Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants, as of 2017. Visby is the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby; the Hanseatic city of Visby is arguably the best-preserved medieval city in Scandinavia and since 1995, it has been on the UNESCO World Heritage site list. Among the most notable historical remains are the 3.4 km long town wall that encircles the town center, a number of church ruins. Visby is a popular vacation destination for Scandinavians during the summer and receives thousands of tourists every year, it is by far the most populated locality outside the Swedish mainland. The Gotland University is in Visby, since 1 July 2013, it is a department of Uppsala University under the name Uppsala University–Campus Gotland. Visby is the sole county seat in Sweden only accessible by boat and air; the name "Visby" comes from the Old Norse Vis, meaning " place of sacrifices", by, meaning "village". In the Gutasagan the place is referred to as just Wi meaning "holy place, place of worship".
Visby is sometimes called "The City of Roses" or "The City of Ruins". The earliest history of Visby is uncertain, but it is known to have been a centre of merchandise around 900 AD, it was inhabited as early as the Stone Age because of the access to fresh water and a natural harbour. In the 12th century, Visby Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mary, was constructed, it was reshaped in the 13th century to its current appearance, was opened in 1225, by the bishop of the Swedish city of Linköping. Several other churches were constructed in the ensuing centuries; the city flourished, thanks to the German Hanseatic League. The work on the ring wall was begun in the 12th century. Around 1300, it was rebuilt to reach its current height, acquiring the characteristic towers, although some towers were not constructed until the 15th century; the ringwall is still intact. In the first half of the fourteenth century Visby was at the height of its wealth and influence, it was during this time that Laws of Wisbuy, a set of maritime laws that had broad influence in the Baltic and beyond, were promulgated.
In 1361, Gotland was conquered by Valdemar IV of Denmark. 1,800 Gotlanders were killed in battle in front of the city. Valdemar tore down part of the wall, set up three huge beer barrels and threatened to turn his men loose to pillage the town unless they were filled with silver and gold; the Visby city fathers fulfilled the demand, with churches stripped of their valuables. Valdemar added "King of Gotland" to his title list, his treatment of Visby, a member of the Hanseatic League, precipitated that League into war with Denmark. In 1391, 1394 and 1398, it was taken and plundered by the Victual Brothers, pirates who sailed the Baltic Sea. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered Gotland in 1398, destroyed Visby and expelled the Victual Brothers. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark and Sweden. In 1411, the Norwegian and Swedish King Eric of Pomerania had the castle of Visborg constructed, settled himself there for twelve years, during which the city became a pirates' nest, the commerce halted.
As of 1470, the Hanseatic League rescinded Visby's status as a Hanseatic town. In 1525, the final blow came. In the Danish throne quarrel, the Lübeck, a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire and a leading member of the Hanseatic League, supported Frederick I, while Søren Norby the Danish governor of Gotland fought for Christian II after Christian's official resignation in 1523. While Norby fought a military action in Sweden, the Lübeckers attacked Visby and set the city on fire from four sites, but unlike widespread belief, several churches survived for first. The churches of St. James, St. Nicholas and St. Gertrude were sacked by Lübeck's army. With the reformation, all churches except St. John, which became the city parish, were closed. In 1528, the citizens of Visby sacked the ruler's church in revenge for the plundering of their town. In 1533–34, the new Danish governor, Henrik Nielsen Rosenkrantz, demolished St. John's and St. Peter's churches to improve the defence of his castle Visborgs slott.
