The Fokker D. VII was a German World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz of the Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. Germany produced around 3,300 D. VII aircraft in the half of 1918. In service with the Luftstreitkräfte, the D. VII quickly proved itself to be a formidable aircraft, the Armistice ending the war specifically required Germany to surrender all D. VIIs to the Allies. Surviving aircraft saw continued service with many other countries in the years after World War I. Fokkers chief designer, Reinhold Platz, had working on a series of experimental planes. These aircraft were characterized by the use of cantilever wings, Junkers had originated the idea in 1915 with the first all-metal aircraft, the Junkers J1, nicknamed Blechesel. The resulting wings were thick, with a leading edge. This gave greater lift and more docile stalling behavior than the thin wings commonly used at the time, late in 1917, Fokker built the experimental V11 biplane, fitted with the standard Mercedes D. IIIa engine. In January 1918, Idflieg held a competition at Adlershof.
For the first time, frontline pilots would participate in the evaluation and selection of new fighters. Fokker submitted the V11 along with other prototypes. Manfred von Richthofen flew the V11 and found it tricky, unpleasant, in response to these complaints, Reinhold Platz lengthened the rear fuselage by one structural bay, and added a triangular vertical fin in front of the rudder. Upon flying the modified V11, Richthofen praised it as the best aircraft of the competition and it offered excellent performance from the outdated Mercedes engine, yet was safe and easy to fly. Richthofens recommendation virtually decided the competition, but he was not alone in recommending it, Fokker immediately received a provisional order for 400 production aircraft, which were designated D. VII by Idflieg. Fokkers factory was not up to the task of meeting all D. VII production orders, Idflieg therefore directed Albatros and AEG to build the D. VII under license, though AEG did not ultimately produce any aircraft.
Because the Fokker factory did not use detailed plans as part of its production process, Albatros paid Fokker a five percent royalty for every D. VII built under license. Albatros Flugzeugwerke and its subsidiary, Ostdeutsche Albatros Werke, built the D. VII at factories in Johannisthal and Schneidemühl, aircraft markings included the type designation and factory suffix, immediately before the individual serial number. Some parts were not interchangeable between aircraft produced at different factories, even between Albatros and OAW, additionally each manufacturer tended to differ in nose paint styles
Riga is the capital and the largest city of Latvia. With 696,593 inhabitants, Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states, the city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava. Rigas territory covers 307.17 square kilometres and lies one and ten metres above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League member, Rigas historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga was the European Capital of Culture during 2014, along with Umeå in Sweden, Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, and the 2006 IIHF Mens World Ice Hockey Championships. It is home to the European Unions office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Riga is served by Riga International Airport, the largest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities, another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava.
The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium. A sheltered natural harbour 15 km upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of todays Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs and it was settled by the Livs, an ancient Finnic tribe. Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages, Rigas inhabitants occupied themselves mainly with fishing, animal husbandry, and trading, developing crafts. German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158, along with German traders arrived the monk Meinhard of Segeberg to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity had already arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, and established his bishopric there. The Livs, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, in 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization.
Berthold was killed soon afterwards and his forces defeated, pope Innocent III issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Albert landed in Riga in 1200 with 23 ships and 500 Westphalian crusaders. In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, the year 1201 marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina. To defend territory and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles, in 1207, Albert started on fortification of the town. Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a fief and principality of the Holy Roman Empire, until then, it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and return home
Legnica is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River and the Czarna Woda. Between 1 June 1975 and 31 December 1998 Legnica was the capital of the Legnica Voivodeship and it is currently the seat of the county and since 1992 the city has been the seat of a Diocese. As of 2012, Legnica had a population of 102,708 inhabitants, the city was first referenced in chronicles dating from the year 1004, although previous settlements could be traced back to the 7th century. The name Legnica was mentioned in 1149 under High Duke of Poland Bolesław IV the Curly, the Christian coalition under the command of the Polish Duke Henry II the Pious, supported by nobles and mercenaries, was decisively defeated by the Mongols. This, was a point in the war as the Mongols, having killed Henry II, halted their advance into Europe. During the Renaissance period, Legnica was one of the most important cities of Central Europe, the city began to rapidly develop after the sudden discovery of gold in the Kaczawa River between Legnica and the town of Złotoryja.
