Education in Kerala
The importance and antiquity of education in Kerala is underscored by the state's ranking as among the most literate in the country. The educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries, who where the pioneers that promoted mass education in Kerala, in the early decades of the 19th century; the local dynastic precursors of modern-day Kerala - the Travancore Royal Family, the Nair Service Society, Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam and Muslim Educational Society - made significant contributions to the progress on education in Kerala. There were many sabha mathams. Apart from kalaris, which taught martial arts, there were village schools run by Ezhuthachans or Asans. Christian missionaries brought the modern school education system to Kerala. Education in Kerala had been promoted during British rule in India by Christian missionaries who were keen on providing education to all sections of society and on strengthening of women, without any kind of discrimination.
The contributions of Catholic priests and nuns has been crucial and has played a major role in the education of women and members of lower strata of society, resulting in the surpassing of many social hurdles. A significant figure in the 19th century was Rev.fr. Kuriakose Elias Chavara, who started a system called "A school along with every church" to make education available for both poor and rich; that system still continues in the present. His work has resulted in the promotion of education for girls and has become a model for the educational system in Kerala after independence. Kerala's high literacy rate is attributed to a high literacy rate among girls; the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. The school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri.
In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts. Their most important results—series expansion for trigonometric functions—were described in Sanskrit verse in a book by Neelakanta called Tantrasangraha, again in a commentary on this work, called Tantrasangraha-vakhya, of unknown authorship; the theorems were stated without proof, but proofs for the series for sine and inverse tangent were provided a century in the work Yuktibhāṣā, written in Malayalam, by Jyesthadeva, in a commentary on Tantrasangraha. Their work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series. However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala. Schools and colleges are run by the government, private trusts, or individuals; each school is affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, the Central Board for Secondary Education, Kerala State Education Board or the.
English is the language of instruction in most private schools, while government run schools offer English or Malayalam as the medium of instruction. Government run schools in the districts bordering Karnataka and Tamil Nadu offer instruction in Kannada or Tamil languages. A handful of Government Sanskrit Schools provide instruction in Sanskrit supplemented by Malayalam, Tamil or Kannada. After 10 years of secondary schooling, students enroll at Higher Secondary School in one of the three streams—liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional degree programmes. Kerala topped the Education Development Index among 21 major states in India in year 2006-2007. In January 2016, Kerala became the 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its literacy programme Athulyam. In spite of the large number of educational institutions in the state, the quality of education at all levels in Kerala has been showing a decline due to financial constraints resulting from quantitative expansion of the sector.
A study published in 1999 by the Centre for Socio-economic & Environmental Studies states that while the dropout rates are low in primary schools, the same increases in the ninth and the tenth standards in Kerala. This is true of SC/ST students. Schools showed. In the case of scheduled caste students, only 59% reach the 10th standard. 60% of Scheduled Tribe students drop out by the 10th standard. Another major indicator of the inefficiency of Kerala's school education system is the large-scale failure of the students in the matriculation examination. Only about 50% of the students who appear for the examination get through; the percentage has been increased because of major interventions by the government in the areas of curriculum and teacher training. In March 2011, 91.37% students qualified for higher studies in the matriculation Examination. The grades in SSLC examination plays an important role in the admission procedure to colleges in Kerala; the schools and colleges in Kerala are run by private trusts and individuals.
Each school is affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, the Central Board for Secondary Education, Kerala State Education Board or the
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Central University of Kerala
The Central University of Kerala is one of the 15 Central universities established under The Central Universities Act, 2009 by Indian parliament. The university is situated in Kasaragod district, the northernmost district of the state of Kerala, India; the main campus of the university is situated at Periya, 9.8 Km from Kanhangad and 20 km south from Kasaragod. The university started functioning from a transit campus in Vidyanagar with its humanities schools and other amenities; the duration of the postgraduate programme is 4 semesters. Each semester has a duration of 16 -- 18 weeks, with 30 instructional hours per week; the programmes are organised under Semester pattern. Students are offered two types of courses: Core courses, identified by each department, providing a broad base in the subject of study. In addition to these, each student does a Dissertation/Project emphasising the application of knowledge to real problems; the minimum total credits required for the successful completion of a PG programme is 72 credits within 4 semesters.
Out of the 72 credits, a student has to secure a minimum of 48 but not more than 60 credits, including that of the Dissertation for Core courses, a minimum of 12 but not more than 24 credits for Elective courses. All the departments of the University offers Ph. D. programmes. KILA is the research center of International Relations & Political Science Department of International Relations Department of Social Work Department of Computer Science Department of Mathematics Department of Animal Science Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Genomic Science Department of Plant Science Department of Environmental Science Department of Geology Department of Chemistry Department of Physics Department of Law Department of Comparative Literature Department of Hindi Department of Linguistics Department of Education CUK offers scholarships to its PG Students, it stands to be withdrawn from 2017 academic year onwards despite student protest. Limited seats in separate hostels for girls and boys are available.