St. Mary's Cathedral became the new city parish. Gotland was again taken into Sweden's possession in 1645, by the Treaty of Brömsebro, after 300 years of Danish rule; the city developed as things were left as they were. In the mid 18th century, after a plague had reduced Visby's population, some attempts were made by Swedish government officials to improve living standards, but little was accomplished. Not until the early 19th century did Visby once again attract commerce and a harbour industry. At the same time – 1808 – Gotland was conquered by Russia, but was peacefully taken back by the Swedes after only a couple of months. Visby is the name of the locality, or town, as well as the name of the larger area surrounding it, Visby socken. In 1936, the socken was incorporated within the newly formed Visby stad, the only locality with historical city status on Gotland. Visby socken comprises the same area as the administrative Visby District, established on 1 January 2016; as of 2019, Visby Cathedral, Visborg Church and Terra Nova Church in Visby belong to Visby Cathedral parish.
Visby is the only municipality seat of Sweden, acces
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
Örebro County is a county or län in central Sweden. It borders the counties of Västra Götaland, Värmland, Dalarna, Västmanland, Södermanland and Östergötland, it is culturally divided into the hilly northern region of Bergslagen, where mining and metallurgic industry have been important since the Middle Ages, the southern Mälardalen of lakes and farms. Sweden's counties are administrative units, whereas the provinces of Sweden fit cultural and historical boundaries. Örebro County consists of the province of Närke, the western half of Västmanland and minor parts of eastern Värmland and northeastern Västergötland. Örebro County is named after its capital city, Örebro, which in 2010 was the sixth largest city of Sweden. Official 2010 numbers sourced in the localities section indicate that 38% of the county population is living in the city of Örebro alone. Örebro itself contains just as many inhabitants as the 23 other largest localities put together, has grown ever since the official statistics began in the late 1960s.
The county was named Värmland County until 1779 when Värmland County seceded. The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests of the county, to promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case; the County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Örebro Governors; the County Council of Örebro or Örebro läns landsting, appointed by the electorate of the county, is responsible for health care and public transportation. The southern Närke plain, the forested north and the highland to the west makes for a varying landscape. Örebro County has coastlines on two of them. Capital Örebro is alongside Hjälmaren, located inland along Svartån; the southern area of the county has a transitional climate between oceanic and continental, with warm summers and cold, variable winters.
Örebro has a July high of around 23 °C and winter highs around 0 °C with frosts being frequent from November to April. The proximity to the major lakes moderates winter temperatures somewhat, undermining the continental effects of its inland position; the northern areas of the county are cooler year-round. The summer temperatures on the Närke Plain are some of the warmest in all of Scandinavia and by extension Northern Europe. Örebro County is divided into 12 municipalities. The arms for the County of Örebro is a combination of the arms of Västmanland and Värmland; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Duke of Närke, a title for members of the royal family County Administrative Board of Örebro
Blekinge County is a county or län in the south of Sweden. It borders the Counties of Skåne, Kronoberg and the Baltic Sea; the capital is Karlskrona. It is the smallest of the present administrative counties of Sweden, covering only 0,7% of the total area of the country. For History and Culture, see: BlekingeBlekinge, the historical province Blekinge, has the same boundaries as the current administrative entity, Blekinge County. Blekinge County was a part of Kalmar County between 1680 and 1683, due to the foundation of the naval base at Karlskrona; the main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests and promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Blekinge Governors; the County of Blekinge inherited its coat of arms from the province of Blekinge.
When it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Blekinge County Council, or Landstinget Blekinge, is a municipal entity, independent of, but coterminous with, the County Administrative Board, its main responsibilities lie in health care and public transportation issues for the county. After the Swedish general election in 2014, the Blekinge County council are represented by the following political parties: The current governor of Blekinge County is Moderate Party politician Sten Nordin, appointed on the 1st of October 2017. Population as of 2009-12-31 Blekinge county total 1.6 % of the nation. Karlshamn 30 919 Karlskrona 63 342 Olofström 13 102 Ronneby 28 416 Sölvesborg 16 813 The five most populous localities of Blekinge County in 2010: Blekinge County Administrative Board Blekinge County Council Regional Association of Blekinge
Jämtland County is a county or län in the middle of Sweden consisting of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, along with minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland, plus two small uninhabited strips of Lapland and Dalarna. Jämtland County constitutes 12 percent of Sweden's total area, 49,443 km2 and is the third largest county in the country; the county capital is Östersund and the county governor, appointed by the Swedish government, is Jöran Hägglund, who leads the administrative board. Jämtland County borders the counties of Dalarna, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Västerbotten, it shares a border with the Norwegian county of Trøndelag. The county was established in 1810 and its foundation has both domestic and foreign causes. Upon formation it only consisted of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, why the coat of arms is a shield parted per fess with their provincial arms. For History and Culture see: Jämtland and HärjedalenJämtland County consists of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, though minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland are included, along with small uninhabited areas in Lapland and Dalarna.