In 1742 the city was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after King Frederick the Greats victory over Austria in the War of the Austrian Succession. It remained in Germany until the end of World War II, Legnica is an economic and academic centre in Lower Silesia, together with Wrocław. The city is renowned for its architecture, spanning from early medieval to modern period. According to the Foreign direct investment ranking from 2016, Legnica is one of the fastest developing cities in the Silesian region. As of 31 December 2012 Legnica has 102,708 inhabitants and is the third largest city in the voivodeship and it constitutes the southernmost and the largest urban center of a copper deposit with agglomeration of 448,617 inhabitants. Legnica is the largest city of the conurbation and is a member of the Association of Polish Cities, a settlement of the Lusatian culture people existed in the 8th century B. C. After Celtic invasions beyond upper danube basin the area of Legnica was inhabited by their tribes and Ptolemy recorded the Lugii in the area, and mentioned their town of Lugidunum, which has been attributed to both Legnica and Głogów.
Slavic Lechitic tribes moved into the area in the 8th century and were the first group to settle it permanently, the city was first officially mentioned in chronicles from 1004, although settlement dates to the 7th century. It is mentioned in 1149 when the High Duke of Poland Bolesław IV the Curly funded a chapel at the St. Benedict monastery. Legnica was the most likely place of residence for Bolesław and it became the residence of the High Dukes of Poland in 1163 and was the seat of a principality ruled from 1248–1675. Legnica became famous for the battle took place at Legnickie Pole near the city on 9 April 1241 during the Mongol invasion of Europe. As the capital of the Duchy of Legnica at the beginning of the 14th century, Legnica was one of the most important cities of Central Europe, the city began to expand quickly after the discovery of gold in the Kaczawa River between Legnica and Złotoryja
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 kilometres west of Erfurt,70 km southeast of Kassel and 150 km northeast of Frankfurt. It is the urban centre of western Thuringia and bordering northeastern Hessian regions. A major attraction is Wartburg castle, which has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1999, Eisenach was an early capital of Thuringia in the 12th and 13th centuries. St. Elizabeth lived at the court of the Ludowingians here between 1211 and 1228, Martin Luther came to Eisenach and translated the Bible into German. In 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach was born here, during the early-modern period, Eisenach was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins and was visited by numerous representatives of Weimar classicism like Johann Wolfgang Goethe. In 1869, the SDAP, one of the two precursors of the Social Democratic Party of Germany was founded in Eisenach, car production is an important industry in Eisenach. The Automobilwerk Eisenach was founded in 1896, in the German Democratic Republic, the Wartburg was produced here.
Eisenach is situated on the Hörsel river, a tributary of the Werra between the Thuringian Forest in the south, the Hainich mountains in the north-east and the East Hesse Highlands in the north-west, Eisenachs origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as the nucleus of Eisenach, there are no written sources about that early period. According to legend, Louis the Springer began in 1067 to establish Wartburg castle above the settlement, in 1080, the castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach itself followed in a document dating to 1150 where it was referred to as Isinacha, during the 1180s, the town was established by the construction of three independent market settlements around the Saturdays market, the Wednesdays market and the Mondays market. During the second half of the 12th century, the walls were erected and Eisenach got a planned grid of streets. In 1207, the legendary Sängerkrieg supposedly took place at Wartburg castle, in 1221, St.
