Government in exile
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|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory, for example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, in contrast, has lost all its territory.
Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government, for instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed as a result of the Syrian Civil War, which sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it can receive, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country, some governments in exile develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates formal use of the term; in periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and again at the Glorious Revolution, or the House of Bourbon did during the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments in exile started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
- 1 Activities
- 2 Current governments in exile
- 2.1 Deposed governments of current states
- 2.2 Deposed governments of former states
- 2.3 Current government claimed of being a "government-in-exile"
- 2.4 Deposed governments of current subnational territories
- 2.5 Alternative governments of current states
- 2.6 Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
- 2.7 Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
- 2.8 Exiled governments with ambiguous status
- 3 Past governments in exile
- 4 See also
- 5 References
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population, for example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exile
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states, such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic||1920||Republic of Belarus||The oldest current government (formally, a provisional parliament) in exile, currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; see also Belarusian Democratic Republic|||
|Sublime State of Persia||1925||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continue to claim the Iranian throne, which is currently claimed by Mohammad Hassan Mirza II who is based in Dallas, United States|
|Imperial State of Iran||1979||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Pahlavi dynasty, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland, United States; see also Iranian Revolution; see also National Council of Iran|
|Royal Lao Government in Exile||1975||Lao People's Democratic Republic||The former government of the Kingdom of Laos; based in Gresham, Oregon, United States|
|Quetta Shura||2001||Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||Based in Quetta, Pakistan as a continuation of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. After the Taliban were removed from power in the 2001 Afghan war, the veteran high-ranking leaders of the former government including Mullah Mohammed Omar, founder and spiritual leader of the Taliban, fled to Pakistan where they set up Quetta Shura in exile to organize and direct the insurgency and retake Afghanistan.||,|
Deposed governments of former states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled but whose state no longer exists.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Republic of South Maluku||1963||Independent state||Republic of Indonesia||Maluku Province||Based in the Netherlands and formed by members of the exiled government of the Republic of South Maluku which was an unrecognized independent state between 1950 and 1963.|||
Current government claimed of being a "government-in-exile"
Government of the Republic of China: The currently Taipei-based Republic of China government does not regard itself as a government-in-exile, but is claimed to be such by some participants in the debate on the political status of Taiwan. In addition to the island of Taiwan and some other islands it currently controls, the Republic of China formally maintains claims over territory now controlled by the People's Republic of China as well as some parts by Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. The usual formal reasoning on which this "government-in-exile" claim is based relies on an argument that the sovereignty of Taiwan was not legitimately handed to the Republic of China at the end of World War II, and on that basis the ROC is located in foreign territory, therefore effectively making it a government in exile. By contrast, this theory is not accepted by those who view the sovereignty of Taiwan as having been legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war. Both the People's Republic of China government and the Republic of China government hold the latter view. However, there are also some who do not consider the sovereignty of Taiwan as having been legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war nor that Republic of China (Taiwan) is a government in exile. (The current the Republic of China government is inclined to this view.)
Deposed governments of current subnational territories
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia||1993||autonomous republic||Republic of Abkhazia||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial government, led by Vakhtang Kolbaia, whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists|
|Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh||1994||autonomous republic||Nagorno-Karabakh Republic||de facto independent state||Azerbaijan provisional government, led by Bayram Safarov, whose territory is under the control of Armenian separatists|
|Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia||2008||provisional administrative entity||Republic of South Ossetia||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial administration, led by Dmitry Sanakoyev, whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists|
|Autonomous Republic of Crimea||2014||autonomous republic||Russian Federation||federal subject (republic)||Ukrainian autonomous republic, whose territory was seized and annexed by Russia in March 2014, following a disputed status referendum; Presidential Representative-in-exile now based in Kherson|
|City of Sevastopol||2014||special city||Russian Federation||federal city||Ukrainian special city, whose territory was seized and annexed by Russia in March 2014, following a disputed status referendum|
Alternative governments of current states
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Free City of Danzig Government in Exile||1939||1947||Republic of Poland||Based in Berlin, Germany|||
|West Papuan Government in Exile||1963||1969||Republic of Indonesia||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|||
|Biafran Government in Exile||1970||2007||Federal Republic of Nigeria||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|||
|Republic of Cabinda||1975||1975||Republic of Angola||Based in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo|
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||2000||2000||Russian Federation||Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|Republic of Serbian Krajina||1996||2005||Republic of Croatia||Reconstituted in 2005 in Belgrade, by the remains of the government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence|||
|Koma Civakên Kurdistan||—||1998||Republic of Turkey||Aims to create a Kurdish entity in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|||
|Republic of Ambazonia||—||1999||Republic of Cameroon||Former British territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|||
|Western Kurdistan Government in Exile||—||2004||Syrian Arab Republic||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|||
|Coptic Government In Exile||—||1992||Arab Republic of Egypt||Aims to establish an independent state for the Coptic ethnic group|||
|Interim Government of Federated Shan States||—||2005||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Aims to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group|||
|Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||Sri Lanka||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|||
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories, they claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
From the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988 in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization, it has effectively functioned as the government in exile of the Palestinian State. In 1994, however the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Between 1994 and 2013, the PNA functioned as an autonomy, thus while the government was seated in the West Bank it was not sovereign; in 2013, Palestine was upgraded to a non-member state status in the UN.
