Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
The Princeton Review
The Princeton Review is a college admission services company offering test preparation services and admissions resources, online courses, books published by Random House. The company has more than 4,000 teachers and tutors in the United States and Canada and international franchises in 14 other countries; the company is headquartered in New York City, is held. Despite the title, it is not associated with Princeton University; the Princeton Review was founded in 1981 by John Katzman, who—shortly after leaving college—taught SAT preparation to 15 students in New York City. He served as CEO until 2007, was replaced by Michael Perik. In March 2010, Perik was replaced by John M. Connolly. In April 2010, the company sold $48 million in stock for $3 per share, a short time was accused of fraud in a class action suit filed by a Michigan retirement fund, which claimed The Princeton Review leadership exaggerated earnings to boost its stock price. In 2012, the company was acquired by a private equity fund, for $33 million.
On August 1, 2014, the Princeton Review brand name and operations were bought for an undisclosed sum by Tutor.com, an IAC company, Mandy Ginsburg became CEO. The company is no longer affiliated with Education Holdings 1, Inc.. On March 31, 2017, ST Unitas acquired the Princeton Review for an undisclosed sum; the Princeton Review offers preparation courses for various tests at the Princeton Review website: The company offers courses worldwide through company-owned and third-party franchises. Countries with Princeton Review franchises include China, Israel, Kuwait, Mexico, Pakistan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and the United Arab Emirates. Test preparation providers have been criticized in the past on the grounds that their courses claim larger score increases than they deliver. College rankings, including those published by the Princeton Review, have been criticized for failing to be accurate or comprehensive by assigning objective rankings formed from subjective opinions. Princeton Review officials counter that their rankings are unique in that they rely on student opinion and not just on statistical data.
In 2002 an American Medical Association affiliated program, A Matter of Degree, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, criticized the Princeton Review list of Best Party Schools. USA Today published an editorial titled "Sobering Statistics" in August 2002 and stated, "the doctor's group goes too far in suggesting that the rankings contribute to the problem." The editorial noted the fact that among the schools the AMA program was funding as part of its campaign against campus drinking, six of 10 of those schools calling for The Princeton Review to "drop the annual ranking...had made past top-party-school lists: many times for some. That's no coincidence." The editorial commended The Princeton Review for reporting the list, calling it "a public service" for "student applicants and their parents". Rankings for LGBT-related lists have been criticized as inaccurate due to outdated methodologies; the Princeton Review bases its LGBT-Friendly and LGBT-Unfriendly top twenty ranking lists, which asks undergraduates: "Do students and administrators at your college treat all persons regardless of their sexual orientations and gender identify/expression?"
The Princeton Review publishes The Gay & Lesbian Guide to College Life. In 2016, the company was criticized by privacy rights advocates who worry that a company that owns online dating and college preparation services could amass data and exploit it in a way that preys on unsuspecting consumers younger people. "Do parents know that when their underage kids enroll for exam prep or tutoring, personal information may be shared with hookup sites that could target their kids to become customers?" asked one critic, who concluded that the company "makes no guarantee that data sharing among its entities will not include those customers whose sole aim is to improve their grades and test scores." Indeed, another critic points out that The Princeton Review "policy states'we may collect certain information from your computer each time you visit our site'—information like data'regarding your academic and extracurricular activities and interests.' That information can be used to ` send you email offers.