Elizabeth married Landgrave Louis IV and she lived in Eisenach or at Wartburg castle until 1228. Later, she became the patroness of Thuringia and Hesse, in 1247, the Ludowingians died out which led to the War of the Thuringian Succession between the Wettins and Duchess Sophie of Brabant. As a consequence, the landgraviate was divided and the eastern parts went to the Wettins and Kassel and the western parts went to Sophie. Eisenach kept a position among the Wettins Thuringian cities by becoming their Oberhof, so that their law had to be derived from Eisenachs municipal law. The confident citizens of Eisenach fought against the Wettins rule to become an imperial city between 1306 and 1308, but lost. In the 14th century various crises followed, in 1342, a big fire destroyed all the buildings
Lake Maggiore or Lago Verbàno is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps. It is the second largest lake in Italy and the largest in southern Switzerland, the lake and its shoreline are divided between the Italian regions of Piedmont and Lombardy and the Swiss canton of Ticino. Located halfway between Lake Orta and Lake Lugano, Lake Maggiore extends for about 65 kilometres between Locarno and Arona, the climate is mild in both summer and winter, producing Mediterranean vegetation, with many gardens growing rare and exotic plants. Well-known gardens include those of the Borromean and Brissago Islands, that of the Villa Taranto in Verbania, and the Alpinia botanical garden above Stresa. Lake Maggiore is 64.37 km long, and 3 to 5 km wide and it is the longest Italian lake, although Lake Garda has a greater area. Its mean height above the sea level is 193 metres, a lake, its bottom is almost everywhere below sea-level. Its form is very sinuous, so there are few points from which any considerable part of its surface can be seen at a single glance.
If this lessens the effect of the apparent size, it increases the variety of its scenery, while the upper end is completely alpine in character, the middle region lies between hills of gentler form, and the lower end advances to the verge of the plain of Lombardy. Lake Maggiore is the most westerly of the three great southern prealpine lakes, the others being Lake Como and Lake Garda, the lake basin has tectonic-glacial origins and its volume is 37 cubic kilometres. The lake has an area of about 213 square kilometres. Its main tributaries are the Ticino, the Maggia, the Toce, the rivers Verzasca and Cannobino flow into the lake. Its outlet is the Ticino which, in turn, joins the river Po just south-east of Pavia, the lake’s jagged banks are surrounded by the Pennine and Lugano Alps. Prominent peaks around the lake are the Gridone, Monte Tamaro, Monte Nudo, the highest mountain overlooking Lake Maggiore is Monte Rosa, located about 50 kilometres west of it. The culminating point of the drainage basin is the Grenzgipfel summit of Monte Rosa at 4,618 metres above sea level.
Lake Maggiore weather is humid subtropical, during winter, the lake helps to maintain a higher temperature in the surrounding region. The temperatures are cooled down in summer by the breezes that blow on the waters surface changing its colour, the area enjoys nearly 2300 hours of sunshine a year and an average annual temperature of 15.5 °C. The water of the lake has a temperature of 20 °C to 22 °C in July. In winter snowfall is erratic and primarily affects the higher elevations, rainfall is heaviest in May and lowest during the winter months
The Iron Cross was a military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and in the German Empire and Nazi Germany. It was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia in March 1813 backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars, Louise was the first person to receive this decoration. The recommissioned Iron Cross was awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, the Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. The design of the symbol was black with a white or silver outline. It was ultimately derived from the cross pattée occasionally used by the Teutonic Order from the 13th century, the black cross patty was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by the Balkenkreuz. In 1956, it was re-introduced as the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the Black Cross is the emblem used by the Prussian Army, and by the army of Germany from 1871 to present.
It was designed on the occasion of the German Campaign of 1813, from this time, the Black Cross featured on the Prussian war flag alongside the Black Eagle. The design is due to neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, based on a sketch by Frederick William, the design is ultimately derivative of the black cross used by the Teutonic Order. This heraldic cross took various forms throughout the history, including a simple Latin cross. When the Quadriga of the Goddess of Peace was retrieved from Paris at Napoleons fall, an Iron Cross was inserted into her laurel wreath, making her into a Goddess of Victory. The Black Cross was used on the naval and war flags of the German Empire, the Black Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army until 1915, when it was replaced by a simpler Balkenkreuz. The Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic, the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany, the traditional design in black is used on armored vehicles and aircraft, while after German reunification, a new design in blue and silver was introduced for use in other contexts.