The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests and promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Jämtland Governors. Jämtland County is sparsely populated and more than one third of the population live on the countryside, making Jämtland County the second largest rural region in Sweden, after Gotland County, though a majority of the population live in the rather densely populated region surrounding lake Storsjön called Storsjöbygden, "the Storsjö district/countryside"; the county is dominated by the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Swedish Rural Centre Party, unique in Sweden, but corresponds to the situation in the bordering Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The county is rather contrastive in the political field.
While the municipality association and a majority of the municipalities are governed by liberal-conservative majorities or by coalitions overstepping the bloc border, the county council is red-green and the Social Democrats receive three out of five mandates to the Riksdag. After the Swedish general election in 2014, the Jämtland County council are represented by the following political parties: The County Council of Jämtland or Jämtlands Läns Landsting. In Härjedalen Province: HärjedalenIn Jämtland Province: Berg Bräcke Krokom Ragunda Strömsund Åre Östersund The arms for the County of Jämtland is a combination of the arms of Jämtland, Härjedalen; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Blazon: "Parted per fess, the arms of Jämtland and the arms of Härjedalen." Duke of Jämtland, a title for members of the royal family, born by Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden before his accession to the throne. Jamtlandic Jämtland County Administrative Board Jämtland County Council Jämtlands Official Site Hammarstrands camping
Hemse is a locality situated on the Swedish island of Gotland with 1,700 inhabitants in 2014. It is the second largest locality on the island. Hemse is known for its markets. Hemse is the name of the larger populated area, socken, it comprises the same area as the administrative Hemse District, established on 1 January 2016. Hemse is the name of the locality surrounding the medieval Hemse Church, sometimes referred to as Hemse kyrkby, it is the name of the socken as well as the district. Hemse is situated in the central part of southern Gotland; as of 2019, Hemse Church belongs to Alva-Hemse-Rone parish in Sudrets pastorat, along with the churches in Alva and Rone. One of the asteroids in the asteroid belt, 10124 Hemse, is named after this place. Hemse stave church, the best-preserved remnants of a stave church from present-day Sweden, was discovered under the floor of Hemse Church during the late 19th century; the annual Hemse Market is one of the major autumn markets on Gotland. There are five official markets held on the island in August–October: Slite, Havdhem, Kräklingbo and Hemse, each spanning a weekend.
The following sports clubs are located in Hemse: Fardhem IF Media related to Hemse, Gotland at Wikimedia Commons Objects from Hemse at the Digital Museum by Nordic Museum
Cecilia Schelin Seidegård
Cecilia Schelin Seidegård, is a Swedish biochemist and since 1 January 2010, Governor of Gotland County. Seidegård grew up in Visby. In her youth she was active in a political party of a student's union. For 1981–82, she was vice-chairman of the Swedish National Union of Students, she obtained a Ph. D. in biochemistry, worked in the pharmaceutical industry in the Astra Group, where she was director of research at AstraZeneca. In 2003–2004, she was CEO of Huddinge University Hospital AB, in 2004–2007 she was Director of the merged Karolinska University Hospital. Since 2004 she has been Chairman of the Board of the Royal Institute of Technology. Since 2008, she has been chairman of the Systembolaget, she was elected in 2007 as a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. BusinessWeek profile