of Might": Valaraukar in Quenya, Belryg in Sindarin. Upon the awakening of the Elves, the Valar captured Melkor and destroyed his fortresses Utumno and Angband.
But they overlooked the deepest pits, with many of Melkor's other allies, the Balrogs fled into hiding. When Melkor returned to Middle-earth from Valinor, now bearing the epithet Morgoth, he was attacked by Ungoliant, a spider-like creature; when the Noldor arrived in Beleriand in pursuit of Morgoth, they won a swift victory over his Orcs in the Dagor-nuin-Giliath. Fëanor pressed on towards Angband, but the Balrogs came against him, Fëanor was mortally wounded by Gothmog, Lord of Balrogs. Fëanor's sons fought off the Balrogs. In The Lays of Beleriand, The Lay of Leithian mentions Balrog captains leading Orcs: "the Orcs went forth to rape and war, Balrog captains marched before". Tolkien tells of two Balrogs slain by Elves in the fall of Gondolin. During the assault on the city, Ecthelion of the Fountain fought Gothmog, "each slew the other." Glorfindel fought a Balrog. In the War of Wrath that ended the First Age, most of the Balrogs were destroyed, although some including the Balrog known as Durin's Bane, managed to escape and hide in "caverns at the roots of the earth".
In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship ventured through Moria and were attacked in the Chamber of Mazarbul by Orcs and the Balrog. Gandalf faced the Balrog at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm and broke the Bridge, but was dragged down by the Balrog, he slew the Balrog but perished himself at the same time—to be sent back as the more powerful Gandalf the White. Tolkien's conception of Balrogs changed over time. In all his early writing, they are numerous. A host of a thousand of them is mentioned in the Quenta Silmarillion, while at the storming of Gondolin Balrogs in the hundreds ride on the backs of the Dragons, they are of twice human size, were killed in battle by Elves and Men. They were fierce demons, associated with fire, armed with fiery whips of many thongs and claws like steel, Morgoth delighted in using them to torture his captives, they were loyal to Morgoth, once came out of hiding to save him from capture. In the published version of The Lord of the Rings, Balrogs became altogether more sinister and more powerful.
Christopher Tolkien notes the difference, saying that in earlier versions they were "less terrible and more destructible". He quotes a late margin note, not incorporated into the text saying "at most seven" existed. In writings they ceased to be creatures, but are instead Maiar, lesser Ainur like Gandalf or Sauron, spirits of fire whom Melkor had corrupted before the creation of the World. Power of the order of Gandalf's was necessary to destroy them, as Maiar, only their physical forms could be destroyed. Tolkien says of the Valar that they can change their shape at will, move unclad in the raiment of the world, meaning invisible and without form, but it seems that Morgoth and their associated Maiar could lose this ability: Morgoth, for example, was unable to heal his burns from the Silmarils or wounds from Fingolfin and Thorondor. Tolkien does not address this for Balrogs though at least in his conception they are Maiar. In "the Bridge of Khazad-dûm" in The Fellowship of the Ring, the Balrog appears "like a great shadow, in the middle of, a dark form, of man-shape maybe, yet greater".
Though the Balrog had entered the "large square chamber" of Mazarbul, at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm it "drew itself to a great height, its wings spread from wall to wall" in what was a vast hall. The Balrog's size and shape, are not given precisely; when Gandalf threw it from the peak of Zirakzigil, the Balrog "broke the mountain-side where he smote it in his ruin". Whether Balrogs have wings is unclear; this is due to Tolkien's changing conception of Balrogs, but to his imprecise but suggestive and figurative description of the Balrog that confronted Gandalf in Moria. The three key quotations: His enemy halted again, facing him, the shadow about it reached out like two vast wings. … it drew itself up to a great height, its wings were spread from wall to w
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies
The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies is a 2014 epic high fantasy action adventure film directed by Peter Jackson and written by Jackson, Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Guillermo del Toro. It is the third and final installment in Peter Jackson's three-part film adaptation based on the novel The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, following An Unexpected Journey and The Desolation of Smaug, together they act as a prequel to Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, it was produced by New Line Cinema, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and WingNut Films, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures; the Battle of the Five Armies was released on December 11, 2014 in New Zealand, December 12, 2014 in the United Kingdom, on December 17, 2014 in the United States. It stars Martin Freeman, Ian McKellen, Richard Armitage, Evangeline Lilly, Luke Evans, Lee Pace, Benedict Cumberbatch, Ken Stott, James Nesbitt; the ensemble cast features Cate Blanchett, Ian Holm, Christopher Lee, Hugo Weaving, Orlando Bloom. The film received mixed reviews, grossed over $956 million worldwide, making it the second highest-grossing film of 2014 and the 46th-highest-grossing film of all time.
