Arpookara is a village in Kottayam district in the state of Kerala, India. The Kottayam Medical College is situated in Arpookara; the main attraction is the backwaters in Arpookara. As of 2001 India census, Arpookara had a population of 23538 with 11909 females. Medical College Hospital, Gandhinagar Medical College Vocational Higher Secondary School, Ambalakkavala Medical College Higher Secondary School, Ambalakkavala St. Philomina's Girls High School, Villoonni Government High School, Karippoothettu Adarsam Library, Arpookkara, Kottayam Navodaya Grandhasala, Arpookkara, Kottayam Pranavam Group Library,Near Kolettu Temple Jn. Panampalam, Kottayam School of Medical Education, Gandhinagar St. Xavier's Church Arpookara Kottayam Sree Subrahmonya Swami Kshethram, Arpookkara, Kottayam Kolettu Sree Shanmugha Vilasam Temple, Arpookkara, Kottayam Choorakavu Devi Temple & Karipoothrikka Sreekrishna Temple, Arpookkara, Kottayam Kunnathrikka Mahadeva Kshethram, Kottayam St. Micheles Chapel Panampalam, Kottayam St.
George Orthodox Church Arpookara,Kottyam St. George Church Aykkarachira, Kottayam Saint Alphonsa's Birthplace, Kottayam Little Flower Church, Kottayam Sreenarayana Gurudeva Kshethram SNDP Br. 3502, Kottayam St. Sebastian's Church, Arpookkara, Kottayam St. Peters C. S. I Church Arpookara Kottayam Arpookara Panchayat
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram
The Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram is in Thiruvananthapuram, India. Founded in 1951, it was dedicated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and is Kerala's oldest medical college; the college was known in early records as Medical College, since it was the only medical institute in the state at its inception. Its campus houses several hospitals and institutions in addition to Medical College Hospital, including the Colleges of Nursing and Pharmaceutical sciences, the Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram Dental College, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, the Priyadarshini Institute of Paramedical Sciences and the Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital for Women and Children; the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology a part of the college, is being upgraded to a national-level independent institute. The School of Optometry is on campus; the college is 6 kilometres from the Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station and the KSRTC Central Bus Station. The 324,680-square-metre campus and hospital are west of Dr. C. O. Karunakaran Avenue.
Across from the hospital is the Chalakuzhi road, which meets the NH544 near Pattom. The college is about 5 kilometres from Trivandrum International Airport. In 1948, the government of Travancore appointed a committee to formulate proposals for a medical college at Thiruvananthapuram; the committee submitted the scheme was sanctioned in October of that year. C. O. Karunakaran was appointed Special Officer for the implementation of the scheme, was the college's first dean; the campus was 139 acres, with hillocks surrounded by evergreen coconut groves and paddy fields and facing the sea, 4 kilometres from northwestern Thiruvananthapuram city. Its layout and architectural designs were prepared by J. A. Ritchie of Bombay; the college and hospital buildings were separated by playgrounds for football and hockey, a cricket pitch, courts for tennis, basketball and volleyball, a 400-meter track. The foundation stone was laid by Raja Pramukh of Travancore–Cochin at 11:45 am on 26 January 1950, the first group of students was admitted in August 1951.
The college was dedicated by Jawaharlal Nehru at 8:00 am on 27 November 1951. In January 1952, the Sri. Avittom Thirunal Hospital was dedicated by Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. A men's hostel opened followed by a women's Hostel one year later; the Medical College Hospital was dedicated by Prime Minister Nehru in 1954. The School of Nursing was dedicated by Sethu Lakshmi Bai in 1954, was upgraded to a college of nursing in 1963; the cancer wing was dedicated in 1958. The dentistry course and the first post-graduate course began in 1959; the library was established during the 1960s. The limb center and mental and ophthalmic hospitals were brought into the college. During the 1990s the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology was founded; the Sree Chitra Thirunal Centre, the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Priya Darshini Institute of Paramedical Sciences were established, the Silver Jubilee Auditorium was built. A specialty block, housing the college's medical and surgical specialties, became operational on 1 July 2010.
