Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, GBM, GBS is a Hong Kong politician, the 4th and current Chief Executive of Hong Kong. She served as the Chief Secretary for Administration, the most senior rank of principal officials of Hong Kong, from 2012 to 2017. After graduating from the University of Hong Kong, Lam joined the civil service in 1980 and served in various bureaux and departments, she became a key official in 2007. During her service, she earned the reputation as a "tough fighter" from her handling of the demolition of the Queen's Pier, she became Chief Secretary under the Leung Chun-ying administration in 2012. She headed the Task Force on Constitutional Development on the political reform from 2013 to 2015 and held talks with the student leaders during the large-scale occupation protests in 2014. In the 2017 Chief Executive election, Lam won the three-way election with 777 votes of the 1,194-member Election Committee as the Beijing-favoured candidate, beating former Financial Secretary John Tsang and retired judge Woo Kwok-hing, becoming the first female Chief Executive of Hong Kong.
Born Cheng Yuet-ngor to a low-income family of Zhoushan ancestry in Hong Kong, Lam was the fourth of five children. She was born and grew up in Lockhart Road, Wan Chai, where she finished her primary and secondary education at St. Francis' Canossian College, a Catholic girls' school in the neighborhood, where she was head prefect. After graduation, Lam attended the University of Hong Kong majoring in sociology, she organised exchange trips to Tsinghua University. Through her student activism, she came to know Lee Wing-tat and Sin Chung-kai who became prominent pro-democrat legislators. To better understand society and participate more in student activities, she switched her course of study from social work to sociology after the first year to avoid placements. Lam graduated with a Bachelor of Social Sciences in 1980. In 1982, the Hong Kong Government funded her studies at Cambridge University where she met her future husband, mathematician Lam Siu-por. Lam joined the Administrative Service in 1980.
She served in various bureaux and departments, spending about seven years in the Finance Bureau which involved in budgetary planning and expenditure control. She worked as Principal Assistant Secretary and subsequently as Deputy Secretary for the Treasury in the 1990s. In 2000, Lam was promoted to the position of Director of the Social Welfare Department during a period of high unemployment and severe fiscal deficits in Hong Kong, she tightened the Comprehensive Social Security Assistance scheme, making it available only to people who had lived in Hong Kong for more than seven years, excluding new immigrants. With other senior officials, she helped set up the We Care Education Fund, raising over HK$80 million to meet the long term educational needs of children whose parents died from the SARS epidemic in 2003. In November 2003, Lam was appointed Permanent Secretary for Housing and Lands and chairman of the Town Planning Board, she was soon appointed Director-General of the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in London in September 2004.
On 8 March 2006, Lam returned to Hong Kong to take up the position as Permanent Secretary for Home Affairs. She was involved in the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics Equestrian Events and the West Kowloon Cultural District plan. On 1 July 2007, Lam left the civil service when she was appointed Secretary for Development by Chief Executive Donald Tsang, becoming one of the principal officials. In the first days of her office, Lam oversaw the demolition of the landmark Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier for the Star Ferry and the Queen's Pier to make way for land reclamation, which triggered occupation protests by the conservationists. In July 2007, she attended a public forum at Queen's Pier in a bid to persuade the protesters to disperse and allow the demolition to begin, she repeated the government’s position that it was not an option to retain the pier and she would "not give the people false hope". Her handling of the pier conflict earned her a reputation as a "tough fighter" by the Chief Secretary for Administration Rafael Hui.
Lam put forward a new Urban Renewal Strategy to lower the threshold for compulsory sale for redevelopment from 90 percent to 80 percent in 2010. Human rights organisations criticised the policy as benefiting the big real estate developers and violating the right to housing as recognised by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights as the bargaining power of the small owners would be undermined. In 2012, Lam led the Development Bureau in cracking down unauthorised building works found in the indigenous villages in the New Territories; the change in law enforcement policy was opposed by leaders of rural communities and the Heung Yee Kuk, a statutory body representing rural interests. The Heung Yee Kuk staged protests against Lam and accused her of "robbing villagers of their fundamental rights". Lam tried to tackle the "Small House Policy", subject to abuse amidst a land crunch; the policy gives male indigenous villagers in the New Territories the right to build a house close to their ancestral homes but the policy has drawn criticism because in some cases, it has been abused for profit.