At the 87th Academy Awards, the film received a nomination for Best Sound Editing. Bilbo and the Dwarves watch from the Lonely Mountain. Bard breaks out of prison, kills Smaug with the black arrow brought to him by his son Bain. Smaug's falling body crushes the fleeing Master of Laketown and his cronies, who were escaping on a boat laden with the town's gold. Bard reluctantly becomes the new leader of the people of Laketown, with the Master's conniving servant, acting as Bard's reluctant servant, as they seek refuge in the ruins of Dale, while Legolas travels to investigate Mount Gundabad with Tauriel. Thorin, now struck with "dragon sickness" over the vast treasure in the mountain, searches obsessively for the Arkenstone, which Bilbo had found but kept hidden. Thorin, hearing that Laketown survivors have fled to Dale, orders the entrance of the Lonely Mountain sealed off. Meanwhile, Galadriel and Saruman arrive at Dol Guldur and free Gandalf, sending him to safety with Radagast, they defeat the Nazgûl and a formless Sauron himself, banishing them to the East.
Azog, marching on Erebor with his vast Orc army, sends his son Bolg to Gundabad to summon their second army. Legolas and Tauriel witness the march of Bolg's army, bolstered by giant bats. Thranduil and an Elf army arrive in Dale and form an alliance with Bard in order to reclaim a treasure once withheld from them by Thrór. Bard goes to the mountain and asks Thorin for the share of gold that he had promised the people of Laketown, but Thorin refuses. Gandalf arrives at Dale to warn Bard and Thranduil of the threat posed by Azog, but Thranduil dismisses him. Bilbo sneaks out of Erebor to hand the Arkenstone over to Thranduil and Bard so that they can trade it for the treasures they were promised and prevent a battle; when Bard's and Thranduil's armies gather at the gates of Erebor, offering to trade the Arkenstone for the promised treasures, Thorin angrily refuses to believe they have the Arkenstone until Bilbo admits giving it away and chides Thorin for letting greed cloud his judgement. Outraged by what he sees as betrayal, Thorin nearly kills Bilbo, but Gandalf appears and shames Thorin into releasing Bilbo.
Thorin's cousin Dáin arrives with his Dwarf army, a battle of Dwarves against Elves and Men ensues, until Wereworms emerge from the ground, releasing Azog's army from their tunnels. With the Orcs outnumbering Dáin's army and Bard's forces, along with Gandalf and Bilbo, join the battle, fighting the Orcs. However, a second front is opened when many Orcs and Trolls attack Dale, forcing Bard to withdraw his forces to defend the city, while Alfrid takes a bunch of gold and flees from Dale to his ultimate fate. Inside Erebor, Thorin suffers traumatic hallucinations before regaining his sanity and leading his company to join the battle, he rides towards Ravenhill with Dwalin, Fíli, Kíli to kill Azog. Meanwhile and Legolas arrive to warn the Dwarves of Bolg's approaching army. Fíli is captured, Azog kills him as Bilbo and the other Dwarves are forced to watch; as Thorin engages Azog in a fight to the death, Bolg knocks Bilbo unconscious, overpowers Tauriel and kills Kíli, who had come to her aid. Legolas battles Bolg and kills him.
Thorin is fatally wounded in the process. The Great Eagles arrive with Radagast and Beorn to fight the newly arriving Orc army, the Orcs are defeated. Bilbo makes peace with the dying Thorin. Tauriel mourns Kili, Thranduil acknowledges their love. Legolas tells Thranduil he must leave, Thranduil advises him to seek out a Dunedain ranger in the north who goes by the name "Strider"; as Thorin's company begin settling back into Erebor, Dale begins to recover with Bard as the leader, Bilbo bids farewell to the company's remaining members and journeys home to the Shire with Gandalf. As the two part ways on the outskirts of the Shire, Gandalf admits his knowledge of Bilbo's ring and warns him that magic rings are not to be used lightly. Bilbo returns to Bag End to find his belongings being auctioned off, he finds his home pillaged. Sixty years Bilbo receives a visit from Gandalf on his 111th birthday. Additionally, Peter Jackson's and Andy Serkis's daughters made cameo appearances as girls rowing away during Smaug's attack.