The block was funded by the prime minister's Swasthya Suraksha Yojna scheme and by the Kerala government. The 253-bed, 160,000-square-foot specialty block houses the outpatient clinics and inpatient wards of six specialties, eight operating theatres, six 29-bed intensive-care units and dialysis and kidney-transplant units, it is financed and administrated by the Health and Family welfare Department of the government of Kerala. Although the college was affiliated with the University of Kerala, since 2010 it has been affiliated with the Kerala University of Health Sciences; the college began with departments of anatomy, physiology and bacteriology. Dr. C. O. Karunakaran was the first Principal of the college; the departments were headed by V. Mathew, C. Vareed, Narayana Rao and C. O. Karunakaran, respectively; the department of bacteriology consisted of microbiology and hygiene. During the Asian flu epidemic, the department was in the forefront of isolating the influenza virus under R. Ananthanarayanan.
In 1981, an AIDS surveillance center was established in the department. The Department of Community Medicine, established in 1953, was the first of its kind in India. A primary health centre for field training was established in July 1953 in Cheruvikkal, moved to Pangappara in 1964. Intern training was conducted at the Indo-Norwegian MCH unit in Neendakara; the department has a regional cell for the prevention of epidemic and infectious diseases. Forensic medicine, part of community medicine, became a separate entity in 1966 under V. Kanthasamy. Medico-legal autopsies have been performed since 1955, the department became a state medico-legal institute in 1986; the department of pharmacology established an experimental pharmacology wing. The clinical departments of medicine and surgery and the college hospital were established in 1952. Students were trained at the general hospital in Thiruvananthapuram. A department of infectious diseases was established in 1983. R. Kesavan Nair, chief surgeon at the general hospital, was appointed professor of surgery and the department of surgery was established.
Recognizing the importance of the new specialty of orthopedic surgery, the government of Travancore sent K. I. George of the health services department to the UK for advanced training. George joined the college in 1956, founded Kerala'
Ettumanoor, sometimes spelled Ettumanur is a major town and municipality in the Kottayam district of Kerala, located 11 kilometers north-east of Kottayam city, 50 km south of Cochin and 70.6 km south of Cochin International Airport. The SH-1 popularly known as the Main Central Road, passes through Ettumanoor, is a major connecting link between Palai and beyond to the Western Ghats and to the commercial capital of Kerala - Kochi. Ettumanoor is en route to the tourist destinations at Poonjar; the name of the place had its mythological origin from the word'man oor' in Malayalam, which means the place of deer as'maan' means deer and'oor' means place. Ettumanoor is a historical place as myths have said that the Pandavas and the sage Vyasa had established the famous Ettumanoor Mahadeva temple here. Ettumanoor is located at 9.67°N 76.57°E / 9.67. It has an average elevation of 4 m; the town has two bus stands. A KSRTC station master office with bus station and a well built private bus stand. All Deluxe and interstate buses stop here.
Direct buses are available to all places including Bangalore, Mangalore,theni,cumbum, Palani, Tuticorin, Kanyakumari and Coimbatore. The bus stands are close and a big market is sandwiched between the bus stands, this has made Ettumanoor a convenient shopping place. Two state highways are crossing each other in the town and another two are starting from the town; this makes the town an important changing point for the commuters. Recent development in the nearby areas / start up of new institutions in the neighbour hood and easiness in conveyance has made the town the dearest location for migration; this has led to an increase in the change in demography. Industrial Estate under the government of Kerala and Government of India Production center are major industrial centres in Ettumanoor, it is the only industrial estate in Kerala under the Ministry of Labor, Govt. of India. Rolling shutters, Bakery items, Rubber products, wood products etc. are main products. Ettumanoor was the main centre of building material trade since the 1950s in central Travancore.