In recognition of her achievements as Secretary for Development, she was awarded honorary member of the Hong Kong Institute of Landscape Architects, honorary fellow of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Property Person of the Year in the RICS Hong Kong Property Awards 2012, honorary member of the Hong Kong Institute of Architects
Chief Executive of Hong Kong
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong. The position was created to replace the Governor of Hong Kong, the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom during British rule; the office, stipulated by the Hong Kong Basic Law, formally came into being on 1 July 1997 when the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China. The functions of the Chief Executive include nominating principal officials for appointment by the Central People's Government of China, headed by Premier, conducting foreign relations, appointing judges and other public officers, giving consent to legislation passed by the Legislative Council, bestowing honours; the Basic Law grants the Chief Executive a wide range of powers, but obliges him or her, before making important policy decisions, introducing bills to the Legislative Council, making subsidiary legislation, dissolving the Legislative Council, to act only after consultation with the Executive Council.
The Executive Council consists of official and non-official members, including the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, the most senior official and head of the Government Secretariat, in charge of overseeing the administration of the Government. The Chief Executive holds the title "The Honourable", ranks first in the Hong Kong order of precedence; the official residence of the chief executive is Government House in Hong Kong Island. The current Chief Executive is Carrie Lam, selected on 26 March 2017, appointed by the Central People's Government with the State Council Decree signed by Premier Li Keqiang, on 11 April 2017 and took office on 1 July 2017, she is the first woman to serve as Chief Executive. According to Article 44 of the Basic Law, the Chief Executive must be a Chinese citizen as defined by the HKSAR Passports Ordinance; the individual must be at least 40 years old, a Hong Kong permanent resident, a Chinese citizen with right of abode in Hong Kong, has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than 20 years.
Article 47 further requires that the Chief Executive be a person of integrity, dedicated to his or her duties. In addition, since the 4th Chief Executive term, candidates may not stand for selection by the Election Committee without first obtaining 150 nominations from its members; the Chief Executive is elected from a restricted pool of candidates supportive of the Central Government by a 1200-member Election Committee, an electoral college consisting of individuals and bodies selected or elected within 28 functional constituencies, as prescribed in Annex I to the Basic Law. In the first election of the Chief Executive, the Committee consisted of only 400 members, it was expanded to 800 for the second term. As a result of enabling legislation stemming from a public consultation in 2010, its approval by the National People's Congress Standing Committee in Beijing, the number of representatives was increased from 800 to 1200; the functional constituencies correspond to various sectors of the economy and society, each of which hold their own internal procedures to select electors.
The chosen Chief Executive must be appointed by the Central People's Government before taking office. According to Article 46 the term of office of the Chief Executive is five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms. If a vacancy occurs mid-term, the new chief executive's first term is for the remainder of the previous Chief Executive's term only; the method of selecting the Chief Executive is provided under Article 45 and Annex I of the Basic Law, the Chief Executive Election Ordinance. According to the Chief Executive Election Ordinance, the winning candidate in the Chief Executive election shall, within 7 working days after the election, publicly make a statutory declaration that he or she is not a member of any political party and will not become a member of any political party or do any act that has the effect of subjecting himself to the discipline of any political party during his or her term of office. Under the Basic Law the Chief Executive is the chief representative of the people of Hong Kong and is the head of the government of Hong Kong.
The CE's powers and functions include leading the government, implementing the law, signing bills and budgets passed by the Legislative Council, deciding on government policies, advising appointment and dismissal of principal officials of the Government of Hong Kong to the Central People's Government, appointing judges and holders of certain public offices and to pardon or commute sentences. The position is responsible for the policy address made to the public; the CE's powers and functions are established by Article 48 of the Basic Law. The Executive Council of Hong Kong is an organ for assisting the Chief Executive in policy-making; the council is consulted before making important policy decisions, introducing bills to the Legislative Council, making subordinate legislation or dissolving the Legislative Council. Article 52 stipulates circumstances. Examples include the loss of ability to discharge his or her duties or refusal to sign a bill passed by a two-thirds majority of the Legislative Council.