The ribbon for the 1813,1870 and 1914 Iron Cross was black with two white bands, the colors of Prussia. The non-combatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black, the ribbon color for the 1939 EKII was black/white/red/white/black. Since the Iron Cross was issued several different periods of German history. For example, an Iron Cross from World War I bears the year 1914, the reverse of the 1870,1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year 1813 appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration has the initials FW for King Frederick William III, the final version shows a swastika. There was the 1957 issue, a replacement medal for holders of the 1939 series which substituted an oak-leaf cluster for the banned swastika
SMS Pommern was one of five Deutschland-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Kaiserliche Marine between 1904 and 1906. Named after the Prussian province of Pomerania, she was built at the AG Vulcan yard at Stettin and she was commissioned into the navy on 6 August 1907. The ships of her class were already outdated by the time entered the service, being inferior in size, firepower. After commissioning, Pommern was assigned to the II Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet, where she served throughout her peacetime career and the first two years of World War I. During this period, Pommern participated in several sorties into the North Sea in attempts to lure out. The ship was present at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May –1 June 1916 and she and her sisters briefly engaged the British battlecruisers commanded by David Beatty, Pommern was hit once by a 12 in shell from the battlecruiser HMS Indomitable. The resulting explosion broke the ship in half and killed the entire crew, Pommern was the only battleship of either side sunk during the battle.
Pommern was ordered under the contract name O and she was laid down on 22 March 1904 at the AG Vulcan dockyard in Stettin. She was originally scheduled to be launched on 19 November 1905, as a result, the ship could not be launched until 2 December. The Oberpräsident of Pommern, Helmuth von Maltzahn, gave the launching speech, in July 1907 Pommern was transferred to Kiel where she had her main battery of four 28 cm guns installed. She was commissioned for trials on 6 August, during her run, she made 18.7 knots. The ship was 127.6 m long and had a beam of 22.2 m, and her full-load displacement was 14,218 metric tons. She was equipped with triple expansion engines that were rated at 17,453 indicated horsepower, steam was provided by twelve Schulz-Thornycroft boilers. In addition to being the fastest ship of her class, Pommern was the most fuel efficient, at a cruising speed of 10 knots, she could steam for 5,830 nautical miles. The ship had a crew of 35 officers and 708 enlisted men, though during military operations.
Pommerns primary armament consisted of four 28 cm SK L/40 guns in two twin turrets and she was equipped with fourteen 17 cm guns mounted in casemates and twenty 8.8 cm guns in pivot mounts. The ship was armed with six 45 cm torpedo tubes. One was in the bow, one in the stern, and her armored belt was 240 mm thick amidships and she had a 40 mm thick armored deck
The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. As a commercial and industrial city with a port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region. Bremen is the second most populous city in Northern Germany and eleventh in Germany, Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremen is home to dozens of galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums. Bremen has a reputation as a working class city, along with this, Bremen is home to a large number of multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include the Hachez chocolate company and Vector Foiltec, four-time German football champions Werder Bremen are based in the city. Bremen is some 60 km south from the Weser mouth on the North Sea, with Bremerhaven right on the mouth the two comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
The marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12,000 BC, burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since The Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemys Fourth Map of Europe, written in 150 AD, but Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, and by these dates Phabiranon is situated northeast of the mouth of river Visurgis. At that time the Chauci lived in the now called north-western Germany or Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons, during the Saxon Wars the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, and lost the war. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum which stated that Saxons were not allowed to worship Odin, in 787 Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. The citys first stone walls were built in 1032, around this time trade with Norway and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city.
The city was recognised as an entity with its own laws. Property was to be inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremens status of imperial immediacy, since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought. In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, in 1260 Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000, around this time the Hansekogge became a unique product of Bremen
Imperial German Navy
The Imperial German Navy was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy, which primarily had the mission of coastal defence, Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded the navy, and enlarged its mission. The key leader was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, who expanded the size and quality of the navy. The result was an arms race with Britain as the German navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world. The German surface navy proved ineffective during World War I, its only major engagement, the submarine fleet was greatly expanded and posed a major threat to the British supply system. The Imperial Navys main ships were turned over to the Allies, all ships of the Imperial Navy were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff. The Imperial Navy achieved some important operational feats, the Navy emerged from the fleet action of the Battle of Jutland having destroyed more ships than it lost, although the strategic value of both of these encounters was minimal.