The Complete Guide to Middle-earth
The Complete Guide to Middle-earth: from The Hobbit to The Silmarillion is a reference book for the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium and edited by Robert Foster; the Complete Guide to Middle-earth is a major expansion of Foster's A Guide to Middle-earth, published in a limited edition by Mirage Press in 1971. Twice the length of the original, the 1978 version incorporates extensive entries related to The Silmarillion. A further revised edition was published in 2001 in time for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy; the Complete Guide to Middle-earth is recognised as an excellent reference book on Middle-earth. Christopher Tolkien has commended it himself as an "admirable work of reference". However, as it does not include information on post-Silmarillion material, the 1978 edition contains some assertions contradicted by publications. For example, the Star of Elendil jewel is identified with the Star of the Dúnedain given to Samwise Gamgee, but Christopher Tolkien refutes this.
It includes speculation on matters confirmed in subsequent works. For example, Foster proposes Gandalf and Olórin are one and the same - confirmed in Unfinished Tales. A German edition, Das Große Mittelerde-Lexikon and translated by Helmut W. Pesch, was published in 2002. Middle-earth portal Notes Bibliography Drout, Michael. J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96942-5. Tolkien, J. R. R.. Unfinished Tales. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-261-10362-8
The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age
The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age is a 2004 role-playing video game developed by EA Redwood Shores for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube. A turn-based tactics version of the game was developed for the Game Boy Advance by Griptonite Games; the game was published on all platforms by Electronic Arts, released worldwide in November 2004. The game is a loose adaptation of Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings film trilogy; as it is not an adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien's 1954 novel The Lord of the Rings, anything from the novels not mentioned or depicted in the films could not be represented in the game; this is because, at the time, Vivendi Universal Games, in partnership with Tolkien Enterprises, held the rights to the video game adaptations of Tolkien's literary works, whilst Electronic Arts held the rights to the video game adaptations of the New Line Cinema films. The game received mixed to positive reviews. Most reviewers praised the graphics, but many found the storyline and character development weak, the gameplay somewhat too derivative of Final Fantasy X.
As with many role playing games, gameplay in Third Age is split into two different modes. Progression through the game is built around "Quests." Every area features multiples quests. All areas feature several optional sidequests which do not have to be completed for progression, but which can yield substantial rewards if they are; when the player is in third-person mode, the HUD displays a map with the current objectives marked on it. As the player moves through the environment, one of two icons can appear on-screen. If the Eye of Sauron appears, it means. If a blue Palantír appears, it means. However, not every scripted battle is indicated beforehand by a Palantír icon; the Third Age is an RPG in the style of the games in the Final Fantasy series. The game's turn-based combat system is similar to Final Fantasy X's "Conditional Turn-Based" system, which replaced the "Active Time Battle" system used from Final Fantasy IV to Final Fantasy IX; the primary difference between the ATB and the CTB is that in the CTB system, time pauses as the player selects commands, whereas in the ATB system, time continues to pass.
As such, in the ATB system when the player is selecting actions, the enemy can continue to attack. In the CTB system, the enemy will not attack the player until the player has had their turn. During battle, a "battle queue" is displayed on-screen; this shows the order in which the enemy will take their turns. However, the order of battle can be changed by using abilities to slow down or stun the enemy, or speed up the player characters; the enemies can increase their own speed and decrease the party's, again changing the order. The queue changes each time; the player can only have three active party members in any given battle, but in most battles, they are free to switch party members in and out of combat. The player will be joined by a fourth member, a character from the films, is controllable for one or two battles only. Battles are structured around the player selecting actions from the battle menu. Actions include options such as "Attack", "Change Weapon", "Item" and "Skip." Another feature of battling is "Perfect Mode."
As the player executes attacks on the enemy, their momentum meter will fill. When it is full, any member of the party can select "Perfect Mode" from the menu and execute a more powerful attack. Perfect attacks are general to the party, with any character able to execute any attack. At the end of each battle, each member of the party receives experience points, based upon their actions during the battle. For example, if one character killed all the enemies, they will get more points than the others. If a character did not participate in the battle at all, they will get less points than those who did. Gaining experience points leads to the characters leveling up; when a character levels up, they receive attribute points, which they can spend on their various attributes. Weaponry and armor effect the level of each attribute; each character has access to their own unique set of skills. Every character has four basic types of skill set. Depending on what "elf stones" they have equipped, any given character may have skill sets relating to Lightcraft and Item Creation.
