Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Governments in Westminster democracies are responsible to parliament rather than to the monarch, or, in a colonial context, to the imperial government, in a republican context, to the president, either in full or in part. If the parliament is bicameral the government is responsible first to the parliament's lower house, more representative than the upper house, as it has more members and they are always directly elected. Responsible government of parliamentary accountability manifests itself in several ways. Ministers account for the performance of their departments; this requirement to make announcements and to answer questions in Parliament means that ministers must have the privileges of the "floor", which are only granted to those who are members of either house of Parliament. Secondly, most although ministers are appointed by the authority of the head of state and can theoretically be dismissed at the pleasure of the sovereign, they concurrently retain their office subject to their holding the confidence of the lower house of Parliament.
When the lower house has passed a motion of no confidence in the government, the government must resign or submit itself to the electorate in a new general election. Lastly, the head of state is in turn required to effectuate their executive power only through these responsible ministers, they must never attempt to set up a "shadow" government of executives or advisors and attempt to use them as instruments of government, or to rely upon their "unofficial" advice. They are bound to take no decision or action, put into effect under the colour of their executive power without that action being as a result of the counsel and advisement of their responsible ministers, their ministers are required to counsel them and to form and have recommendations for them to choose from, which are the ministers' formal, recommendations as to what course of action should be taken. An exception to this is Israel. In the Canadian system, responsible government was developed between 1846 and 1850, with the executive Council formulating policy with the assistance of the legislative branch, the legislature voting approval or disapproval, the appointed governor enacting those policies that it had approved.
It was a transition from the older system whereby the governor took advice from an executive Council, used the legislature chiefly to raise money. After the formation of elected legislative assemblies starting with Nova Scotia in 1758, governors and their executive councils did not require the consent of elected legislators in order to carry out all their roles, it was only in the decades leading up to Canadian Confederation in 1867 that the governing councils of those British North American colonies became responsible to the elected representatives of the people. Responsible government was a major element of the gradual development of Canada towards independence; the concept of responsible government is associated in Canada more with self-government than with parliamentary accountability. It did not regain responsible government until it became a province of Canada in 1948. In the aftermath of the American Revolution, based on the perceived shortcomings of virtual representation, the British government became more sensitive to unrest in its remaining colonies with large populations of European-descended colonists.
Elected assemblies were introduced to both Upper Canada and Lower Canada with the Constitutional Act of 1791. Many reformers thought that these assemblies should have some control over the executive power, leading to political unrest between the governors and assemblies in both Upper and Lower Canada; the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Sir Francis Bond Head wrote in one dispatch to London that if responsible government were implemented "Democracy, in the worst possible Form, will prevail in our Colonies." After the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion led by Louis-Joseph Papineau, the 1837–1838 Upper Canada Rebellion led by William Lyon Mackenzie, Lord Durham was appointed governor general of British North America and had the task of examining the issues and determining how to defuse tensions. In his report, one of his recommendations was that colonies which were developed enough should be granted "responsible government"; this term meant the policy that British-appointed governors should bow to the will of elected colonial assemblies.
The first instance of responsible government in the British Empire outside of the United Kingdom itself was achieved by the colony of Nova Scotia in January–February 1848 through the efforts of Joseph Howe. The plaque in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada reads: First Responsible Government in the British Empire; the first Executive Council chosen from the party having a majority in the representative branch of a colonial legislature was formed in Nova Scotia on 2 February 1848. Following a vote of want of confidence in the preceding Council, James Boyle Uniacke, who had moved the resolution, became Attorney General and leader of the Government. Joseph Howe, the long-time campaigner for this "Peaceable Revolution"
1 William Street, Brisbane
1 William Street is a skyscraper in Brisbane, Australia and is the tallest in the city at 259.8 metres. The modernist style office building is located in the Brisbane central business district, in close proximity to Parliament House; the building was developed for the Queensland Government as part of the government's plan for a renewed Government Administrative Precinct and to meet its accommodation demands. Construction cost of the tower was expected to be $538 million, with a total development cost of over $650 million, it was completed in October 2016 with staff moving in over 6 weekends. The site was bisected by Short Street and comprised a number of different allotments and uses. Buildings occupied the area as early as 1854 and it was used for a variety of functions including; the Queensland Government began purchasing the properties in the 1960s as part of their Government Precinct development scheme and began demolishing the existing buildings, some dating to the 1850s. The demolition of the adjacent Bellevue Hotel and construction of 80 George Street saw the spoil from there dumped on the 1 William Street site.