All of the above created an ambiguous situation, in which there are two distinct entities: The Palestinian Authority, exercising a severely limited amount of control on the ground under the tutelage of an Israeli military occupation; and the State of Palestine - recognized by the United Nations and by numerous countries as a fully sovereign and independent state, but not able to exercise such sovereignty on the ground. Both are headed by the same person - as of February 2016, President Mahmud Abbas - but are judicially distinct, for example, a dissolution of The Palestinian Authority and resumption of full rule on the ground by Israel would not in itself affect the State of Palestine, which could continue to exist as a government-in-exile diplomatically recognized by the UN and by numerous countries.
Exiled governments with ambiguous status
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Central Tibetan Administration||1959||People's Republic of China||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net,|
|East Turkistan Government in Exile||1949||People's Republic of China||Seeking independence for Xinjiang as "East Turkestan"; based in Washington, DC|||
|Ukrainian Salvation Committee||2015||Ukraine (President Petro Poroshenko)||Formed in Moscow, Russia, by former Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov, with the intention of holding new elections in Ukraine.|||
Past governments in exile
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Republican Government of Siena||1555||1559||Grand Duchy of Tuscany||After the Italian city-state of Siena was defeated in the Battle of Marciano and annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 700 Sienese families did not concede defeat, established themselves in Montalcino and declared themselves to be the legitimate Republican Government of Siena. This lasted until 1559, when Tuscan troops arrived and annexed Montalcino, too.|
|Exile government of the Electoral Palatinate||1622–1623*||1648°||Electorate of Bavaria||In the early stages of the Thirty Years' War, Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, occupied the Electoral Palatinate and was awarded possession of it by the Emperor. In late 1622 and early 1623, the fugitive Frederick V, Elector Palatine organised a Palatinate government-in-exile at The Hague, this Palatinate Council was headed by Ludwig Camerarius, replaced in 1627 by Johann Joachim Rusdorf. Frederick himself died in exile, but his son and heir Charles Louis was able to regain the Lower Palatinate following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.|
|Privy Council of England||1649||1660°|| Commonwealth of England (1649–1653)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
Commonwealth of England (1659–1660)
|Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|Hanover exile court/Guelphic Legion||1866||1878||Prussia / Imperial Germany||On 20 September 1866, Prussia annexed Hanover. Living in exile in Austria, at Hietzing and Gmunden, King George V of Hanover never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and from 1866 to 1870 maintained at his own expense an exile Hanoverian armed force, the Guelphic Legion . George was forced to give up this Legion after the Prussian lower chamber passed in 1869 a law sequestering his funds. George V died in 1878. Though his son and heir Prince Ernest Augustus retained a formal claim to be the legitimate King of Hanover until 1918 (when all German Royal Families were dethroned) he does not seem to have kept up a government-in-exile.|
|Kingdom of Hawaii||1893||1895||Republic of Hawaii||Government exiled following the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893, dissolved after the abdication of Queen Liliuokalani in response to Robert William Wilcox's failed attempt to restore the royal government in Hawaii.|
|Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh||1971*||1972°||East Pakistan||Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.|
|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea||1919*||1948°||Korea||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan’s defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|Czechoslovak government-in-exile||1939||1945°||Czechoslovakia||Based in Paris and later in London, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. After the defeat of Germany, it took control of Czechoslovakia.|
|Azad Hind||1943||1945*||British Raj||Based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government in Exile, this government was disestablished in 1945 following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II|