For all skills except passive skills and perfect mode, the character can only learn new skills by performing the skills which they have learned from that set a predetermined number of times. Each successful execution of a skill earns one skill point for the next skill; as the character advances, the choice of skills available to them increases, they can choose what skill to learn next. Skill points for perfect mode and passive skills are attached to experience level rather than successful execution of skills; the game features a mini-game called "Evil Mode". As the player completes each area in the main game, that area becomes available to play in evil
Minas Tirith named Minas Anor, is a fictional city and castle in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings, it became the fortified capital of the kingdom of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. It had been built to guard the former capital, from attack from the west, but became the capital when Osgiliath fell into ruin following the Kin-strife and the Great Plague, it is referred to as the White City and the City of the Kings. The Rohirrim sometimes translated this into their own language as "Mundburg". In the climax of The Lord of the Rings the city comes under a large and determined attack by the forces of Mordor. Tolkien equated the latitude of the city with that of Florence; the name Minas Tirith means "The Tower of Guard" or "The Tower of Watch" in the Elvish language Sindarin. It was named Minas Anor, "The Tower of the Setting Sun", in connection with Minas Ithil, "The Tower of the Rising Moon". Minas Ithil was conquered by orcs from Mordor and was renamed Minas Morgul, "The Tower of Black Sorcery".
Due to this event and the continuous rise of Mordor's power, Minas Anor was renamed Minas Tirith, "The Tower of Guard". The Drúedain referred to Minas Tirith as "Stone-city" and "Stone-houses"; the city of Minas Tirith covered the Hill of Guard. This hill was a shoulder of Mindolluin, the mountain which towered behind the city and, the easternmost peak of the White Mountains; the city was built on seven levels. Each level was about 100 ft higher than the one below it, each surrounded by a high stone wall; these were all white, with the exception of the wall of the First Circle, black, built of the same material used for Orthanc. This outer wall was the tallest and strongest of the city's seven walls; each wall held a gate, each gate faced a different direction from the one in the next wall. The city's main street snaked up the eastern hill-face and through each of the gates. Except for the high saddle of rock which joined the west of the hill to Mindolluin, the city was surrounded by the Pelennor, an area of farmlands.
Minas Tirith's port was a few miles south of the city at Harlond, where the great river Anduin made its closest approach to the city. The Citadel, located on the summit of the city, was the city's seventh and highest level, was protected by the city's seventh and innermost wall. At an elevation 700 feet higher than the plain surrounding the city, it had a commanding view of the lower vales of Anduin; the White Tower stood in the Citadel, in the Court of the Fountain in front of the Tower grew the White Tree, the symbol of Gondor. The topmost level contained lodgings for the Steward of Gondor, the King's House, Merethrond the Hall of Feasts, barracks for the Guard of the Citadel, other buildings for important officials and guests; the Guard of the Citadel, which consisted of several companies, was the elite force assigned to protect the highest level of Minas Tirith. Sections of the Guard could be deployed outside the city, such as in the Battle of the Morannon and the coronation of King Elessar.
In the book The Return of the King, Beregond was a member of the Guard, Pippin Took was appointed to serve with the Guard. The east of the Citadel was the flat top of the great pier of rock which jutted out from the eastern hill-face of Minas Tirith, in line with the Great Gate, 700 ft below the Citadel; the entrance to the Citadel, the Seventh Gate of the city, was in this eastern part. The gate was a tunnel which ran up through the rock pier from the Sixth Circle, where the keystone of the tunnel's archway was carved with the head of a crowned King. Guards of the Citadel manned the Seventh Gate; the White Tower also called the Tower of Ecthelion, was the most prominent building in Minas Tirith, the seat of the rulers of Gondor: the Kings and the Stewards. The phrase "the White Tower" was used as a metonym for the city and its rulers; the tower itself stood 300 ft tall. The main doors of the tower faced east, onto the Court of the Fountain. Inside these doors was the Tower Hall, the great throne-room where the Kings held court.
Upper storeys included private apartments for the rulers. The Seeing Stone of Minas Anor rested in a secret chamber at the top of the Tower. A buttery of the Guards of the Citadel was located in the basement of the tower, accessed by a door and stair at the tower's north feet; the White Tower was built by King Calimehtar in T. A. 1900. The tower was extensively re-built by Steward Ecthelion I in T. A. 2698, giving rise to the Tower of Ecthelion. In the late Third Age, the White Tower stood in opposition to the Dark Tower of Sauron in Mordor. Tolkien's stories feature a number of other white towers, including the tower of Avallónë, the tower built for Elwing, the eponymous towers of the Tower Hills; the Great Gate was the main gate on the first level of the City of Minas Tirith. It was in the City Wall—or Othram—facing eastward across the Pelennor Fields toward the Anduin. In front of the Great Gate there was a large paved area called the Gateway; the main roads to Minas Tirith met here: the North-way.