The acting and succession line is spelled out in Article 53. If the Chief Executive is not able to discharge his or her duties for short periods, the duties would be assumed by the Chief Secretary for Administration, the Financial Secretary or the Secretary for Justice, by rotation, in that order, as acting Chief Executive. In
Hong Kong Observatory
The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong. The Observatory forecasts the weather and issues warnings on weather-related hazards, it monitors and makes assessments on radiation levels in Hong Kong and provides other meteorological and geophysical services to meet the needs of the public and the shipping, aviation and engineering sectors. The Observatory was established in 1883 as the Hong Kong Observatory by Sir George Bowen, the 9th Governor of Hong Kong, with Dr William Doberck as its first director. Early operations included meteorological and magnetic observations, a time service based on astronomical observations and a tropical cyclone warning service; the Observatory was renamed the Royal Observatory Hong Kong after obtaining a Royal Charter in 1912. The Observatory adopted the current name and emblem in 1997 after the transfer of Hong Kong's sovereignty from the UK to China; the Hong Kong Observatory was built in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon in 1883.
Observatory Road in Tsim Sha Tsui is so named based on this landmark. However, due to rapid urbanisation, it is now surrounded by skyscrapers; as a result of high greenhouse gas emissions, the reflection of sunlight from buildings and the surfaces of roads, as well as the reduced vegetation, it suffers from a heat island effect. This was demonstrated by the considerable increase in average temperatures recorded by the Observatory between 1980 and 2005. In 2002, the Observatory opened a resource centre on the 23rd Floor of the nearby Miramar Tower, where the public can buy Hong Kong Observatory publications and access other meteorological information; this building, built in 1883, is a rectangular two-storey plastered brick structure. It now houses the office of the directorate and to serve as a centre of administration of the Observatory; the building is a declared monument of Hong Kong since 1984. It is next to the 1883 Building. Over the years, the observatory has been led by: William Doberck，Ph.
D.，1883–1907 Frederick George Figg，1907–1912 Thomas Folkes Claxton，F. R. A. S.，1912–1932 Charles William Jeffries, F. R. A. S.，1932–1941 Benjamin Davies Evans，F. R. A. S. F. R. Met. S.，1941–1946 Graham Scudamore Percival Heywood，M. A. F. R. Met. S.，1946–1956 Ian Edward Meni Watts，Ph. D. F. R. Met. S.，1956–1965 Gordon John Bell，O. B. E. M. A. F. R. Met. S.，1965–1981 John Edgar Peacock，O. B. E. B. Sc.，1981–1984 – the last British holder of the position Patrick Pak Sham，I. S. O. B. Sc. F. R. Met. S.，1984–1995 – he was the first Chinese to serve as director as the Government began the process of promoting local staff Robert Chi-kwan Lau，B. Sc. DIP. N. A. A. C.，1995–1996 Lam Hung-kwan，Ph. D. F. R. Met. S，1996–2003 Lam Chiu-ying，Hon. F. R. Met. S. C Met.，2003–2009 Lee Boon-ying, Ph. D. MBA, FHKMetS, MCMetS，2009–2011 Shun Chi-ming，F. R. Met. S，2011– From 1885 to 1948 the HKO used the coat of arms of the United Kingdom in various styles for its logo but in 1949 this was changed to a circular escutcheon featuring pictures of weather observation tools, with the year 1883 at the bottom and a St Edward's Crown at the top.
In 1981 the logo was changed to the old coat of arms, in 1997, with the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the current logo was introduced to replace the colonial symbols. The Friends of the Observatory, an interest group set up in 1996 to help the Observatory to promote Hong Kong Observatory and its services to the public, provide science extension activities in relation to the works of the Observatory and foster communication between the Observatory and the public, now has more than 7,000 individual and family members in total. Activities organised for the Friends of the Observatory include regular science lectures and visits to Observatory's facilities. Newsletters were published for members once every four months. Voluntary docents from this interest group lead a "HKO Guided Tour" to let the public who applied for visit in advance to visit the headquarters of the Observatory, learn about the history and meteorological science applied by the Observatory; the Observatory organises visits for the secondary school students.
This outreach programme was extended to primary school students, the elderly and the community groups in the recent years. Talks are organised in primary school during the winter time, when the officials are less busy in the severe climate issues and watchouts. A roving exhibition for the public was mounted in shopping malls in 2003. To promote understanding of the services provided by the Observatory and their benefits to the community, over 50 press releases were issued and 7 media briefings were held in 2003. From time to time, the Observatory works with schools for a series of events, including with the Geography Society of PLK Vicwood KT Chong Sixth Form College between 2008 and 2009. Hong Kong Time Climate of Hong Kong Hong Kong rainstorm warning signals Hong Kong tropical cyclone warning signals China Meteorological Administration Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau Central Weather Bureau Official website "Weather Underground of Hong Kong". "Hong Kong Weather Information for Tourists".
