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Gourmet is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, characterized by refined elaborate preparations and presentations of aesthetically balanced meals of several contrasting quite rich courses. The ingredients used in the meal tended to be rare for the region, which could be impacted by the local state and religious customs; the term and its associated practices are used positively to describe people of refined taste and passion. Gourmet food tends to be served in more expensive, portions. There tends to be cross-cultural interactions when it comes to Gourmet, introducing new ingredients and practices; the word gourmet is from the French term for a wine taste-vin employed by a wine dealer. Friand was the reputable name for a connoisseur of delicious things that were not eaten for nourishment: "A good gourmet", wrote the conservative eighteenth-century Dictionnaire de Trévoux, employing this original sense, "must have le goût friand", or a refined palate.

The pleasure is visual: "J'aime un ragoût, et je suis friand", Giacomo Casanova declared, "mais s'il n'a pas bonne mine, il me semble mauvais". In the eighteenth century and gourmand carried disreputable connotations of gluttony, which only gourmand has retained. Gourmet was rendered respectable by Monsieur Grimod de la Reynière, whose Almanach des Gourmands the first restaurant guide, appeared in Paris from 1803 to 1812; the liberal Encyclopédie offered a moralising tone in its entry Gourmandise, defined as "refined and uncontrolled love of good food", employing reproving illustrations that contrasted the frugal ancient Spartans and Romans of the Republic with the decadent luxury of Sybaris. The Jesuits' Dictionnaire de Trévoux took the Encyclopédistes to task, reminding its readers that gourmandise was one of the Seven Deadly Sins; the term gourmet can refer to a person with refined or discriminating taste, knowledgeable in the craft and art of food and food preparation. Gourmand carries additional connotations of one.

An epicure is similar to a gourmet, but the word may sometimes carry overtones of excessive refinement. A gourmet chef is a chef of high caliber of cooking talent and skill What is considered gourmet is different depending on the time and geographic region. What is gourmet depended upon what ingredients the people of that region had access to and how they acquire them. For instance, seafood could be considered a luxury in an area that lacks fish, whereas it would not be seen as such in an area near the ocean or a great river. Gourmet tended, still does in many parts of the world, to be revered by a person with access to wealth because gourmet food has always been expensive; the expense was the result of a scarcity of ingredients for a particular food in the region at the time. This fact meant they needed to be brought in from far away, which brought a variety of risks to the merchants. Merchants would have to deal with weather conditions and broken equipment and other such factors that could delay or interrupt the shipment of the good at the cost of their lives and fortune.

Thus they asked for higher prices. For millenniums, about 10% of the population could eat food that may have been considered gourmet in their time. 80% of the global population worked in food production and would have eaten more typical meals to survive. The typical meal would be what they could most get their hands on. In Britain, for instance, gruels, small amounts of wild game, grains. Another factor would be religious/cultural beliefs and customs, which have a significant impact on the food, eaten. For instance and Islamic cultures have rules for not only what they can eat, but how to prepare the food and what it can be paired with. To eat specific food items they must be Halal; the most obvious example is. Another example is that many people of India do not consume beef because many devout Hindus believe the cow is a sacred animal. Buddhism encourage vegetarianism; these practices and beliefs encourage what is not eaten and society but what can be eaten. For instance, the Buddhists have a history of eating tofu to get protein.

There is the role of the state when it comes to these issues sometimes dictating how meals should be prepared. An example of this would be that of edicts of Ashoka who declared that many animals shall be given decent treatment and limited the numbers that could be consumed. Ashoka was a devout Buddhist and that affected his policies; this trading from non-local regions means by necessity, that there was much cultural exchange between different groups to get these goods. The Columbian Exchange introduced many ingredients and styles to the new world and Europe starting with the expansion of the Iberian Empires; the new world introduced to Europeans tomatoes, potatoes and many more. Another example would be interactions with the Islamic world, which impacted catholic cuisine in the 1100s; these interactions introduced many spices, the theory of the culinary cosmos, cooking items such as North African pottery. These trades were facilitated by rich merchant states that traded with them the most notable being Venice.

Gourmet may describe a class of restaurant, meal or ingredient of high quality, of special presentation, or high sophistication. In the United States, a 1980s gourmet food movement evolved from a long-term divisio

Bernardino González Ruiz

Bernardino González Ruíz was a Panamanian politician and physician. He served as the President of Panama for six days from 17 to 23 March 1963, he was the founder of the Democratic Action Party, a conservative Panamanian political party. González Ruíz was born in the city of Las Tablas, Los Santos, Panama, on 11 January 1911. González Ruíz, serving as Minister of State, served as acting President of Panama whilst President Roberto Chiari and Bernardino's brother Sergio, First Vice-President, were both out of the country, he was sworn into office on 17 March 1963, at 9:00 a.m. The oath of office was administrated by Julio Mercado in the Yellow Room of the Palacio de las Garzas; the ceremony was attended by members of the Panamanian cabinet and members of the legislature and the judiciary. González appointed Ricardo E. Chiari as Foreign Minister and Don Nicanor Villalaz as the Minister of Labor, Social Welfare and Public Health, his mandate as President lasted just six days and he left office on 23 March 1963.

