A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country. Governments in exile plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, in contrast, has lost all its territory. Exiled governments tend to occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. On the other hand, the Provisional Government of Free India sought to use support from the invading Japanese to gain control of the country from what it viewed as British occupiers.
A government in exile may form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. Due to the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, for instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed by groups whose members sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party; the effectiveness of a government in exile depends on the amount of support it receives, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some exiled governments come to develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture; the phenomenon of a government in exile predates the formal utilization of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and again at the Glorious Revolution; the House of Bourbon would be another example because it continued to be recognized by other countries at the time as the legitimate government of France after it was overthrown by the populace during the French Revolution.
This continued to last through the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–04 to 1815. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments which were exiled started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy. International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs; these actions include: becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty amending or revising its own constitution maintaining military forces retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states issuing identity cards allowing the formation of new political parties holding electionsIn cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population.
For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the Japanese military authorities. Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states; some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or in exile cases are noted in the tables below; these governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled. These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled but whose state no longer exists. Government of the Republic of China: The Taipei-based Republic of China government does not regard itself as a government-in-exile, but is claimed to be such by some participants in the debate on the political status of Taiwan. In addition to the island of Taiwan and some other islands it controls, the Republic of China formally maintains claims over territory now controlled by the People's Republic of China as well as some parts of Afghanistan, India, Myanmar, Pakistan and Tajikistan.
The usual formal reasoning on which this "government-in-exile" claim is based relies on an argument that the sovereignty of Taiwan was not legitimately handed to the Republic of China at the end of World War II, on that basis the Republic of China is located in foreign territory, therefore making it a government in exile. By contrast, this theory is not accepted by those who view the sovereignty of Taiwan as having been legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war. Both the People's Republic of China government and the Kuomintang in Republic of China hold the latter view. However, there are some who do not accept that the sovereignty of Taiwan was legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war nor that the Republic of China is a government-in-exile, China's territory does not include Taiwan; the current Democratic Progressive Party in Taiwan is inclined to this view, supports Taiwanese independence. These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and o
Fox Kids was an American children's programming block and branding for a slate of international children's television channels. A joint venture between the Fox Broadcasting Company and its affiliated stations, it was owned by Fox Family Worldwide. Fox Kids originated as a programming block that aired on the Fox network from September 8, 1990 to September 7, 2002; the block aired on Saturday mornings throughout its existence, with an additional block on Monday through Friday afternoons airing until January 2002. Fox Kids is the only form of daytime television programming, outside of sports, aired by the Fox network to date. Following then-Fox parent News Corporation's sale of Fox Kids Worldwide to The Walt Disney Company in July 2001, Fox put the remaining Saturday morning timeslot up for bidding, with 4Kids Entertainment winning and securing the rights to program that period; the Fox Kids block continued to air until September 7, 2002, was replaced the following week by the 4Kids-programmed FoxBox.
Outside the United States, the first Fox Kids-branded television channel launched on October 1, 1995, on Foxtel in Australia. Beginning in 2004, the international and Latin American channels were relaunched under the Jetix brand following Disney's acquisition of Fox Family Worldwide. According to James B. Stewart's book DisneyWar, Fox Kids' history is intertwined with that of the syndicated children's program block The Disney Afternoon. DuckTales, the series that served as the launching pad for The Disney Afternoon, premiered in syndication in September 1987, airing on Fox's owned-and-operated stations as well as various Fox affiliates in many markets; this may have been due to the fact that the Walt Disney Company's chief operating officer at the time, Michael Eisner, his then-Fox counterpart, Barry Diller, had worked together at ABC and at Paramount Pictures. In 1988, Disney purchased independent television station KHJ-TV in Los Angeles, changing its call letters to KCAL-TV the next year.
The station's new owners wanted DuckTales to be shown on KCAL taking the local television rights to the animated series away from Fox-owned KTTV. Furious at the breach of contract, Diller pulled DuckTales from all of Fox's other owned-and-operated stations in the fall of 1989. Diller encouraged the network's affiliates to do the same, though most did not initially; as Disney went forward in developing The Disney Afternoon, Fox began the process of launching its own children's programming lineup. Fox Kids was launched on September 8, 1990, as the Fox Children's Network, a joint venture between the Fox Broadcasting Company and its affiliates. Headed by division president Margaret Loesch, its programming aired for 30 minutes per day on Monday through Fridays, for 3 hours on Saturday mornings. In September 1991, the block was rebranded as the Fox Kids Network, with its programming expanding to 90 minutes on weekdays and 4 hours on Saturday mornings; the weekday editions of the block grew to 3 hours the following year.
By fall of 1992, Fox Kids increased its schedule to 3 hours on Monday through Fridays, airing from 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM local time, 4 hours on Saturdays from 8:00 AM to noon Eastern and Pacific Time. Many stations split the weekday lineup programming into a one-hour block in the morning and a two-hour block in the afternoon, when network programs intertwined with syndicated children's lineups. Other stations aired all three hours combined in the afternoon due to their carriage of local morning newscasts and/or syndicated talk shows. Few Fox stations aired all three hours of the weekday block in the morning. In 1992, Fox Kids began holding a "TV Takeover" event on Thanksgiving afternoon; when Fox Kids launched all of Fox's owned-and-operated stations and affiliates carried the block, with few declining to carry it. The first Fox station to drop the block was Miami affiliate WSVN, the network's first station to maintain a news-intensive format, in 1993; the following year, in May 1994, Fox signed a multi-station affiliation agreement with New World Communications to switch that company's CBS, ABC and NBC affiliates to the network between September 1994, July 1995, in order to improve its affiliate coverage in certain markets after the National Football League awarded Fox the contract to the National Football Conference television package.
Many of the stations owned by New World declined to carry the block in order to air syndicated programs aimed at older audiences or local newscasts. In certain cities with an independent station, or beginning with the launches of those networks in January 1995, affiliates of UPN and The WB, Fox contracted the Fox Kids block to air on one of these stations if a Fox owned-and-operated station or affiliate chose not to carry it. In some cases, Fox Kids would be carried on the same station as one of its two competing children's blocks, The WB's Kids' WB and UPN's UPN Kids block (the latter of, replaced in 1999 by
A1 News Channel was an all news private television station in Tirana, Albania founded by media mogul Koco Kokedhima and owned by Shekulli newspaper. A1 Report started as TV Ballkan in 2002 but changed name to A1 TV. During that time period, A1 tried to attract a broader audience through shows such as Papparazzi and Hienat, it was the only station with purely economic TV shows like A1 Biznes and Kapital. News is updated in real-time 24 hours a day. Since January 2007, A1 Televizion started airing movies and it has the latest and most famous movies of any local television in Albania, although it advertises the fact, to comply with its'new channel' image. In the next few years, it changed logos several times and became A1 Report affiliated with Shqiptarja.com newspaper. In 2016, Carlo Bollino withdrew from this joint-venture and opened his own channel named Report TV; as a result, Kokedhima re-branded the channel as A1 News Channel. A1 Report TV's broadcasting license has since been revoked by the Albanian Audiovisual Media Authority.
Television in Albania