Transport is available to all students from their hostels to the University campuses at subsidised rates. Central University has libraries at all of its campuses; the Students’ Council is a student body comprising 40 student representatives of which 20 members are elected and 20 members are nominated representing the departments. The Council has an Executive Committee composed of 10 members; the President, two Vice Presidents, the General Secretary, two Joint Secretaries and four Executive Committee Members are the office bearers of the Students’ Council. Official website
Taliparamba or Thaliparamba is a city and a municipality of 72,500 people in the Kannur district, state of Kerala, spread over an area of 43.05 km2. Taliparamba is a part of Kannur district in the state of India. Thali means a temple built by Namboothiri; the name Taliparamba comes from place of many Thali temples. Taliparamba is a group of 47 villages spread over an area of 1330.56 km². Taliparamba stretching from the coastal areas of Ramanthali to Nuzhiyadu and Vazhathoor village and Karnataka border; the old name of Taliparamba was ` Lakshmipuram'. 1955 Thaliparamba Panchayat was formed, with first Panchayat President as Balakrishna Menon. 1975 The Pattuvam region was separated from Thaliparamba panchayath. 1990 Thaliparamba Municipality was formed by joining Thaliparamba Panchayat. 2015 Andur region separated from Thaliparamba Municipality. Taliparamba originated as the Perinchalloor Brahmin settlement; the name Thaliparamba is derived from "Thali" and "Parambu", derived from the legend of Rajarajeshwara Temple.
The Ikshvaku King Maandhatha offered great penance to Shiva who gifted him with a Shiva Linga and instructed him to place it at a site where there had never been a cremation ground. He found a space the size of a plate in Perinchelloor, hence the name Thaliparamba became attached to the area. Of the 2,000 Brahman families who settled here, only 45 remain today. Many were forced to flee after the onslaught of the Islamist army of Tipu Sultan in the last 18th century. Taliparamba is located at 12.05°N 75.35°E / 12.05. It has an average elevation of 56 metres; the surrounding area features low rolling hills. The rivers of Kuppam and Valapattanam surround the town from all sides and the Arabian sea is only 14 kilometres to the west. Taliparamba is the second largest Taluk in Kerala. Taliparamba is a municipality, with an area of 43.08 km2. It is divided into 44 wards; the headquarters of Taliparamba Taluk are located in Taliparamba. There are 27 villages in the Taluk, they are spread from the coast to the hills.
Taliparamba Taluk has 27 villages Alakode, Andhur and Chengalayi and Chuzhali Kuttiyeri, Maniyoor and Morazha Naduvil, Panniyoor and Pattuvam Payyavoor, Thaliparambu,Udayagiri and Velladu Eruveshi, Kayaralam, Kooveri and Kuttiyattoor In the 14th and 15th centuries, during the regime of the Kolathiri Rajas, Taliparamba was renowned in Kerala as a seat of learning and culture. Today, the most prominent educational institutions are Pariyaram Medical College Government College of Engineering, Kannur National Institute of Fashion Technology Sir Syed College Tagore Vidyaniketan, Taliparamba St. Paul's High School, Taliparamba Seethi Sahib Higher Secondary School,Manna Yatheem Khana UP School,manna Mappila UP School,Madrasa Junction Akkiparamba UP School,chiravkk Moothedath Higher Secondary School,Taliparamab shyam prasad School,taliparamba Sir Syed Higher Secondary School,Karimbam As of the 2001 Indian Census, Taliparamba had a population of 67,441. 32,511 people were males and 34,930 people were females.
Taliparamba has an average literacy rate of 90%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. In Taliparamba, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age; the density is 1398 persons/km2. Muslims and Christians form the core population; the political field of Taliparamba is dominated by Communist Party of India. In the Kerala Legislative Assembly election held in 2016, James Mathew of CPIM won in a margin of 41,000 votes. Other political parties like BJP, Muslim League and Congress have marginal influence in the town. Taliparamba assembly constituency is part of Kannur; the national highway passes through Taliparamba highway junction. Mangalore and Mumbai can be accessed on the northern side and Cochin and Thiruvananthapuram can be accessed on the southern side; the road to the east of Iritty connects to Bangalore. The nearest railway station is Kannur on Mangalore-Palakkad line. Trains are available to all parts of India subject to advance booking over the internet. There are airports at Kannur and Calicut.