González Ruíz served as Panama's Envoy to the United Kingdom. He served as the President of the National Assembly of Panama for Chiriquí Province and Los Santos Province. Additionally, Gonzalez returned to the federal cabinet, holding the portfolio as Minister of Labor and Welfare. In life, Gonzalez became the honorary chairman of the Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement, a center-right political party. González Ruíz died on 15 March 2012, at the age of 64 days, he had not suffered from any known illnesses at the time. González Ruíz was the last surviving Panamanian President from the era prior to the 1968 military coup, which began a military dictatorship lasting from 1968 to 1989; the government of Panama declared three days of national mourning until 19 March 2012. All flags were ordered to fly at half-mast for the three-day period. González's funeral was held on 17 March 2012, at the Church of San Lucas at Colegio San Agustín in Costa del Este, Panama, his burial was held in the day from the Iglesia de Santa Librada in Las Tablas, Los Santos.

From 4 January 2010, when former Surinamese President Johan Ferrier died until his own death, González Ruíz was the world's oldest living former head of state

Cardioglossa venusta

Cardioglossa venusta is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to the mountains of western Cameroon, it is known from Mount Manengouba, the Bamileke Highlands, Mount Nlonako, the Rumpi Hills. Common name highland. Males measure 27–30 mm in snout–vent length. Males have long third fingers and spines in the fingers and in the groin. Dorsal markings and the white line running under the tympanum, typical for the genus Cardioglossa, are absent. Cardioglossa venusta occurs in montane forests and gallery forests near fast-flowing streams at elevations of 950–1,500 m above sea level, it can persist in degraded, secondary habitat near more mature forest. Breeding takes place in streams. Cardioglossa venusta is a poorly known species with fragmented population, it is threatened by further habitat loss caused by agricultural encroachment, expanding human settlements, harvesting of wood for both firewood and building materials. It might occur in the Rumpi Hills Wildlife Reserve, but this would offer only limited protection

Men Against Fire

"Men Against Fire" is the fifth episode of the third series of British science fiction anthology series Black Mirror. Written by series creator and showrunner Charlie Brooker and directed by Jakob Verbruggen, it premiered on Netflix on 21 October 2016, together with the rest of series three; the episode follows a military soldier who hunts humanoid mutants known as roaches. After a malfunctioning of his MASS, a neural implant, he discovers that these "roaches" are ordinary human beings. In a fateful confrontation with the psychologist Arquette, Stripe learns that the MASS alters his perception of reality; the episode was first conceived under the name "Inbound" in 2010. Its storyline shifted over time, influenced by Brooker reading Men Against Fire by S. L. A. Marshall and On Killing by Dave Grossman; the episode received mixed critical reception. Positive reviews praised Kirby and Kelly's acting as well as the relevance of the episode in a time of rising xenophobia in Europe and America. Other critics found the plot twist predictable and remarked that the storyline relied too on cliches.

Critical commentary notes parallels to Nazi Germany. "Men Against Fire" was ranked poorly against other Black Mirror episodes by reviewers. "Stripe" Koinange and "Hunter" Raiman are squadmates in a military that hunts roaches—pale, humanoid monsters with sharp teeth. Each soldier has a neural implant called MASS. Stripe and Hunter's squad searches a farmhouse while squad leader Medina interrogates the owner, a devout Christian. Stripe discovers a nest of roaches. Medina arrests the owner and the squad burn down the farmhouse. Stripe is rewarded with an erotic dream following his kills. After further malfunctions the following day, Stripe has his MASS tested and consults a psychologist, but neither visit reveals any problems; the next day, Medina and Hunter arrive at an abandoned housing complex. A roach sniper kills Medina; the other two enter the building. Stripe encounters a woman and urges her to flee but Hunter shoots her dead, he finds another woman with her child, Hunter prepares to shoot them.