Weather Underground. "World Weather Information Service". WMO. "Weather Around the World". Time and Date AS. "World weather". MET Office
Radio Television Hong Kong is the public broadcasting service in Hong Kong. GOW, the predecessor to RTHK was established in 1928 as the first broadcasting service in Hong Kong; as a government department under the Commerce and Economic Development Bureau of the Hong Kong Government, RTHK's educational and public affairs programmes are broadcast on its seven radio channels and three television channels, as well as commercial television channels. Unlike other public broadcasters like the BBC and NHK, which are funded by licence fees, RTHK is directly supported by an annual government funding; the Hong Kong Government launched its first radio broadcasting station, known as "GOW", on 30th June 1928, with a starting staff of only six people. Several name changes occurred over the next few years, it became known as "Radio Hong Kong" in 1948. In 1949, broadcasting operations were taken over by the Government Information Services, but by 1954, RHK had managed to establish itself as an independent department.
Up until 1966, the radio station was only on-air for three periods during the day. This was due to many of the presenters being part-time freelancers who had to fit their radio appearances in with their normal daily working schedule. In 1969, the station's medium wave AM transmitting station was moved from a waterfront site in Hung Hom to the summit of Golden Hill in the New Territories. Although the new transmitters were much more powerful, the mountain-top site proved unsuitable for medium wave transmissions and reception in some areas has remained problematic since. In March 1969, RHK moved its headquarters to new purpose-built studios located at Broadcasting House in Kowloon Tong. A Public Affairs Television Unit was established in 1970 to produce TV programmes for required broadcast by independent channels. At that time, RTHK did not have its own television broadcast transmitters. In 1973, RTHK set up its own radio newsroom. Prior to this, all news had been prepared by Government Information Services staff.
Until 1969, headlines were sent to the studios every half-hour by teleprinter from the GIS headquarters in Central District, while the three daily full bulletins were hand-delivered by a messenger. This arrangement became impractical following the move to the new studios in 1969, so a GIS newsroom was set up in Broadcasting House; this arrangement proved unsatisfactory and RTHK's own journalists, who until had been confined to producing magazine programmes, took over the entire news operation. In 1976, the station's name was changed to "Radio Television Hong Kong" to reflect its new involvement in television programme production. In the same year, it began to produce educational television programmes for schools after absorbing the independent Educational Television Unit. In 1986, RTHK headquarters moved across the road to the former Commercial Television studios, which were renamed Television House; the station's first News and Financial News channel, Radio 7, was established in November 1989.
In December 1994, RTHK launched its website and made its television productions, as well as content from its seven radio channels, available online. The website provided live broadcasts as well as a twelve-month archive; the website, presented in English, Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese offered free news via email three times per day, as well as online content. In 2013, RTHK launched a new television channel. To support this new television operation, the government administration increased the station's funding by between HK$300 million and HK$400 million a year. In April 2016, RTHK took over the analog channel frequencies of Asia Television after the latter's free television license expired. In March 2017, as the Hong Kong government decided to terminate DAB services in Hong Kong, RTHK said that it would integrate the existing DAB programmes into existing AM and FM radio channels; as the government claimed that RTHK should stop DAB service within six months, that means DAB service will be terminated no than September 30, 2017.
With the termination of DAB+ in Hong Kong, RTHK has announced in August 2017 that the broadcaster's relay of BBC World Service on Radio 6 would reduce to 8 hours a day and move to an overnight slot on Radio 4. CNR's programme 14 was heard on RTHK DAB 2 until DAB services in Hong Kong were shut down. RTHK operates twelve radio channels: RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards RTHK operates three television channels: RTHK produces public affairs programmes such as Hong Kong Connection, A Week in Politics, Media Watch, Pentaprism and Police Report; these are broadcast by Hong Kong's three commercial television channels, TVB, ATV and Cable TV, in addition to RTHK's own television network. It has produced TV dramas, including the classic Below the Lion Rock. RTHK and the Hong Kong Education Bureau jointly produce Educational Television, a series of educational programmes for primary and secondary students – airing during non-peak hours on RTHK stations. ETV was first broadcast in 1971 for Primary 3 students and was extended to Primary 6 students in 1974.