|All-Palestine Government||1948||1959||Egypt||The All-Palestine government was proclaimed in Gaza in September 1948, but was shortly relocated to Cairo in fear of Israeli offensive. Despite Egyptian ability to keep control of the Gaza Strip, the All-Palestine Government was forced to remain in exile in Cairo, gradually stripping it of its authority, until in 1959 it was dissolved by President Nasser's decree.|
|Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic||1958*||1962*||French Algeria (France)||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile||1962*||1992°||Republic of Angola||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament|
|Namibian Government in Exile||1966*||1989°||South Africa||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence.|||
|Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea||1982*||1993°||People's Republic of Kampuchea||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
|Polish government-in-exile||1939*||1990°|| Occupied Poland
People's Republic of Poland
|Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland|
|Estonian government-in-exile||1953*||1992||Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic||Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state, however the government in exile was recognized by the restored Government of Estonia when the government in exile ceased its activity in 1992 and gave over its credentials to the restored Republic of Estonia.
A rival government was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Detmold, in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) but it was short lived.
|Spanish Republican government in exile||1939||1977||Spanish State||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; first based in Paris, France from 1939 until 1940 when France fell to the Nazis. The exiled government was then moved to Mexico City and stayed there from 1940 to 1946, when it was moved back to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death and democracy in Spain was restored.|
|Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile||1921||1954||Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991||1992||Republic of Croatia||Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358–1808).|||
|President of Ukraine (in exile)||1920||1992|| Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
|Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.|
|Free Aceh Movement||1976*||2005||Republic of Indonesia||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|Bongo Doit Partir||1998||2009||Gabon||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|||
|Confederate government of Missouri||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|||
|Confederate government of Kentucky||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|De Broqueville government in exile||1914||1918||German Empire||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
|National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma||1990||2012|| Union of Myanmar (1988-2011)
Republic of the Union of Myanmar
|Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|||
|Philippine Commonwealth in exile||1942||1944°|| Empire of Japan(1943)
Second Philippine Republic (1943–1945)
|After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government in exile led by Manuel Quezon in Melbourne, Australia and was administered from Washington D.C., United States from May 1942 to October 1944.|
|Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia||1948*||1949°||Dutch East Indies||Based in Bukittinggi; led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, founded after Operatie Kraai in December 1948.|
|Vichy France||1944*||1945°||Provisional Government of the French Republic||Based in Sigmaringen, it was led by Philippe Petain following the Liberation of France by the Allies.|
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government in exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law; in addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the independent Republic of Malta.
World War II
Governments in London
A large number of European governments-in-exile were set up in London.
The Danish exception
The Occupation of Denmark (9 April 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently until August 1943 when it was dissolved, placing Denmark under full German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Governments-in-exile in Asia
The Philippine Commonwealth (invaded 9 December 1941) established a government in exile in Australia and the United States.
While formed long before World War II, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea continued in exile in China until the end of the war.
Under the auspices of the Axis powers, Axis-aligned groups from some countries set up "governments-in-exile" in Axis territory, even though internationally recognized governments remained in place in their home countries.
