Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Baron is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
Barizey is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
L'Abergement-de-Cuisery is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. The commune lies in the south of the department in the Saône valley, not far from Mâcon, the capital of the department. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
Auxy is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
Beaubery is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France. Located in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region, it was founded during the Principate era of the early Roman Empire by Emperor Augustus as Augustodunum to give a Roman capital to the Gallic people Aedui, who had Bibracte as their political centre. In Roman times the city may have been home to 30,000 to 100,000 people, according to different estimates. Nowadays, Autun has a population of about 15,000. Augustodunum was founded during the reign of the first Roman emperor, after whom it was named, it was the civitas "tribal capital" of the Aedui, Continental Celts, allies and "brothers" of Rome since before Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Augustodunum was a planned foundation replacing the original oppidum Bibracte, located some 25 km away. Several elements of Roman architecture such as walls, a Roman theater are still visible in the town. In AD 356, a force of Alemanni brought the siege of Autun; the disrepair of the walls left the city in danger of falling.
Autun was saved by the arrival of the Emperor Julian in one of his early military successes. In Late Antiquity, Autun became famous for its schools of rhetoric. A world map based on the Geography of Ptolemy was famous for its size and was displayed in the portico of one of the schools, it may have survived until early modern times. In 532 the Merovingian kings Childebert I and Clothar I in battle of Autun defeated the Burgundians led by king Godomar and took over the country of Burgundy. In 725, the Umayyad general Anbasa ibn Suhaym Al-Kalbi marched up the Saône valley to Autun. On 22 August 725 he captured the town after defeating forces led by the local bishop, Émilien of Nantes, slain during the course of the battle. Autun marks the easternmost extent of the Umayyad campaign in Europe. However, the position was never retained, Anbasa died soon after; the Umayyads are known to have raided the lower Rhone during the next decade, but Uzès was their northernmost stronghold and Marseille the easternmost coastal stronghold.
In 880, Count Richard of Autun was made the first duke of Burgundy. In 1788, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord became bishop of Autun, he was elected member of the clergy for the Estates-General of 1789. The High School plays an important role in the history of the city and France since Napoleon, who gave it its current name and whose brothers Joseph and Lucien studied there; this school continues to operate today. The decorated wrought iron gates were erected in 1772. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the leader of the Army of the Vosges, Giuseppe Garibaldi, chose the city as his headquarters; the city boasts other ruins dating to the time of Augustus. One of the most impressive remains is that of the ancient theatre, one of the largest in the western part of the empire with a 17,000 seat capacity. To the northwest of the city is the so-called Temple of Janus, only two walls of which remain. To the southeast is the mysterious Pierre de Couhard, a rock pyramid of uncertain function which may date to Roman times.
The Autun Cathedral known as Saint Lazare's Cathedral, dates from the early twelfth century and is a major example of Romanesque architecture. It was the chapel of the Dukes of Burgundy; the cathedral was built as a pilgrimage church for the veneration of the relic Saint Lazarus, mentioned in the Gospels, considered the first bishop of Marseille, who, always according to tradition, arrived in Provence with Mary Magdalen. Autun's 12th-century bishop, Étienne de Bâgé built the church in response to the construction of Ste. Madeleine at nearby Vézelay, home to the French cult of Mary Magdalene. St. Lazare was only elevated to the rank of cathedral, replacing the former cathedral dedicated to St. Nazaire; the Autun Cathedral is famous for its architectural sculpture the tympanum of The Last Judgment above the west portal, surviving fragments from the lost portal of the north transept, the capitals in the nave and choir. All of these are traditionally considered the work of Gislebertus, whose name is on the west tympanum.
It is uncertain or of a patron. If Gislebertus is in fact the artist, he is one of few medieval artists whose name is known. Bishop and Saint Leodegar Nivelon I was known as Count of Autun In the late 9th century, Charles Martel's daughter married Thierry IV, Count of Autun. In the late 9th century, the countship was vacant after the death of Robert the Strong, but was returned to Bernard Plantapilosa, son of Bernard of Septimania, later to Bernard of Gothia after Bernard fell out of favor. In 878, King Louis the Younger gave it to his chamberlain, Theodoric. Honorius Augustodunensis Nicolas Rolin, Chancellor of Burgundy under Philip the Good, came from Autun, where several examples of his artistic patronage can be seen; the Rolin Madonna, by Jan van Eyck, in the Louvre, shows what was at least intended as a view of Autun in the background. In 1837, a commercial mining of oil shale deposit near Autun marked the beginning of the modern oil shale industry. In 1852, the uranium mineral autunite was first discovered near Autun, named for the town.
Autun is the main setting for James Salter's 1967 novel "A Sport and a Pastime". The European Triathlon Championships were held in the town in 20