Short Street was closed and all of the site was amalgamated into one allotment, 1 William Street. In 1974, the site was allocated for future government offices.1 William Street is a 6,778-square-metre site, owned by the Queensland Government, from 1982 until 2013 it was used as a government car park. The site encompasses a whole city block between William and Margaret Streets and Riverside Expressway. Since 2012, 1 William Street is referred to as the "Tower of Power" in the media, a reference to the political strength of the commissioning former Newman Government and that the building is filled with Queensland Government public servants; the site has archaeological potential of possible cultural heritage significance. Remnants of 1850s buildings are visible above the current ground level and it is that significant sub-surface fabric survives. In August 2012 Expressions of Interest were called for from experienced organisations interested in bidding for the project, it was proposed that the site would be available to the successful party under a long term lease arrangement and that the Queensland Government would take a long term lease over 75,000 m2 of the office space in the development.
In September 2012 six developers were shortlisted to develop proposals for a new high-rise tower. The shortlisted companies were Cbus, Lend Lease, Westfield, Leighton Properties and Grocon. In December 2012, Cbus was announced as the developer for 1 William Street; the developer was granted a 99-year lease over the site and a guaranteed 15-year government lease for 60,000 m2 of office space. 1 William Street has a gross floor area of 119,977 m2 and a net lettable area of 74,853 m2 of office space, excluding retail which covers 1,169 m2. The design includes 318 car bays. About 60,000 m2 has been allocated for government space, leaving around 15,000 m2 to be subleased by the private sector, it is intended to receive a 5-star NABERS office energy rating and a 3-star NABERS office water rating. The building is the first new commercial office building developed for government in the Brisbane CBD since the completion of the government office building at 33 Charlotte Street in 2004; the theme and colour scheme for each floor has been dedicated to a Queensland icon or natural phenomenon.
The construction, undertaken by Multiplex, commenced in early 2013 and was completed in 2016. The sod-turning ceremony, attended by the Treasurer of Queensland Tim Nicholls and the Deputy Premier of Queensland Jeff Seeney, was held on 4 March 2013. From 1 October 2016, nine full departments and agencies, all state government ministers, most directors-general and more than 5,000 public servants moved to 1 William Street; some sections from 11 other departments shifted to 1 William Street, while other sections of these departments will move to other buildings in the inner-city. Three buildings will be demolished. Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Energy Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation ) Department of State Development and Planning Department of Transport & Main Roads Office of the Inspector-General Emergency Management Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth Games List of tallest buildings in Brisbane Media related to 1 William Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons Building at the Queensland Treasury website Building at the Woods Bagot website Building at the designbuild-network website Building at The Skyscraper Center database 1 William Street at Bennett and Bennett
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Deputy Premier of Queensland
The Deputy Premier of Queensland is a role in the Government of Queensland assigned to a responsible Minister in the Australian state of Queensland. It has second ranking behind the Premier of Queensland in Cabinet, its holder serves as Acting Premier during absence or incapacity of the Premier; the Deputy Premier may either be appointed by the Premier during the cabinet formation process, or may be elected by caucus. Due to the contingent role of the Deputy Premier, they without exception always have additional ministerial portfolios; until December 1974, although the role carried the same responsibilities it was never formally recognised or titled as such. Government of Queensland Politics of Queensland Premiers of Queensland
Government of Australia
The Government of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is commonly referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, Her Majesty's Government, or the Federal Government; the Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums; the Australian head of state is the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General of Australia, with executive powers delegated by constitutional convention to the Australian head of government, the Prime Minister of Australia. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister.
Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the three branches of government being set out in separate chapters. The Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, has been characterised as a "Washminster mutation". Section 1 of the Australian Constitution creates a democratic legislature, the bicameral Parliament of Australia which consists of the Queen of Australia, two houses of parliament, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Section 51 of the Constitution provides for the Commonwealth Government's legislative powers and allocates certain powers and responsibilities to the Commonwealth government. All remaining responsibilities are retained by the six States. Further, each State has its own constitution, so that Australia has seven sovereign Parliaments, none of which can encroach on the functions of any other; the High Court of Australia arbitrates on any disputes which arise between the Commonwealth and the States, or among the States, concerning their respective functions.
The Commonwealth Parliament can propose changes to the Constitution. To become effective, the proposals must be put to a referendum of all Australians of voting age, must receive a "double majority": a majority of all votes, a majority of votes in a majority of States; the Commonwealth Constitution provides that the States can agree to refer any of their powers to the Commonwealth. This may be achieved by way of an amendment to the Constitution via referendum. More powers may be transferred by passing other acts of legislation which authorise the transfer and such acts require the legislative agreement of all the state governments involved; this "transfer" legislation may have a "sunset clause", a legislative provision that nullifies the transfer of power after a specified period, at which point the original division of power is restored. In addition, Australia has several "territories", two of which are self-governing: the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; these territories' legislatures, their Assemblies, exercise powers devolved to them by the Commonwealth.
