A misdemeanor is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are punished less than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions and regulatory offences. Many misdemeanors are punished with monetary fines. A misdemeanor is considered a crime of low seriousness, a felony one of high seriousness. A principle of the rationale for the degree of punishment meted out is that the punishment should fit the crime. One standard for measurement is the degree. Measurements of the degree of seriousness of a crime have been developed. In the United States, the federal government considers a crime punishable with incarceration for one year or less to be a misdemeanor. All other crimes are considered felonies. Many states employ the same or a similar distinction; the distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has been abolished by several common law jurisdictions. These jurisdictions have adopted some other classification: in the Commonwealth nations of Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the crimes are divided into summary offences and indictable offences.
The Republic of Ireland, a former member of the Commonwealth uses these divisions. In the United States if a criminal charge for the defendant's conduct is a misdemeanor, sometimes a repeat offender will be charged with a felony offense. For example, the first time a person commits certain crimes, such as spousal assault, it is a misdemeanor, but the second time it may become a felony. In some jurisdictions, those who are convicted of a misdemeanor are known as misdemeanants. Depending on the jurisdiction, examples of misdemeanors may include: petty theft, public intoxication, simple assault, disorderly conduct, vandalism, reckless driving, discharging a firearm within city limits, possession of cannabis and in some jurisdictions first-time possession of certain other drugs, other similar crimes. Misdemeanors do not result in the loss of civil rights, but may result in loss of privileges, such as professional licenses, public offices, or public employment; such effects are known as the collateral consequences of criminal charges.
This is more common when the misdemeanor is related to the privilege in question, or when the misdemeanor involves moral turpitude—and in general is evaluated on a case-by-case basis. In the United States, misdemeanors are crimes with a maximum punishment of 12 months of incarceration in a local jail as contrasted with felons, who are incarcerated in a prison. Jurisdictions such as Massachusetts are a notable exception where the maximum punishment of some misdemeanors is up to 2.5 years. People who are convicted of misdemeanors are punished with probation, community service, short jail term, or part-time incarceration such as a sentence that may be served on the weekends; the United States Constitution provides that the President may be impeached and subsequently removed from office if found guilty by Congress for "high crimes and misdemeanors". As used in the Constitution, the term misdemeanor refers broadly to criminal acts as opposed to employing the felony-misdemeanor distinction used in modern criminal codes.
The definition of what constitutes a "high crime" or "misdemeanor" for purposes of impeachment is left to the judgment of Congress. In Singapore, misdemeanors are sentenced to months of jail sentence but with individual crimes suspects are sentenced to a harsher sentence; the penalty of vandalism is a fine not exceeding S$2,000 or imprisonment not exceeding three years, corporal punishment of not less than three strokes and not more than eight strokes of the cane. Depending on the jurisdiction, several classes of misdemeanors may exist. For example, the federal and some state governments in the United States divide misdemeanors into several classes, with certain classes punishable by jail time and others carrying only a fine. In New York law, a Class A Misdemeanor carries a maximum sentence of one year of imprisonment, while a Class B Misdemeanor "shall not exceed three months". In the United States, when a statute does not specify the class of a misdemeanor, it may be referred to as an unclassified misdemeanor.
Legislators enact such laws when they wish to impose penalties that fall outside the framework specified by each class. For example, Virginia has four classes of misdemeanors, with Class 1 and Class 2 misdemeanors being punishable by twelve-month and six-month jail sentences and Class 3 and Class 4 misdemeanors being non-jail offenses payable by fines. First-time cannabis possession is an unclassified misdemeanor in Virginia punishable by up to 30 days in jail rather than the normal fines and jail sentences of the four classes. New York has three classes of misdemeanor: A, B, Unclassified. All distinctions between felony and misdemeanour were abolished by section 1 of the Criminal Law Act 1967. Prior to this, a person prosecuted for misdemeanour was called a defendant. Convicted felon Federal crime Felony Indictable offence Infraction Misdemeanor murder Summary offence The dictionary definition of misdemeanor at Wiktionary
San Joaquin County, California
San Joaquin County the County of San Joaquin is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306; the county seat is Stockton. San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton–Lodi–Tracy metropolitan statistical area within the regional San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland combined statistical area; the county is located in Northern California's Central Valley just east of the highly populated nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region and is separated from the Bay Area by the Diablo Range of low mountains with its Altamont Pass. One of the smaller counties in area in California, it has a high population density and is growing due to overflow from the Bay area's need for housing; the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the county was named for the San Joaquin River. In the early 19th century Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga, commanding an expedition in the lower great California Central Valley, gave the name of San Joaquin to the San Joaquin River, which springs from the southern Sierra Nevada.