In 1978, it was extended to cover junior secondary students. RTHK broadcast these programmes on their stations during non-peak daytime hours, but now distributes them online instead. While school programmes covering the topics of English, Chinese and Mandarin Chinese
Chief Secretary for Administration
The Chief Secretary for Administration known as the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, is the most senior principal official of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Chief Secretary is head of the Government Secretariat which oversees the administration of the Region to which all other ministers belong, is accountable for his or her policies and actions to the Chief Executive and to the Legislative Council. Under Article 53 of the Basic Law, the position is known as "Administrative Secretary"; the Chief Secretary formulates and implements government policy, gives advice to the Chief Executive as a member of the Executive Council, is responsible for managing the Government's relationship with the Legislative Council and drawing up the Government's legislative programme. The office exercises certain statutory functions, such as the handling of appeals from designated public bodies. Prior to the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, the office was known as "Chief Secretary", before 27 August 1976, "Colonial Secretary".
Until the introduction of the Principal Officials Accountability System in 2002, the Chief Secretary was a civil service position, in this capacity, the head of the public service. In 2005, Henry Tang became the first person who has not been a civil servant to be appointed to the office of the Chief Secretary. From the 1870s to 1902 the Colonial Secretary was the de facto Lieutenant Governor of Hong Kong, once held by the Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong before 1870s when the post was not lapsed from power. After 1902 the title disappeared from use as the second highest post was transferred to the Colonial Secretary and Chief Secretary. Political party: Nonpartisan The Chief Secretary resides at an official residence at 15 Barker Road, The Peak, Hong Kong, known as Victoria House and Victoria Flats. Hong Kong Government Government departments and agencies in Hong Kong Secretary for Justice Financial Secretary Secretary for Education and Manpower Secretary for Health and Food Lieutenant Governor of Hong Kong - second in command from 1843 to 1870s GeneralChoa, Gerald H..
"Appendix II: Colonial Secretaries of Hong Kong, 1843–1912". The Life and Times of Sir Kai Ho Kai: A Prominent Figure in Nineteenth-Century Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. P. 274. ISBN 978-962-201-873-0. OCLC 44267286. Specific Official website Organisation chart of Hong Kong Government
Home Affairs Department
The Home Affairs Department is an executive agency in the government of Hong Kong responsible for internal affairs of the territory. It reports to the Home Affairs Bureau, headed by the Secretary for Home Affairs; the Department is responsible for the District Administration Scheme, community building and community involvement activities, minor environmental improvement projects and minor local public works, the licensing of hotels and guesthouses, bedspace apartments and clubs. It promotes the concept of effective building management and works with other government departments to improve the standard of building management in Hong Kong, it monitors the provision of new arrival services and identifies measures to meet the needs of new arrivals. It disseminates information relating to and, where necessary, promotes the public's understanding of major government policies and development plans; these responsibilities are discharged through the 18 district offices covering the whole of Hong Kong.
For a long time the department was the only channel of communication between the people and the government. It used to be headed by the Registrar General, called the'Protector of the Chinese'. Fung-Chi Au, the teacher of Chinese literature for Sun Yat-sen, was the Secretary of the Department of Chinese Affairs. In 1913 the department was called the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. After the 1967 riots, the colonial government introduced the City District Officer Scheme "as the first sign of reaching out to the ordinary people" in Hong Kong society, it was renamed the Home Affairs Department in 1971 because,according to the government, the department dealt not only with matters relating to the Chinese. The first Secretary for Home Affairs was Donald Luddington. Area committees were formed in districts in 1972 to promote public participation in the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign and Fight Violent Crime Campaign. Nowadays, the functions of area committees are to encourage public participation in district affairs, to advise and assist in the organisation of community involvement activities and the implementation of government-sponsored initiatives, advise on issues of a localised nature affecting the area.
Throughout the years, area committees have played an important role in the districts and in providing a link between the local community and the district office. Area committee members are appointed by the Director of Home Affairs and are drawn from a wide spectrum of the community including district council members of the area concerned. At present, there are 70 area committees throughout Hong Kong. In general, each area committee serves an area with a population, including residents and mobile population, of about 80,000 to 100,000. A mutual aid committee is a voluntary body formed by the residents of a building. Mutual aid committees were promoted in private multi-storey buildings, extended to public housing estates, industrial buildings, temporary housing and squatter areas; as at March 31, 2004, there were 3,103 mutual aid committees throughout Hong Kong Island and the New Territories. The primary aims of a mutual aid committee are to promote a sense of friendliness, mutual help and responsibility among members, to promote better security, a better environment and more effective management within the building.