Australian citizens in these territories are represented by members of both houses of the Commonwealth Parliament. The territory of Norfolk Island was self-governing from 1979 until 2016, although it was never represented as such in the Commonwealth Parliament; the other territories that are inhabited—Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands—have never been self-governing. The federal nature of the Commonwealth and the structure of the Parliament of Australia were the subject of protracted negotiations among the colonies during the drafting of the Constitution; the House of Representatives is elected on a basis that reflects the differing populations of the States. Thus New South Wales has 48 members, but the Senate is elected on a basis of equality among the States: all States elect 12 Senators, regardless of population. This was intended to allow the Senators of the smaller States to form a majority and thus be able to amend or reject bills originating in the House of Representatives.
The ACT and the NT each elect two Senators. The third level of government after Commonwealth and State/Territory is Local government, in the form of shires and cities; the Councils of these areas are composed of elected representatives serving part-time. Their powers are devolved to them by the Territory in which they are located. Government at the Commonwealth level and the State/Territory level is undertaken by three inter-connected arms of government: Legislature: The Commonwealth Parliament Executive: The Sovereign of Australia, whose executive power is exercisable by the Governor-General, the Prime Minister and their Departments Judiciary: The High Court of Australia and subsidiary Federal courts. Separation of powers is the principle whereby the three arms of government undertake their activities separately from each other: the Legislature proposes laws in the form of Bills, provides a legislative framework for the operations of the other two a
Cameron Robert Dick is an Australian politician and member of the Labor Party. He is the Queensland Minister for State Development, Manufacturing and Planning and was Minister for Health and Minister for Ambulance Services in the Palaszczuk Ministry and a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, representing the seat of Woodridge, he was Attorney-General, Minister for Education and Minister for Industrial Relations in the Bligh government representing the electorate of Greenslopes. Dick's family arrived in Queensland from Scotland in 1862 aboard the sailing ship Conway, his father, a veteran of the Second World War serving in the Royal Australian Navy, was a butcher and an owner and operator of taxi cabs. His mother was a nurse, he grew up in the suburb of Holland Park and attended a local primary school, Marshall Road State School. He is the brother of Milton Dick, member of the Australian House of Representatives for Oxley and former Brisbane City Council Labor leader. Dick was educated at the Anglican Church Grammar School known as the Church of England Grammar School.
He studied at the University of Queensland, graduated with a Bachelor of Commerce and a Bachelor of Laws, a Bachelor of Arts. He gained a Master of Law at Cambridge. After undertaking articles of clerkship at Brisbane law firm Goss Downey Carne, he was admitted as a solicitor of the Supreme Court of Queensland and the High Court of Australia. Following practice as a solicitor in Brisbane, Dick worked as an international development volunteer in the South Pacific island nation of Tuvalu from 1993 to 1996, under the Australian Volunteers Abroad program operated by the Overseas Service Bureau, Australia's oldest international volunteer-sending organisation. Dick assisted in the Office of the Attorney-General during his time in Tuvalu as Crown Counsel and as the acting Attorney-General of Tuvalu for one year, he is a former ex officio Attorney-General of the Pacific Island nation of Tuvalu. Dick was a solicitor at Crown Law, the Queensland Government's legal office, a senior advisor in the Queensland Government, before becoming a barrister in 2006.
He practised law prior to his election to the Queensland Parliament. Dick was elected as the Member for Greenslopes in the Queensland Parliament at the 2009 Queensland state election. Queensland Premier Anna Bligh asked him to serve as the Attorney-General and Minister for Industrial Relations, he was sworn in as Attorney-General and Minister for Industrial Relations on 26 March 2009. On 21 February 2011 he was sworn in as Minister for Industrial Relations, he lost his seat at the 2012 state election. He gained a new seat, Woodridge, at the 2015 state election, did so with the largest two-party preferred vote of any party in any electorate of Queensland. On 16 February 2015, Dick was sworn in as Minister for Health and Minister for Ambulance Services in the Palaszczuk Ministry. On 12 December 2017, Dick was sworn in as Minister for State Development, Manufacturing and Planning in the second Palaszczuk Ministry. Alongside Queensland Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk and representatives from the Australian Government, including Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Dick was part of the announcement on 14 March 2018 that Rheinmetall Defence Australia would be awarded the $5 billion LAND 400 contract to build and service up to 5000 military vehicles in Queensland.