San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valley's first permanent residence. Between 1843 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, five Mexican land grants were made in what would become San Joaquin County: Campo de los Franceses, Pescadero, Sanjon de los Moquelumnes and Thompson, it was developed for agriculture. It attracted more settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush; the Central Pacific Railroad in the 1860s utilized San Joaquin County's exceptionally flat terrain to construct a rail line from Sacramento to Stockton and southwest through Altamont Pass to the San Francisco Bay. In 1909, a second railroad, the Western Pacific, utilized the same route through Stockton to reach the Bay area. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe Railroad constructed from Bakersfield and Fresno through Stockton north to reach Oakland. Smaller lines constructed at Stockton were the Tidewater Southern to Modesto and the Central California Traction to Sacramento.
Both started. These railroads encouraged the growth of farms and ranches in San Joaquin county and adjacent counties. On August 7, 1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Royster's Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd; the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a better way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out; the cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,426 square miles, of which 1,391 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water; the county has a low inland elevation and a flat drainage basin for the San Joaquin River and its numerous tributaries. With the resulting exceptionally high water table, the county is a marshy and swampy delta with a tendency to flood in the Spring melting snow runoff from the Sierra Mountains.
The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54'N 121°12'W. San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306; the racial makeup of San Joaquin County was 349,287 White, 51,744 African American, 7,196 Native American, 98,472 Asian, 3,758 Pacific Islander, 131,054 from other races, 43,795 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons; the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people, 181,629 households, 134,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at an average density of 135 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.1% White, 6.7% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 11.4% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 16.3% from other races, 6.1% from two or more races.
30.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.3% were of German, 5.3% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66.4% spoke English, 21.3% Spanish, 2.2% Tagalog, 1.8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian, 1.1% Vietnamese and 1.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 181,629 households out of which 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,282, the median income for a family was $46,919.
Males had a median income of $39,246 versus $27,507 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,365. About 13.5% of families and 17.7% of the population were below th
Government of Los Angeles
The Government of Los Angeles operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Los Angeles. The elected government is composed of the Los Angeles City Council with 15 city council districts and the Mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as several other elective offices; the current mayor is Eric Garcetti, the current City Attorney is Mike Feuer and the current City Controller is Ron Galperin. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Fire Department, the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the Los Angeles Public Library, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; the government of the city of Los Angeles includes the following city officers: Mayor Members of the Council City Attorney City Clerk Controller Treasurer The members of the boards or commissions of the departments and the chief administrative officer of each department and office An Executive Director of the Board of Police Commissioners Other officers as prescribed by ordinance The Mayor of Los Angeles is the chief executive officer of the city.
The officeholder is elected for a four-year term, limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Eric Garcetti. The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of Los Angeles; the council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms and limited to three terms. The president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting after June 30 in odd-numbered years. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the president; the current president of the Los Angeles City Council is Herb Wesson, the president pro tempore is Mitchell Englander and the assistant president pro tempore is Nury Martinez. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution; the Los Angeles Police Department polices the city of Los Angeles.
It is governed by the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners and the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. The city maintains specialized police agencies; the Los Angeles General Services Police, which provided police coverage for Los Angeles city owned property and parks was absorbed into the LAPD in 2012. The Los Angeles Unified School District maintains it own separate police department, as do many other school districts and college campuses within the city; the Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils; the Los Angeles City Attorney is an elected official whose job is legal counsel for the city and may prosecute misdemeanor criminal offenses within the city.
The Los Angeles City Clerk is in charge of record keeping for elections. The Los Angeles City Controller is the elected chief accounting officer of the city; the Los Angeles City Treasurer handles financial matters. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the: Los Angeles City Clerk Economic & Workforce Development Department Office of Finance Los Angeles Fire Department Los Angeles Housing + Community Investment Department Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Los Angeles Port Police Los Angeles Public Library Department of Recreation and Parks Los Angeles Department of Transportation Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners The most recent elections were in May 2013, with 13th district City Councilman Eric Garcetti defeating City Controller Wendy Greuel for Mayor; the voter turnout was about 19% of registered voters, one of the lowest turnouts on record, with Garcetti garnering about 54% of the votes.
The Charter of the City of Los Angeles is the founding document of Los Angeles. Pursuant to its Charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance subject to a veto by the Mayor. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Administrative Code, consisting of administrative and procedural ordinances, the Municipal Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction and may be prosecuted by city authorities; the Los Angeles Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system. The courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the stat
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law; the prosecutor represents the government in the case brought against the accused person. Prosecutors are lawyers who possess a law degree, are recognized as legal professionals by the court in which they intend to represent society, they only become involved in a criminal case once a suspect has been identified and charges need to be filed. They are employed by an office of the government, with safeguards in place to ensure such an office can pursue the prosecution of government officials. Multiple offices exist in a single country in those countries with federal governments where sovereignty has been bifurcated or devolved in some way. Since prosecutors are backed by the power of the state, they are subject to special professional responsibility rules in addition to those binding all lawyers.
For example, in the United States, Rule 3.8 of the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct requires prosecutors to "make timely disclosure to the defense of all evidence or information that tends to negate the guilt of the accused or mitigates the offense." Not all U. S. states adopt the model rules. S. Supreme Court cases and other appellate cases have ruled. Typical sources of ethical requirements imposed on prosecutors come from appellate court opinions, state or federal court rules, state or federal statutes. In Australia, Canada and Wales, Hong Kong, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Trinidad & Tobago and South Africa, the head of the prosecuting authority is known as the Director of Public Prosecutions, is appointed, not elected. A DPP may be subject to varying degrees of control by the Attorney General by a formal written directive which must be published. In Australia, the Offices of the Director of Public Prosecutions institute prosecutions for indictable offences on behalf of the Crown.