All of them are international airports but direct flights are available only to Middle Eastern countries. Taliparamba is home to a number of temples and mosques. Temples include Trichambaram Temple and Parassinikkadavu Temple. Taliparamba Juma Masjid and St. Mary's Church are other prominent religious centres in the town; the bridges at Kuttiyeri and Kooveri, Vellikkeel Eco Tourism Park and the riverside temple at Parassinikkadavu, attract a large number of tourists. Paithal Mala and Palakkayam thattu are beautiful hill stations. Raja Rajeshwara Temple is one of the existing ancient 108 Shiva temples in Kerala; the temple is located about one kilometer away from Chiravaku near Taliparamba town. Apart from Kerala, the temple is famous among devotees from the neighboring states such as Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; the Taliparamba temple was subject to attack by Tipu Sultan. One finds relics of the old gigantic gopuram at the entrance, demolished by Tipu's army; the story goes that when the temple was under siege, the head priest was inside the sanctum sanctorum and prayed ceaselessly day and night.
It is further said that a black snake bit the commander of the army and a hooded ser
University of Calicut
The University of Calicut known as Calicut University is a state university in India run by the state of Kerala. It is headquartered at Thenjipalam in Malappuram district. Established in 1968, it is the second university to be set up in Kerala after University of Kerala; the university is affiliated by the University Grants Commission of India. The university has off-campus centres in Malappuram, Thrissur, Wayanad districts, in Lakshadweep islands, it conducts examinations for the students of the affiliated colleges. It has 426 colleges. Calicut University was established in 1968. C H Muhammed Koya is Leads the creation of Calicut University, and was administered by Dr. M. M. Ghani in the 1970s; the university had strong faculty in MBA, Zoology, Botany, Malayalam and Physical Education. The campus locales are spread over 500 acres in rural outskirt of Malappuram, had the feel of a hill station. In the 1980s, a Cockroft-Walton particle accelerator was put in place on campus. Important departments include Commerce and Management Studies, Computer Science & Information Technology and Information science, Mathematics, Chemistry and Technology, Life Aciences, Zoology, Social Sciences, School of Health sciences, Mass communication and Multimedia Communication and Language departments such as Malayalam, Sanskrit, Russian, Arabic.
Located in Aranattukara, a suburb of Thrissur city this department of the university provides formal education and training in drama and theatre. The school is affiliated with National School of Drama; the school was established in 1977 as a center for drama artists in Kerala. Under the leadership of late Professor G. Sankara Pillai, the school within a short span of time earned the reputation as a creditable centre for studies in various areas of theatre and a force behind theatre movement in Kerala. In 2000, the institute started the music department offering Post PhD courses; the University of Calicut has about 480 colleges with a total annual intake of nearly 100,000 students. Colleges are spread over Kozhikode district, Thrissur district, Malappuram district, Palakkad district and Wayanad district. 279 of these colleges are private colleges and the rest are government run. Most of these colleges offer only undergraduate degrees, while 88 others offer postgraduate degrees. Subject-wise they comprise 254 arts and science colleges, 63 training colleges, 40 engineering/technical colleges, 7 medical colleges, 4 paramedical colleges, 6 Ayurveda colleges, 10 law colleges, 33 Arabic/Oriental title colleges, 11 I. H. R. D. centres, 8 management studies colleges, 1 music college, 1 fine arts college, 2 colleges of physical education, 21 nursing colleges, 7 dental colleges, 9 pharmacy colleges, 1 Homoeopathy college and 2 colleges for hotel management.
The university published a list of affiliated courses. The Calicut University Library was established in 1971 and renamed after C. H. Mohammed Koya, it is concerned with the conservation and dissemination of knowledge to its users. It plays an important role in the provision of information to the academic community in the Malabar region, it has a collection of about 95,000 books, subscribes to 218 journals and 10 newspapers. The library follows the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules II for cataloging and the Dewey Decimal Scheme of Classification for the classification of books, it has the distinction of being the first automated university library in the state of Kerala. The library is situated at the main campus at Thenhippalam on the side of the NH 17. Apart from the university library, a study center library is functioning at Calicut to serve the academic community in the city. All major Malayalam dailies and periodicals are available here. Pareeksha Bhavan, the branch of the university that oversees the conduct of examinations in over 250 affiliated colleges, which awards degrees, is the largest wing of the university.