He wrestles with her. Stripe escapes with the mother and son, they reach a cave in the woods where the woman—Catarina—explains that the MASS alters soldiers' senses to show people of her ethnic group as inhuman "roaches". They are victims of a genocide justified by the military as genetic cleansing. While laypeople see the group as they are, they treat them as "roaches" due to propaganda. Hunter arrives and kills Catarina and her son Alec knocks Stripe unconscious. Stripe awakens in a cell, where Arquette apologises for his MASS glitch, caused by the LED device. Arquette reveals that MASS alters soldiers' senses so they can kill without hesitation or remorse, that Stripe consented to this when he enlisted before having his memory wiped. Stripe has the choice to allow his MASS and memory to be imprisoned. Arquette forces Stripe to rewatch the sensory feed of his farmhouse raid, where he now sees himself gruesomely killing people. In the final scene, now a decorated officer, approaches the house from his erotic dreams.

The house is shown to be a dilapidated empty shack. Whilst series one and two of Black Mirror were shown on Channel 4 in the UK, in September 2015 Netflix commissioned the series for 12 episodes. In March 2016, Netflix outbid Channel 4 for the rights to distributing the third series, with a bid of $40 million. Due to its move to Netflix, the show had a larger budget than in previous series. "Men Against Fire" is the fifth episode of the third series. As Black Mirror is an anthology series, each episode is standalone; the titles of the six episodes that make up series 3 were announced in July 2016, along with the release date. A trailer for series three, featuring an amalgamation of clips and sound bites from the six episodes, was released by Netflix on 7 October 2016; the episode was written by series creator Charlie Brooker. Called "Inbound", the first draft was inspired by the 2010 documentary The War You Don't See, which featured lengthy stories from victims of the Iraq War. In "Inbound", an attack on Britain appeared to be from an alien force, but was revealed to be an invasion by Norway.

It was the second script pitched in 2010 for the first series of Black Mirror, but it was rejected at the time. Influenced by Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command by S. L. A. Marshall and On Killing by Dave Grossman, the episode's focus shifted to a war where combat is censored to soldiers, it was renamed "Men Against Fire"; the title of the episode comes from Brigadier General S. L. A. Marshall's book Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command, wherein Marshall claims that during World War II, over 70% of soldiers did not fire their rifles under immediate threat, most of those who fired aimed above the enemy's head. A similar statement is made during one of Arquette's dialogues in the episode. For research, Brooker read Dave Grossman's book On Killing, about the psychology of killing and based on Marshall's work, he wrote Arquette as more "stuffy", though his character was always intended to be sympathetic. He is a father figure to some of the soldiers, thinks his actions are good.



Ribblesdale is one of the Yorkshire Dales in England. It is the upper valley of the River Ribble in North Yorkshire. Towns and villages in Ribblesdale include Selside, Horton-in-Ribblesdale, Langcliffe, Settle, Long Preston and Hellifield. Below Hellifield the valley of the river is known as the Ribble Valley. Above Settle the dale is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park, it is a popular tourist area for walking. The Yorkshire Three Peaks rise to the west of the dale; the Ribble Way runs the length of the dale. At the head of the dale is the Ribblehead Viaduct, crossed by the Settle to Carlisle railway which runs through the dale; the dale was in the West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1974 it became part of the Craven district in the new county of North Yorkshire. Media related to Ribblesdale at Wikimedia Commons Yorkshire Dales National Park website: Ribblesdale

Silvery grebe

The silvery grebe is a species of grebe in the family Podicipedidae. It is found in the southern part of South America at altitudes of up to 4,000 metres, its natural habitat is freshwater lakes but it feeds in saline lakes. The silvery grebe is about 28 cm in length. There are two different subspecies; the southern form has a black cap and the sides of its head are grey. The neck and belly are white while the back is dark grey and the sides and flanks blackish; the beak and feet are black and the eye red. It is similar in appearance to the Junin grebe. P. o. juninensis, Colombia to north-west Argentina and northern Chile P. o. occipitalis, central & southern Chile & Argentina, Falkland Islands The silvery grebe nests in Argentina, the Falkland Islands and the western parts of Bolivia, Peru and Colombia. It is a migrant in Paraguay and southern Brazil and also in Uruguay, its habitat is freshwater lakes, lagoons and ponds at altitudes between sea level and 4,000 metres. In the Andes it is sometimes found foraging on hypersaline lakes and inhabits saline lakes in Patagonia where it is found in the company of flamingoes.

The silvery grebe is found in small groups and feeds on aquatic invertebrates which it catches while diving under the water. Its diet includes adults and larvae of caddisflies, water beetles, chironomid midges and water boatmen; the silvery grebe tends to breed in colonies on freshwater lakes. The nest is composed of floating mats of vegetation. Nesting has been recorded in February in Colombia and between September and March in Peru with most eggs being laid between November and January; the silvery grebe has an wide range and large total population. Although the population trend is downward, the rate of decline is insufficient for the IUCN to rate the bird as "vulnerable" and it is therefore listed as being of "least concern"