The Imperial Navy was the first to operate successfully on a large scale in wartime, with 375 submarines commissioned by the end of the First World War. The unification of Germany under Prussian leadership was the point for the creation of the Imperial Navy in 1871. The newly created emperor, Wilhelm I, as King of Prussia, had previously been head of state of the strongest state forming part of the new empire, supreme command was vested in the emperor, but its first appointed chief was General der Infanterie Albrecht von Stosch. Kiel on the Baltic Sea and Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea served as the Navys principal naval bases, the former Navy Ministry became the Imperial Admiralty on 1 February 1872, while Stosch became formally an admiral in 1875. Initially the main task of the new Imperial Navy was coastal protection, with France, the Imperial Navys tasks were to prevent any invasion force from landing and to protect coastal towns from possible bombardment. In March 1872 a German Imperial Naval Academy was created at Kiel for training officers, followed in May by the creation of a Machine Engineer Corps, in July 1879 a separate Torpedo Engineer Corps was created dealing with torpedoes and mines.
In May 1872 a ten-year building programme was instituted to modernise the fleet, the building plan had to be approved by the Reichstag, which controlled the allocation of funds, although one-quarter of the money came from French war reparations. In 1883 Stosch was replaced by general, Count Leo von Caprivi. At this point the navy had seven armoured frigates and four armoured corvettes,400 officers and 5,000 ratings, in October 1887 the first torpedo division was created at Wilhelmshaven and the second torpedo division based at Kiel. In 1887 Caprivi requested the construction of ten armoured frigates, greater importance was placed at this time on development of the army, which was expected to be more important in any war. This shortened the journey for commercial ships, but specifically united the two areas principally of concern to the German navy, at a cost of 150 million marks, the protection of German maritime trade routes became important
A Zeppelin was a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century. Zeppelins notions were first formulated in 1874 and developed in detail in 1893 and they were patented in Germany in 1895 and in the United States in 1899. After the outstanding success of the Zeppelin design, the word came to be commonly used to refer to all rigid airships. Zeppelins were first flown commercially in 1910 by Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-AG, the worlds first airline in revenue service, by mid-1914, DELAG had carried over 10,000 fare-paying passengers on over 1,500 flights. During World War I the German military made use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts. The defeat of Germany in 1918 temporarily slowed down the airship business, an exception was made allowing the construction of one airship for the US Navy, which saved the company from extinction. In 1926 the restrictions on airship construction were lifted and with the aid of donations from the public and this revived the companys fortunes, and during the 1930s the airships Graf Zeppelin and the larger LZ129 Hindenburg operated regular transatlantic flights from Germany to North America and Brazil.
The Hindenburg disaster in 1937, along political and economic issues. The principal feature of Zeppelins design was a rigid metal framework made up from transverse rings. The advantage of design was that the aircraft could be much larger than non-rigid airships. The framework of most Zeppelins was made of duralumin, early Zeppelins used rubberised cotton for the gasbags, but most craft used goldbeaters skin, made from the intestines of cattle. The first Zeppelins had long cylindrical hulls with tapered ends and complex multi-plane fins and they were propelled by several engines, mounted in gondolas or engine cars, which were attached to the outside of the structural framework. Some of these could provide reverse thrust for manoeuvring while mooring, early models had a comparatively small externally mounted gondola for passengers and crew which was attached to the bottom of the frame. This space was never heated so passengers during trips across the North Atlantic or Siberia were forced to bundle themselves in blankets, the flight ceiling was so low that no pressurization of the cabins was necessary, though the Hindenburg did maintain a pressurized air-locked smoking room.
Access to the Zeppelin was achieved in a number of ways, the Graf Zeppelins gondola was accessed while the vessel was on the ground, via gangways. This describes a large rigidly framed outer envelope containing several separate gasbags and he had previously encountered Union Army balloons in 1863 when he visited the United States as a military observer during the American Civil War. Count Zeppelin began to pursue his project after his early retirement from the military in 1890 at the age of 52. Convinced of the importance of aviation, he started working on various designs in 1891
Freikorps were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, the members of which effectively fought as mercenaries, regardless of their own nationality. In German-speaking countries the first so-called Freikorps free regiments were formed in the 18th century from native volunteers, enemy renegades and deserters and these sometimes exotically equipped units served as infantry and cavalry or, more rarely, as artillery. Sometimes in just company strength, sometimes in formations up to several thousand strong, the Prussian von Kleist Freikorps included infantry, jäger and hussars. The French Volontaires de Saxe combined uhlans and dragoons and these units roamed the countryside, killing with impunity. They engaged in confrontations with republican loyalists and engineered some of the more notorious assassinations of the Weimar period. An entire series of Freikorps awards existed, the very first Freikorps were recruited by Frederick the Great during the Seven Years War.