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Bulgarian national government-in-exile||1944*||1945||Kingdom of Bulgaria (Fatherland Front)||Based in Vienna, Austria|
|Sigmaringen Governmental Commission||1944*||1945°||Provisional Government of the French Republic||Members of the collaborationist French cabinet at Vichy were relocated by the Germans to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany, where they became a government-in-exile until April 1945. They were given formal governmental power over the city of Sigmaringen, and the three Axis governments - Germany, Italy and Japan - established there what were officially their Embassies to France. Pétain having refused to take part in this, it was headed by Fernand de Brinon.|||
|Provisional Government of Free India||1943*||1945||British Raj||Based in Rangoon and Singapore|
|Second Philippine Republic||1945||1945°||Philippine Commonwealth||After the Allied forces liberated the Philippines from Japanese occupiers and the reestablishment of the Philippine Commonwealth in the archipelago after a few years in exile in the United States, the Second Philippine Republic became a nominal government-in-exile from June 11, 1945 based in Nara / Tokyo. The government was later dissolved in August 17, 1945.|
Persian Gulf War
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Ta'if. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the western hemisphere in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
Municipal Councils in Exile
Following the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the displacement of many Greek Cypriots from North Cyprus, displaced inhabitants of several towns set up what are in effect Municipal Councils in Exile, headed by Mayors in Exile. The idea is the same as with a national Government in Exile – to assert a continuation of legitimate rule, even though having no control of the ground, and working towards restoration of such control. Meetings of the exiled Municipal Council of Lapithos took place in the homes of its members until the Exile Municipality was offered temporary offices at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia, the current Exile Mayor of the town is Athos Eleftheriou. The same premises are shared with the Exile Municipal Council of Kythrea.
Also in the Famagusta District of Cyprus, the administration of the part retained by the Republic of Cyprus considers itself as a "District administration in exile", since the district's capital Famagusta had been under Turkish control since 1974.
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow government (disambiguation)
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical unrecognized countries
- List of territorial disputes
- List of unrecognized countries
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
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- Lori Reese (August 28–30, 1999). "China's Christian Warrior". Time. Time Inc. 154 (No. 7/8). Archived from the original on May 11, 2010.
After four years of civil war, Chiang and the nationalists were forced to flee to the island of Taiwan. There they established a government-in-exile and dreamed of retaking the mainland.
"Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975)". BBC. Archived from the original on January 18, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
There Chiang established a government in exile which he led for the next 25 years.
"TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan.
"Establishment of the People's Republic Of China (Oct 1, 1949)". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
......after the inauguration of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Beijing on October 1, 1949, Chiang and the Nationalists installed the rival Republic of China (ROC) as a government in exile on Taiwan.
"Tsai blasted for R.O.C. legitimacy remark". China Post. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
"Treaty confirmed sovereignty: Ma". Taipei Times. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
Kerry Dumbaugh (Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division) (23 February 2006). "Taiwan's Political Status: Historical Background and Ongoing Implications". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
While on October 1, 1949, in Beijing a victorious Mao proclaimed the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Chiang Kai-shek re-established a temporary capital for his government in Taipei, Taiwan, declaring the ROC still to be the legitimate Chinese government-in-exile and vowing that he would "retake the mainland" and drive out communist forces.
John J. Tkacik, Jr. (19 June 2008). "Taiwan's "Unsettled" International Status: Preserving U.S. Options in the Pacific". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
Chiang Kai-shek wanted to fight it out on an all-or-nothing basis. There are also reports that Chiang's advisors convinced him that if the ROC mission stayed to represent Taiwan, Chiang would be under pressure to demonstrate in some constitutional way that his Chinese government-in-exile represented the people of Taiwan rather than the vast population of China. Doing so would require Chiang to dismantle his existing regime (which was elected in 1947 on the Chinese mainland and continued to rule in Taiwan under emergency martial law provisions without benefit of elections), adopt an entirely new constitution, and install an entirely new government.
"ROC Government in Exile Is Illogical (English transl.)". (original source: "「流亡政府」邏輯不通" by NOWnews Network). June 1, 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010. External link in
TIME magazine, Far Eastern Economic Review, Stanford University, US State Dept., Public Broadcasting Service, BBC, US Congressional Research Service, UK Parliament, UK Foreign Office, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and numerous law journals have all referred to the Republic of China on Taiwan as a government in exile. However, the ROC is recognised as the legitimate government of China by 19 UN member states and the Holy See. The PRC claims that the ROC government no longer exists. Republic of China government in exile, retrieved 2010-02-27
Jonathan I. Charney; J. R. V. Prescott (July 2000), Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan, American Journal of International Law, archived from the original on 2004-06-22, retrieved 2011-02-28
- Taipei Times (June 9, 2013), CIA report shows Taiwan concerns, retrieved 2013-06-10,
[Quoting from a declassified CIA report on Taiwan written in March 1949] From the legal standpoint, Taiwan is not part of the Republic of China. Pending a Japanese peace treaty, the island remains occupied territory in which the US has proprietary interests.
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