The Great Gate was strong, constructed of iron and steel and guarded by stone towers and bastions. The iron do
Electronic Arts Inc. is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and market capitalization after Activision Blizzard and ahead of Take-Two Interactive and Ubisoft as of March 2018. Founded and incorporated on May 27, 1982, by Apple employee Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. EA published numerous games and productivity software for personal computers and experimented on techniques to internally develop games, leading to the 1987 release of Skate or Die!. The company would decide in favor of abandoning their original principles and acquiring smaller companies that they see profitable, as well as annually releasing franchises to stay profitable. EA develops and publishes games including EA Sports titles FIFA, Madden NFL, NHL, NBA Live, UFC. Other EA established franchises includes Battlefield, Need for Speed, The Sims, Medal of Honor, Command & Conquer, as well as newer franchises such as Dead Space, Mass Effect, Dragon Age, Army of Two and Star Wars: The Old Republic.
Their desktop titles appear on self-developed Origin, an online gaming digital distribution platform for PCs and a direct competitor to Valve's Steam. EA owns and operates major gaming studios, EA Tiburon in Orlando, EA Vancouver in Burnaby, BioWare in Edmonton as well as Austin, DICE in Sweden and Los Angeles. Trip Hawkins had been an employee of Apple Inc. since 1978, at a time when the company had only about fifty employees. Over the next four years, the market for home personal computers skyrocketed. By 1982, Apple had completed its initial public offering and become a Fortune 500 company with over one thousand employees. In February 1982, Trip Hawkins arranged a meeting with Don Valentine of Sequoia Capital to discuss financing his new venture, Amazin' Software. Valentine encouraged Hawkins to leave Apple, where Hawkins served as Director of Product Marketing, allowed Hawkins use of Sequoia Capital's spare office space to start the company. On May 27, 1982, Trip Hawkins incorporated and established the company with a personal investment of an estimated US$200,000.
For more than seven months, Hawkins refined his Electronic Arts business plan. With aid from his first employee, Rich Melmon, the original plan was written by Hawkins, on an Apple II in Sequoia Capital's office in August 1982. During that time, Hawkins employed two of his former staff from Apple, Dave Evans and Pat Marriott, as producers, a Stanford MBA classmate, Jeff Burton from Atari for international business development; the business plan was again refined in September and reissued on October 8, 1982. By November, employee headcount rose to 11, including Tim Mott, Bing Gordon, David Maynard, Steve Hayes. Having outgrown the office space provided by Sequoia Capital, the company relocated to a San Mateo office that overlooked the San Francisco Airport landing path. Headcount rose in 1983, including Don Daglow, Richard Hilleman, Stewart Bonn, David Gardner, Nancy Fong; when he incorporated the company, Hawkins chose Amazin' Software as their company name, but his other early employees of the company universally disliked the name.
He scheduled an off-site meeting in the Pajaro Dunes, where the company once held such off-site meetings. Hawkins had developed the ideas of treating software as an art form and calling the developers, "software artists". Hence, the latest version of the business plan had suggested the name "SoftArt"; however and Melmon knew the founders of Software Arts, the creators of VisiCalc, thought their permission should be obtained. Dan Bricklin did not want the name used. However, the name concept was liked by all the attendees. Hawkins had recently read a bestselling book about the film studio United Artists, liked the reputation that the company had created. Hawkins said everyone had a vote but they would lose it if they went to sleep. Hawkins liked the word "electronic", various employees had considered the phrases "Electronic Artists" and "Electronic Arts"; when Gordon and others pushed for "Electronic Artists", in tribute to the film company United Artists, Steve Hayes opposed, saying, "We're not the artists, they are..."
This statement from Hayes tilted sentiment towards Electronic Arts and the name was unanimously endorsed and adopted in 1982. He recruited his original employees from Apple, Xerox PARC, VisiCorp, got Steve Wozniak to agree to sit on the board of directors. Hawkins was determined to sell directly to buyers. Combined with the fact that Hawkins was pioneering new game brands, this made sales growth more challenging. Retailers wanted to buy known brands from existing distribution partners. Former CEO Larry Probst arrived as VP of Sales in late 1984 and helped expand the successful company; this policy of dealing directly with retailers gave EA higher margins and better market awareness, key advantages the company would leverage to leapfrog its early competitors. A novel approach to giving credit to its developers was one of EA's trademarks in its early days; this characterization was further reinforced with EA's packaging of most of their games in the "album cover" pioneered by EA because Hawkins thought that a record album style would both save costs and convey an artistic feeling.
EA referred to their developers as "artists" and gave them photo credits in their games and numerous full-page magazine ads. Their first such ad, accompanied by the slogan "We see far