The branch has been in the news for expert accomplishments of the tasks entrusted. The annual Interzonal festival,'kalolsavam' is held during the months of January - April or in between; the Interzone is conducted among students within the five districts the university spreads to. The various districts conducts different zonal competitions and the winners gain entry to the interzonal festival; the festivals goes on for a week at the most, where various gifted participants showcase their talents both offstage and onstage. The annual sports takes place between the inter colleges among the zones as well as among the zonal colleges; the sports days goes on for a week. The university was ranked 73 among Indian universities by the National Institutional Ranking Framework in 2018 and in the 101–150 band overall. Anju Bobby George, Indian athlete M. N. Karassery, Malayalam author Dr. K. K. N Kurup and former Vice Chancellor of the University of Calicut Shyamaprasad, Indian film director Jenith Kachappilly, Indian film director Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh, Organic chemist, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar laureate Puthalath Dinesan, Politician Ranjith Padinhateeri, biological physicist, N-Bios laureate List of colleges affiliated to the University of Calicut Calicut University Employees Union Official website
Kerala Agricultural University
Kerala Agricultural University is the primary and the principal instrumentality of the Kerala state in providing human resources, skills and technology, required for the sustainable development of its agriculture, defined broadly encompassing all production activities based on land and water, including crop production and fisheries through conducting and integrating education and extension in these spheres of economic endeavour. It is situated in Vellanikkara, Kerala. More than 400 teaching and research positions are vacant in the University and it has led to the poor performance in the last decade compared to other Agricultural Universities in India and abroad. Dr. R. Chandra Babu is the Vice-Chancellor and Dr. S. Leenakumari is the Registrar Courses offered: B. Sc. Ag. M. Sc. M. Sc. M. Sc. and Ph. D. M. Sc. M. Sc.- Not offered from 2011 due to the absence of qualified faculty members M. Sc. Ag Biotech and Ph. D. M. Sc. Biotechnology M. Sc. Climate Change Adaptation B. Sc. Hons M. Sc. Ph. D. MBA in Agri Business Management PhD Courses offered: B.
Sc. M. Sc. PhD Courses offered: B. Tech. M. Tech. Delinked from KAU in 2010 to form separate University-KUFOS The Governor of Kerala and Chancellor of Kerala Agricultural University has accorded assent to the proposal to establish a full-fledged Faculty of Forestry at Vellanikkara. Forestry will be the third faculty under KAU after Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering. Two other faculties, viz. Veterinary and Fisheries were delinked from KAU in 2010 to form separate Universities. College of Agriculture, Thiruvananthapuram College of Horticulture, Thrissur College of Agriculture padannakkad, kasargod College of Forestry, Vellanikkara Thrissur College of Agriculture, AmbalavayalWayanad College of Co-Operation, Banking & Management, KAU Campus, Thrissur Academy of Climate Change Education and Research, Thrissur Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Malappuram Delinked from KAU in 2010 to form separate University-KVASU College of Veterinary & Animal Science, Thrissur College of Veterinary & Animal Science, Wayanad College of Fisheries, Ernakulam Northern Zone Pepper Research Station, Kanhirangad, Kannur Regional Agricultural Research Station, KasaragodHigh Range Zone Cardamom Research Station, Idukki Regional Agricultural Research Station, WayanadCentral Zone Agronomic Research Station, Thrissur Agricultural Research Station, Thrissur Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Ernakulam Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palakkad Banana Research Station, Thrissur Cashew Research Station, Thrissur Cashew Research Station, Malappuram Pineapple Research Station, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam Plant Propagation & Nursery Management Unit, KAU Campus, ThrissurSpecial Zone of Problem Areas Agricultural Drainage Scheme, Alappuzha Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kottayam Rice Research Station, Kochi Rice Research Station, Alappuzha Sugarcane Res.
Station, PathanamthittaOnattukara Zone Regional Agricultural Research Station, AlappuzhaSouthern Zone Cropping Systems Research Centre, Thiruvananthapuram Coconut Research Station, Thiruvananthapuram Farming Systems Research Station, Kottarakkara, Kollam Regional Agricultural Research Station, Thiruvananthapuram Soil Conservation Research Centre, Pathanamthitta Agricultural Technology Information Centre, Thrissur Communication Centre, Thrissur Central Training Institute, Thrissur Information and Sales Centre, Thrissur Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kollam Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Palakkad Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Wayanad Krishi Vigyan Kendra, KAU Campus, Thrissur Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kottayam Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kannur. The Kendra has a subsurface dyke in its farm as part of the rainwater harvesting demonstration unit; the kendra has pioneered a new branch of agricultural extension called Creative Extension Krishi Vigyan Kendra Malappuram, Malappuram Delinked from KAU in 2010 to form separate University-KVASU Livestock Research Cetre, Thiruvazhamkunnu Kerala Agricultural University Official Website
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo