A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Foreign relations of Kuwait
Since its independence in 1961, Kuwait maintained strong international relations with most countries nations within the Arab world. Its vast oil reserves gives it a prominent voice in global economic forums and organizations like the OPEC. Kuwait is a major ally of ASEAN, a regional ally of China. Regionally, Kuwait has a unique foreign policy, characterized by neutrality. Kuwait's troubled relationship with neighboring Iraq formed the core of its foreign policy from late 1980s onwards, its first major foreign policy problem arose. Iraq threatened invasion, but was dissuaded by the United Kingdom's ready response to the Amir's request for assistance. Kuwait presented its case before the United Nations and preserved its sovereignty. UK forces were withdrawn and replaced by troops from Arab League nations, which were withdrawn in 1963 at Kuwait's request. On 2 August 1990, Iraq occupied Kuwait. Through the efforts of King Fahd bin Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia, instrumental in obtaining the help of the U.
S. a multinational coalition was assembled, under UN auspices, initiated military action against Iraq to liberate Kuwait. Arab states the other five members of the Gulf Cooperation Council and Syria, supported Kuwait by sending troops to fight with the coalition. Many European and East Asian states sent troops, and/or financial support. After its liberation, Kuwait directed its diplomatic and cooperative efforts toward states that had participated in the multinational coalition. Notably, many of these states were given key roles in the reconstruction of Kuwait. Conversely, Kuwait's relations with nations that had supported Iraq, among them Jordan, Sudan and Cuba, have proved to be strained. Since the conclusion of the Gulf War, Kuwait has made efforts to secure allies throughout the world United Nations Security Council members. In addition to the United States, defense arrangements have been concluded with Russia, the United Kingdom, France. Close ties to other key Arab members of the Gulf War coalition — Egypt and Syria — have been sustained.
Kuwait's foreign policy has been dominated for some time by its economic dependence on oil and natural gas. As a developing nation, its various economies are insufficient to independently support it; as a result, Kuwait has directed considerable attention toward oil or natural gas related issues. With the outbreak of the War on Iraq, Kuwait has taken a pro-U. S. Stance, having been the nation from which the war was launched, it supported the Coalition Provisional Authority, with particular stress upon strict border controls and adequate U. S. troop presence. Kuwait has good relations with Iran. Kuwait is a member of the UN and some of its specialized and related agencies, including the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. In November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait, spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687, 773, 883. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary with Iran.
Kuwait, is a member of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, which includes, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman. These countries, have solid, unbreakable bilateral relations. Citizens of these countries, may enter other GCC, country with an ID. GCC citizens are allowed to stay at nation an unlimited period of time, they follow the same economic plan, give each other military, Intelligence support. They have similar, social, plans; the GCC countries, discuss their foreign policies. These six monarchies are known as the oil-rich countries of the Middle East. List of diplomatic missions in Kuwait List of diplomatic missions of Kuwait Iran-Arab Relations Visa requirements for Kuwaiti citizens
Visa policy of Kuwait
Visitors to Kuwait must obtain a visa unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries eligible for visa on arrival/eVisa. All visitors except GCC citizens must hold a passport valid for 6 months. Citizens of the following countries do not require a visa to visit Kuwait and may use National ID Cards to enter the country: Nationals of China holding normal passports endorsed for public affairs do not require a visa. Holders of diplomatic or official passports of Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, China, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Mongolia, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, Serbia, South Korea, Tajikistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Vietnam and just diplomatic passports of Armenia, Greece, Iraq, Poland and Uzbekistan do not require a visa. Citizens of the following 54 countries and territories may obtain a visa valid for 3 months on arrival to Kuwait if arriving by air or they may obtain an eVisa before arrival: 1-Can only obtain Visa on arrival, not eVisa 2-Can only obtain eVisa, not Visa on arrival Visa can be obtained on arrival valid for one month for those holding a confirmation from a transporting carrier and are travelling for tourism purposes.
Passengers arriving by sea or land must obtain visa in advance. Residents of GCC countries belonging to designated professions may obtain a visa online. Nationals of Ethiopia are banned from entering Kuwait. From 2011 until at least 2014, Kuwait banned entry from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Yemen. In May 2016, Kuwait put a temporary visa ban on religious personalities deemed "controversial", while planning to limit visits by people from specific countries to Kuwait during Ramadan the Syrians, Jordanians and Yemenis, according to Al-Rai daily. After President of the United States Donald Trump's Executive Order 13769 which barred the nationals of Afghanistan, Iran, Yemen and Libya, several news sites published stories about a similar ban. Kuwait's Ministry of Foreign Affairs denied that they ban travel from those countries, the Kuwaiti Ministry has a history of denying any such bans on these particular countries, instead claiming "restrictions" on nationals who are never granted visas. Additionally entry and transit is refused to Israeli citizens.
Visa requirements for Kuwaiti citizens List of countries whose citizens can obtain Visas upon arrival at all Kuwaiti ports of entry, Embassy of the State of Kuwait - Washington, DC
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest; the Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The body of water is and internationally known as the "Persian Gulf"; some Arab governments refer to it as the "Arabian Gulf" or "The Gulf", but neither term is recognized internationally. The name "Gulf of Iran" is used by the International Hydrographic Organization; the Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers. It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War, the air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs, abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills. The Persian Gulf resides in the Persian Gulf Basin, of Cenozoic origin and related to the subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Zagros Mountains.
The current flooding of the basin started 15,000 years ago due to rising sea levels of the Holocene glacial retreat. This inland sea of some 251,000 square kilometres is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. In Iran this is called "Arvand Rood", where "Rood" means "river", its length is 989 kilometres, with Iran covering most of the northern coast and Saudi Arabia most of the southern coast. The Persian Gulf is about 56 km wide in the Strait of Hormuz; the waters are overall shallow, with a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres. Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are: Iran. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Persian Gulf's southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran".
The gulf is connected to Indian Ocean through Strait of Hormuz. Writing the water balance budget for the Persian Gulf, the inputs are river discharges from Iran and Iraq, as well as precipitation over the sea, around 180mm/year in Qeshm Island; the evaporation of the sea is high, so that after considering river discharge and rain contributions, there is still a deficit of 416 cubic kilometers per year. This difference is supplied by currents at the Strait of Hormuz; the water from the Gulf has a higher salinity, therefore exits from the bottom of the Strait, while ocean water with less salinity flows in through the top. Another study revealed the following numbers for water exchanges for the Gulf: evaporation = -1.84m/year, precipitation = 0.08m/year, inflow from the Strait = 33.66m/year, outflow from the Strait = -32.11m/year, the balance is 0m/year. Data from different 3D computational fluid mechanics models with spatial resolution of 3 kilometers and depth each element equal to 1–10 meters are predominantly used in computer models.
The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil, related industries dominate the region. Safaniya Oil Field, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian Gulf. Large gas finds have been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line. Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquefied natural petrochemical industry. In 2002, the Persian Gulf nations of Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE produced about 25% of the world's oil, held nearly two-thirds of the world's crude oil reserves, about 35% of the world's natural gas reserves; the oil-rich countries that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, where the east bank is held by Iran. In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire established the first ancient empire in Persis, in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau.
In the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the "Persian Gulf". During the years 550 to 330 BC, coinciding with the sovereignty of the Achaemenid Persian Empire over the Middle East area the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" is found in the compiled written texts. In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the Great, installed at junction of waters of Red Sea and the Nile river and the Rome river which belongs to t
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kuwait)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is one of the governmental bodies of Kuwait and part of the cabinet. In 1961, a foreign affairs department bureau was established in Kuwait to organize the foreign relations of the country; this body was soon relaunched as the ministry of foreign affairs, becoming the first ministerial body of the country. The first foreign minister of Kuwait was Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah, he was followed by Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmed Al Jaber Al Sabah. The ministry of foreign affairs of the State of Kuwait delegates Ambassadors and military attachés bureaux in foreign diplomatic missions in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, France, China and Korea. Foreign relations of Kuwait List of diplomatic missions in Kuwait
Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah is a Kuwaiti politician and the Prime Minister of Kuwait since 2011. He served as Minister of Defense as well as Deputy Prime Minister. Jaber was first appointed as Prime Minister on 4 December 2011. A year on 5 December 2012, he was reappointed as Prime Minister following the parliamentary election held on 1 December 2012, he was re-appointed in the same position on November 1, 2017 when an Amiri Order was issued to appoint him as the Prime Minister, mandate him to appoint members of the new government. Since 1957 he is the eldest genealogical grandson of fourth major son of Mubarak Al-Sabah, he is the first prime minister in the history of Kuwait, not from either Jaber or Salim branches. Sheikh Jaber began his career an advisor at the administrative affairs department in the Amiri Diwan in 1968 and served there until 1971, he served as director of the administrative affairs department in the Diwan until 1975. He went on to become assistant undersecretary of administrative and financial affairs at the Diwan until 1979.
In that year, he became a governor, serving from 1979 to 1985 at Hawally and from 1985 to 1986 at Ahmedy. He was Minister of Social and Labor Affairs from 1986 to 1988 and Minister of Information from 1988 to 1990. After the liberation of Kuwait in 1991, Sheikh Jaber became advisor to the office of the Emir, a position he held until 2001. On 14 February 2001 that he was named Deputy Prime Ministers of Defense Minister. In 2004, Sheikh Jaber became Chairman of the Supreme Council of Environment. In 2006, he was appointed as First Deputy Prime Minister, as well as Ministers of Interior and Minister of Defense; the following year, he was named First Deputy Prime Minister of Defense. In 2010, Sheikh Jaber became Chairman of the Supreme Council for the Disabled. Sabah was appointed as Prime Minister on 4 December 2011. A year on 5 December 2012, he was reappointed as Prime Minister following the parliamentary election held on 1 December 2012. In January 2014 it was announced that he had reshuffled his five-month-old cabinet, replacing seven members, including the oil and finance ministers, raising the number of Islamists to four.
The reshuffle came two weeks after all the ministers submitted their resignations to Sabah after several cabinet members, including the prime minister himself, were questioned by MPs. Emir Shaikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Sabah accepted the resignation of seven of the 15 ministers and decreed the appointment of new ministers; the modified cabinet included a new oil minister, Ali Al Omair, a lawmaker, a senior member of the Islamist Salaf Alliance. He replaced Mustafa Al Shamali, he is a patron of the Sheikh Mubarak Al Hamad Al Sabah Journalism award, created in 2008 to honor excellence in Kuwaiti journalism. Sheikh Jaber has children, he is an avid falconer and engaged in many philanthropic initiatives worldwide. His Excellency Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, Prime Minister of the State of Kuwait In 2007, King Hamad bin Issa Al Khalifa awarded Sheikh Jaber the "Medal of King Issa First Class," following his visit to Bahrain where he took part in the Middle East Forum on Internal and World Security.
In 2009, he became the first Arab to be awarded Japan's highest honor conferred on foreigners, Order of the Rising Sun, Grand Cordon. The Imperial Decoration of "Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun" was bestowed by Japan's Emperor Akihito at a ceremony at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo; the distinction was awarded in recognition of Sheikh Jaber's contributions to promoting mutual understanding as well as political and environmental ties between Kuwait and Japan. House of Al-Sabah Media related to Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah at Wikimedia Commons Biography at Al-Diwan Al-Amiri