N T Paul and company was established in 1946 in Ettumanoor. Nearby areas of the town like cheruvandoor and kothanallor are famous for production of vegetables. Places in the east and south like kattachira and kandanchira are famous for pottery and bricks. During first half of last century Ettumaoor was famous for trading and some people like Hassan Rawther has become famous as a leading trader; the Mahatma Gandhi University, established on 2 October 1983 is situated in Athirampuzha 6.7 km southwest of the town. An industrial training institute called ITI, a Government Boys' H. S. Girls' model High School and a Teachers Training School and lower primary school are the government educational institutions and SFS Public School and Junior College, Shree Vidyadhiraja Higher Secondary School, Ebenezer International Residential School are the run ones. Town U. P. S School is Pvt. Aided and Established in 1918 is the oldest one. Colleges in Ettumanoor affiliated to M G University are the Mangalam Campus and Ettumanoorappan College.
There is professional institutions in Ettumanoor constituency. Ettumanoor is the headquarters of Kerala Chuvar Chithra Kala Kendram. Ettumanoor assembly constituency is part of Kottayam. Athirampuzha has got a water link with Alleppie port. Allppie port was connected to western ghats and Palai via road and Athirampuzha jetty. Ettumanoor is place where the distance between the western water body is minimal; the Pattithanam mala is an extension of Western Ghats and Athirampuzha canal is a water way connected to Vempanadu kayal. The distance between these two is only 4 km; the ancient Ettumanoor Mahadevar Temple here has brought fame to the place. Myths have it that the sage Vyasa had worshipped at this temple; the name of the place had its origin from the word ` manoor'. The present temple building, with its gopuram and the fortress around it, was reconstructed in 717 ME. There are Dravidian mural paintings on the walls outside of the main entrance; the fresco of Pradosha Nritham is one of the finest Wall painting in India.
There is a golden flag staff inside the temple. On the top of it is the idol of a bull surrounded by small bells and metal leaves of the banyan tree; the temple roofs are covered with copper sheets and it has 14 ornamental tops. Bhagavati, Sastha and Yakshi are installed here as subordinate deities, it is believed that the great philosopher, Sankaracharya wrote the'Soundaraya Lahari' staying in the temple. The famous Ettumanoor Mahadevar Temple hosts the arattu festival celebrated on a grand scale on the Thiruvathira day in February–March every year. Lot of people come to this temple on the 8th and 10th day of the festival when seven and half elephants made of gold will be held in public view.this statue was donated to the temple by a travancore maharaja. The temple, the wealthiest Devaswom in Kerala, has many valuable possessions; the Thulabharam is one of the important rituals of this temple. People make offerings to God. On balance, the child or man for whom offerings were promised to God, is weighed against offerings ranging from gold to fruits.
Ettumanoor is an important pilgrim Centre of Hindus. The history of origin of Ettumaanoorappan is from a small village in Kottayam district. Etumanoor was a temple
University of Kerala
University of Kerala the University of Travancore, is an affiliating university located in Thiruvananthapuram, capital of the state of Kerala, India. It was established in 1937, long before the birth of the state of Kerala in India, by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the first Chancellor of the university. C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, the Diwan of Travancore, was the first Vice-Chancellor. One of the first 16 Universities in India and the first in the state of Kerala, the University of Kerala was founded as the University of Travancore in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore in 1937. During the 7 decades since the University of Kerala grew and shrunk physically and transformed itself in many ways; the earliest origins of the University may be traced back to two institutions of modern learning in Kerala, the University College, Thiruvananthapuram and the Trivandrum Observatory. The University College was founded as the Maharaja's Free School by Maharaja Swathi Thirunal in 1834, with Mr John Roberts.