These committees provide a channel of two-way communication between the Government and the residents on matters affecting the well-being of the individual and the community and provide opportunities for residents to participate in community activities. An Owners' Corporation is a legal entity formed under the Building Management Ordinance by the owners of a private building. Owners' corporations are statutory bodies vested with certain legal powers to facilitate the management of a building. At the end of March 2004, there were 7,294 owners' corporations throughout Hong Kong, among which 5,537 were formed with the assistance of the district offices. Government departments and agencies in Hong Kong District Council of Hong Kong Official website
Drainage Services Department
The Drainage Services Department is a department of the Hong Kong Government responsible for drainage and sewerage. Since 2007 it has been subordinate to the Development Bureau; the department is responsible for stormwater drainage, sewage collection and treatment, flood prevention. Environmental protection was one of the main concerns of former governor David Wilson. Wilson stressed the importance of better planning, increased control of pollution discharges, large-scale investment in improved sewage disposal infrastructure, he stated that Hong Kong needed more treatment facilities and new outfalls constructed sufficiently far out to sea, promoted a new department to help achieve this. The Drainage Services Department was established in 1989; the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme is a major sewage treatment infrastructure improvement scheme designed to improve the water quality of Victoria Harbour. Called the Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme, the plan was drawn up in 1989 and construction of HATS Stage 1 commenced in 1994.
It comprises a system of deep tunnels to convey sewage from eight Preliminary Treatment Works to the Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works, which opened in 1997. The full Stage I system, which treats 75% of the sewage generated by the urban areas around the harbour, came online in December 2001. Construction of HATS Stage 2 commenced in 2008, stage 2A was commissioned in 2015. HATS Stage 2B, comprising an underground biological treatment facility at Stonecutters Island, has been shelved as it is felt that the existing facility is sufficient at this time; the department has built several significant bored tunnels designed to intercept water running down mountain slopes and divert it from urban areas in order to prevent flooding. The largest of these is the Hong Kong West Drainage Tunnel, comprising an 11-kilometre long main tunnel and 8 km of adits, it stretches from Tai Hang in the east to an outfall just north of Cyberport. It was built at a cost of HK$3.4 billion. Construction commenced in November 2007 and the tunnel was commissioned on 22 August 2012.
The Lai Chi Kok Drainage Tunnel encircles Lai Chi Kok. It is a 3.7-kilometre tunnel, stretching from Shek Kip Mei to an outfall near Stonecutters Island, built at a cost of $1.7 billion. Construction commenced in November 2008 and the tunnel was commissioned on 18 October 2012; the Tsuen Wan Drainage Tunnel protects the Tsuen Wan New Kwai Chung areas. The 5.1-kilometre tunnel begins at Wo Yi Hop, north of Kwai Chung, curves around the north of Tsuen Wan proper. Past Chai Wan Kok, it parallels the Tuen Mun Highway a short distance and empties into the Rambler Channel. Construction of the $1.5 billion tunnel commenced in 2007. It was commissioned on 28 March 2013; the department operates two sludge transport vessels, called Clean Harbour 1 and Clean Harbour 2. These ships transport sludge from the Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works to the sludge treatment facility in Tuen Mun; the ships are equipped with gantry cranes capable of lifting sludge from the lorries directly into containers on board, can lift 10 containers per hour.
Each ship can carry 90 containers of a total of 1,200 tons of sludge. The vessels were built by Jinhui Shipbuilding of Zhongshan and commissioned in 2015. Category: container ship Maritime Mobile Service Identification Number: 477 995 437 IMO No: 9708277 Official number: HK-4292 Callsign: VROH7 Net Tonnage: 657 tons Gross tonnage: 1971 tons Commissioning date: 5 March 2015 Category: container ship Maritime Mobile Service Identification Number: 477 995 441 IMO No: 9708289 Official number: HK-4305 Callsign: VROJ4 Net Tonnage: 657 tons Gross tonnage: 1971 tons Commissioning date: 5 March 2015 Fung, K. W.. W.. K.. K.. Sewerage and Flood Protection: Drainage Services 1841-2008. Hong Kong: Drainage Services Department. Liu, Tik-sang. Scott, Janet L. ed. Going the Extra Miles. Hong Kong: Drainage Services Department. Official website