On 15 July 1759, Frederick ordered the creation of a squadron of hussars to be attached to the 1st Regiment of Hussars. He entrusted the creation and command of new unit to Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm von Kleist. This first squadron was raised in Dresden and consisted mainly of Hungarian deserters and this squadron was placed under the command of Lieutenant Johann Michael von Kovacs. At the end of 1759, the first 4 squadrons of dragoons of the Freikorps were organised and they initially consisted of Prussian volunteers from Berlin, Magdeburg and Leipzig but recruited deserters. The Freikorps were regarded as unreliable by regular armies, so they were used as sentries. Even during the last Kabinettskrieg, the War of the Bavarian Succession, Hungarians, Poles and South Slavs, as well as Turks and Cossacks, were believed by all warring parties to be inherently good fighters. The nationality of many soldiers can no longer be ascertained with certainty as the origin was often described imprecisely in the regimental lists.
Slavs were often referred to as Hungarians or Croats, and Muslim recruits as Turks, for Prussia, the Pandurs, who were made up of Serbs and Croats, were a clear model for the organization of such free troops. They were often used to ward off Maria Theresas Pandurs, in the era of linear tactics, light troops had been seen necessary for outpost and reconnaissance duties. Because, with exceptions, they were seen as undisciplined and less battleworthy, they were used for less onerous guard. In the so-called petty wars, the Freikorps interdicted enemy supply lines with guerrilla warfare, in the case of capture, their members were at risk of being executed as irregular fighters. In Prussia the Freikorps, which Frederick the Great had despised as vermin, were disbanded and their soldiers were given no entitlement to pensions or invalidity payments
Dessau is a city in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it is part of the new city of Dessau-Roßlau, Dessau is situated on a floodplain where the Mulde flows into the Elbe. The worst flood took place in the year 2002, when the Waldersee district was completely flooded. The south of Dessau touches a well-wooded area called Mosigkauer Heide, the highest elevation is a 110m high former rubbish dump called Scherbelberg in the southwest of Dessau. Dessau is surrounded by parks and palaces that ranks Dessau as one of the greenest towns in Germany. Dessau was first mentioned in 1213 and it became an important centre in 1570, when the Principality of Anhalt was founded. Dessau became the capital of state within the Holy Roman Empire. Anhalt was dissolved In 1603 it was split into four – five – Anhalts, in 1863 two of the noble line died out, and became reunited. Dessau is famous for its college of architecture Bauhaus and it moved here in 1925 after it had been forced to close in Weimar.
Many famous artists were lecturers in Dessau in the years, among them Walter Gropius, Paul Klee. The Nazis forced the closure of the Bauhaus in 1931, the city was almost completely destroyed by Allied air raids in World War II on March 7,1945, six weeks before American troops occupied the town. Afterwards it was rebuilt with typical GDR concrete slab architecture and became an industrial centre of East Germany. Since German reunification in 1990 many historic buildings have been restored, the composer Kurt Weill was born in Dessau. Since 1993 the city has hosted an annual Kurt Weill Festival, Dessau was the birthplace of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, and Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, a lauded field marshal for the Kingdom of Prussia. Since January 7,2005, Dessau has gained notoriety for the death of Sierra Leonean convicted drug trafficker. According to local police, who was drunk and had tied to his bed because he was volatile and violent, set his own mattress on fire. A local court acquitted officers in 2008, in 2010, however, a higher federal court declared the ruling null and void, and ordered a new investigation and trial be launched.
The Bauhaus College itself was constructed based on designs by Walter Adolph Georg Gropius, Dessau Hauptbahnhof has connections to Magdeburg, Leipzig, Halle and Lutherstadt Wittenberg