A Christian Missionary as Headmaster, soon grew into a college in 1866, affiliated to the Madras University. When the University of Travancore was founded, the Departments of the college became the University Departments, only to switch back again when the transformation to University of Kerala happened in 1957; the University College still retains its connection with the University as an affiliated college. The Trivandrum Observatory was founded in 1838 and had an internationally reputed scientist, John Caldecott FRS as its first Director, it became a part of the Travancore University, but for some time was administered as an independent government institution. It is now the oldest institution under the Kerala University; the University of Travancore was established in 1937 by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the first Chancellor of the University. Sir C. P Ramaswamy Ayyar, the Diwan of the State was the first Vice-Chancellor, he was an able administrator.
It is said the Government made an unsuccessful attempt to invite Albert Einstein to be the first Vice-Chancellor. The University was modelled after the best Universities of the United Kingdom, today retains some of these features; the affiliating system of the University however evolved to be different from the college system in British Universities. Only ten colleges within the State of Travancore, which were at that time affiliated to the Madras University, became the affiliated colleges of the University of Travancore. In 1954, the unified state of Kerala came into being with most of Travancore and whole of state of Cochin and Malabar area of Madras presidency becoming part of it; the Kerala University Act was brought into force and the University of Travancore was renamed University of Kerala. The University had three campuses located in three different parts of the State viz. Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode; the number of affiliated colleges grew phenomenally. However, in 1968, the University Centre at Kozhikode became a full-fledged University, the University of Calicut, affiliating the colleges located in Thrissur, Palakkad and Kannur districts of Kerala and transforming the Kozhikkode Centre into University Departments.
The Cochin University of Science and Technology - CUSAT -, Kerala Agricultural University and Mahatma Gandhi University were subsequently established, with CUSAT taking over the University's centre at Cochin. These developments have shrunk the jurisdiction of the University of Kerala to Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha Districts and some parts of Pathanamthitta District. At present, the University has sixteen faculties and forty one departments of teaching and research in addition to study centres and other departments. Teaching and Knowledge extension are the mandate of the Departments, they focus on post-graduate programmes, MPhil programmes and doctoral research. In 2007, the University awarded over 100 PhDs.. The University has had in its faculties eminent scholars; some of the faculty members themselves were legends, such as famous poet K Ayyappa Panciker, Oriental scholar T Ganapathi Sasthri etc. The University has a number of study centres in specialised areas such as Nano-technology, Kerala Studies, Women's Studies, Learning Difficulties, Sree Narayana Studies, Gandhian Studies etc.
Some of these centres have taught many offer PhD programmes. The University has established 10 University College of Teacher Education and 8 University Institute of Technologies both of which offer under-graduate programmes, although masters programmes are available in select UITs; the University College of Engineering at Karyavattom offers Engineering Education at Undergraduate level. The University has over 150 affiliated colleges; the role of the University is in prescribing courses of study and conducting examinations and issuing certificates. The day-to-day administration of these institutions is not under the purview of the University. However, these institutions form a major part of the University. Of these 60
Kerala Science and Technology Museum
Kerala Science and Technology Museum is an autonomous institution established by Government of Kerala, India, in 1984, as a center for popularisation of science and scientific temper among the general public among the young generation. The institution is in Kerala; the Priyadarsini Planetarium is attached to the museum, functioning since 1994. The museum has ten galleries exhibiting more than 300 items; each gallery contains items related a particular disciple of engineering. There are galleries for electrical, mechanical and bio-medical engineering. There is a special gallery for solar energy. Mathematics, computer science and space science are the other disciplines having galleries of their own. In addition to the planetarium, the museum offers facilities for night sky observation with a automatic 11-inch telescope; the museum operates two mobile science exhibition units on astronomy and science and a separate mobile astronomy unit named Astrovan. The museum conducts creative science workshops for schoolchildren every summer.
The administration of the museum is vested with a governing body with the Minister for Education, Kerala State, as the chairman. The director of the museum is responsible for conducting day-to-day affairs. Swami Vivekananda Planetarium, Mangalore