Gough Island /ˈɡɒf/, also known historically as Gonçalo Álvares or mistakenly as Diego Alvarez, is a volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a dependency of Tristan da Cunha and part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and it is uninhabited except for the personnel of a weather station which the South African National Antarctic Programme has maintained continually on the island since 1956. It is one of the most remote places with a constant human presence, Gough Island and Inaccessible Island comprise the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Gough and Inaccessible Islands. The island was first named Ilha de Gonçalo Álvares on Portuguese maps and it was named Gough Island after Captain Charles Gough of the Richmond who sighted the island in 1732. Confusion of the unusual Portuguese saint name Gonçalo with Spanish Diego led to the misnomer Diego Alvarez island in English sources from the 1800s to 1930s. However, the most likely explanation is that it was simply a misreading of Is de Go Alvarez, the name by which the island is represented on some of the early charts, the de Go mutating into Diego. The details of the discovery of Gough Island are unclear, maps during the next three centuries named the island after him. On some later maps, this was given as Diego Alvarez. According to some historians, the English merchant Anthony de la Roché was the first to land on the island, Charles Gough rediscovered the island on 3 March 1732, thinking it was Gonçalo Álvares. Then, in 1732, Captain Gough of the British ship Richmond reported the discovery of a new island, in the early 19th century, sealers sometimes briefly inhabited the island. The earliest known example is a gang from the U. S. ship Amethyst which remained on the island in 1806–1807. The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition on the Scotia made the first visit to the island by a party on 21 April 1904. The Quest Expedition also stopped at the island in 1922, Gough Island was formally claimed in 1938 for Britain, during a visit by HMS Milford of the Royal Navy. In 1995, the island was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, in 2004, the site was extended to include Inaccessible Island and renamed Gough and Inaccessible Islands. Gough Island is roughly rectangular with a length of 13 km and it has an area of 91 km2 and rises to heights of over 900 m above sea level. Topographic features include the highest Peak, Edinburgh Peak, Hags Tooth, Mount Rowett, Sea Elephant Bay, Quest Bay, the islands have a cool-temperate oceanic climate, and lie on the edge of the roaring forties. Gough Islands temperatures are very solid between 11 °C and 17 °C during the day year-round, due to its position far out in the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic is much cooler in the southern hemisphere than the northern, as a result, summers are extremely cool
East coast of Gough Island with 115 m high Penguin Islet lying 0.8 km off the point.
Elephant seal at Gough Island depicted on a 1954 Tristan da Cunha stamp