Regarding the decision, Dick called the "landmark project" an "economic game-changer" that will create "450 advanced manufacturing and engineering jobs for Queenslanders" and "pump $1 billion into the state’s economy" in its first ten years of operation. Following this, Rheinmetall selected Redbank, near Ipswich, as the location for its $170 million Military Vehicle Centre of Excellence; the first sod was turned at the facility 16 November 2018, with Queensland referenced as "Australia's khaki state". Dick was in attendance to press the launch button for Australia's first commercial payload rocket flight on 21 November 2018; the five-metre rocket was developed by Queensland-based BlackSky Aerospace and launched into the sky from a farm in Tarawara, west of Goondiwindi. Dick said that the launch – which saw the rocket reach the same height of Mount Everest – showed the possibilities for developing a space industry in Queensland, he added that the state wanted to promote its aerospace capabilities to national and international markets, that this launch was a substantial step forward in achieving that aim.
Dick is married and has two sons
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. A modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries; the term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, is used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems where it is not in the official name. Parliaments included various kinds of deliberative and judicial assemblies, e.g. mediaeval parlements. The English term is derived from Anglo-Norman and dates to the 14th century, coming from the 11th century Old French parlement, from parler, meaning "to talk"; the meaning evolved over time referring to any discussion, conversation, or negotiation through various kinds of deliberative or judicial groups summoned by a monarch.
By the 15th century, in Britain, it had come to mean the legislature. Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders; this is called tribalism. Some scholars suggest that in ancient Mesopotamia there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council; the same has been said about ancient India, where some form of deliberative assemblies existed, therefore there was some form of democracy. However, these claims are not accepted by most scholars, who see these forms of government as oligarchies. Ancient Athens was the cradle of democracy; the Athenian assembly was the most important institution, every free male citizen could take part in the discussions. Slaves and women could not. However, Athenian democracy was not representative, but rather direct, therefore the ekklesia was different from the parliamentary system; the Roman Republic had legislative assemblies, who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new statutes, the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, the creation of alliances.
The Roman Senate controlled money and the details of foreign policy. Some Muslim scholars argue. However, others highlight what they consider fundamental differences between the shura system and the parliamentary system. Although there are documented councils held in 873, 1020, 1050 and 1063, there was no representation of commoners. What is considered to be the first parliament, the Cortes of León, was held in the Kingdom of León in 1188. According to the UNESCO, the Decreta of Leon of 1188 is the oldest documentary manifestation of the European parliamentary system. In addition, UNESCO granted the 1188 Cortes of Alfonso IX the title of "Memory of the World" and the city of Leon has been recognized as the "Cradle of Parliamentarism". After coming to power, King Alfonso IX, facing an attack by his two neighbors and Portugal, decided to summon the "Royal Curia"; this was a medieval organisation composed of aristocrats and bishops but because of the seriousness of the situation and the need to maximise political support, Alfonso IX took the decision to call the representatives of the urban middle class from the most important cities of the kingdom to the assembly.
León's Cortes dealt with matters like the right to private property, the inviolability of domicile, the right to appeal to justice opposite the King and the obligation of the King to consult the Cortes before entering a war. Prelates and commoners met separately in the three estates of the Cortes. In this meeting new laws were approved to protect commoners against the arbitrarities of nobles and the king; this important set of laws is known as the Carta Magna Leonesa. Following this event, new Cortes would appear in the other different territories that would make up Spain: Principality of Catalonia in 1192, the Kingdom of Castile in 1250, Kingdom of Aragon in 1274, Kingdom of Valencia in 1283 and Kingdom of Navarre in 1300. After the union of the Kingdoms of Leon and Castile under the Crown of Castile, their Cortes were united as well in 1258; the Castilian Cortes had representatives from Burgos, Toledo, León, Seville, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Segovia, Ávila, Cuenca, Valladolid, Madrid and Granada.
The Cortes' assent was required to pass new taxes, could advise the king on other matters. The comunero rebels intended a stronger role for the Cortes, but were defeated by the forces of Habsburg Emperor Charles V in 1521; the Cortes maintained some power, though it became more of a consultative entity. However, by the time of King Philip II, Charles's son, the Castilian Cortes had come under functionally complete royal control, with its delegates dependent on the Crown for their income; the Cortes of the Crown of Aragon kingdoms retained their power to control the king's spending with regard to the finances of those kingdoms. But after the War of the Spanish Succession and the victory of another royal house – the Bourbons – and King Philip V, their Cortes were suppressed. Claims that Spain was united under the Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century are belied by these facts.