At least in the case of serious matters, the DPP will be asked by the police, during the course of the investigation, to advise them on sufficiency of evidence, may well be asked, if he or she thinks it proper, to prepare an application to the relevant court for search, listening device or telecommunications interception warrants. More recent constitutions, such as South Africa's, tend to guarantee the independence and impartiality of the DPP. Prosecutors in Australia come in a few distinct species. Prosecutors of minor criminal cases in lower courts, are Police Sergeants with a traineeship in prosecution and advocacy lasting appoximately 1 year in duration, although they may hold law degrees. Crown Prosecutors are always lawyers, barristers, they represent the state or Commonwealth in serious criminal cases in higher courts, County Court and above. Aside from Police prosecutors and Crown prosecutors, government agencies have the authority to appoint non-lawyers to prosecute on their behalf, such as the RSPCA Inspectors.
In Canada, public prosecutors in most provinces are called Crown Counsel. They are appointed by the provincial Attorney-General. Though Scots law is a mixed system, its civil law jurisdiction indicates its civil law heritage. Here, all prosecutions are carried out by Procurators Fiscal and Advocates Depute on behalf of the Lord Advocate, and, in theory, they can direct investigations by the police. In serious cases, a Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute or the Lord Advocate, may take charge of a police investigation, it is at the discretion of the Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute, or Lord Advocate to take a prosecution to court, to decide on whether or not to prosecute it under solemn procedure or summary procedure. Other remedies are open to a prosecutor in Scotland, including fiscal fines and non-court based interventions, such as rehabilitation and social work. All prosecutions are handled within the Crown Procurator Fiscal Service. Procurators fiscal will refer cases involving minors to Children's Hearings, which are not courts of law, but a panel of lay members empowered to act in the interests of the child.
In the United States, the director of a prosecution office may be known by any of several names depending on the jurisdiction, most District Attorney. In Commonwealth states, like Virginia, they are known as Commonwealth's Attorney The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual or a corporation suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings; the titles of prosecutors in state courts vary from state to state and level of government and include the terms District Attorney in New York, Texas, Delaware, North Carolina, Nevada, Wisconsin and Oklahoma.
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States. It is a federal aid program, administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, under the Food and Nutrition Service, though benefits are distributed by each U. S. state's Division of Children and Family Services. SNAP benefits supplied 40 million Americans in 2018. 9.2% of American households obtained SNAP benefits at some point during 2017, with 16.7% of all children living in households with SNAP benefits. Beneficiaries and costs increased with the Great Recession, peaked in 2013 and have declined through 2017 as the economy recovered, it is the largest nutrition program of the 15 administered by FNS and is a key component of the social safety net for low-income Americans. The amount of SNAP benefits received by a household depends on the household's size and expenses. For most of its history, the program used paper-denominated "stamps" or coupons – worth $1, $5, $10 – bound into booklets of various denominations, to be torn out individually and used in single-use exchange.
Because of their 1:1 value ratio with actual currency, the coupons were printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Their rectangular shape resembled a U. S. dollar bill, including intaglio printing on high-quality paper with watermarks. In the late 1990s, the Food Stamp Program was revamped, with some states phasing out actual stamps in favor of a specialized debit card system known as Electronic Benefit Transfer, provided by private contractors. EBT has been implemented in all states since June 2004; each month, SNAP benefits are directly deposited into the household's EBT card account. Households may use EBT to pay for food at supermarkets, convenience stores, other food retailers, including certain farmers' markets; the idea for the first food stamp program has been credited to various people, most notably Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace and the program's first administrator, Milo Perkins. Of the program, Perkins said, "We got a picture of a gorge, with farm surpluses on one cliff and under-nourished city folks with outstretched hands on the other.
We set out to find a practical way to build a bridge across that chasm." The program operated by permitting people on relief to buy orange stamps equal to their normal food expenditures. Orange stamps could be used to buy any food. Over the course of nearly four years, the first FSP reached 20 million people in nearly half of the counties in the United States at a total cost of $262 million. At its peak, the program assisted an estimated four million people; the first recipient was Mabel McFiggin of New York. The program ended when the conditions that brought the program into being—unmarketable food surpluses and widespread unemployment—ceased to exist; the 18 years between the end of the first FSP and the inception of the next were filled with studies and legislative proposals. Prominent US senators associated with attempts to enact a food stamp program during this period included George Aiken, Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Hubert Humphrey, Estes Kefauver, Stuart Symington. From 1954 on, US Representative Leonor Sullivan strove to pass food-stamp program legislation.
On September 21, 1959, P. L. 86-341 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to operate a food-stamp system through January 31, 1962. The Eisenhower Administration never used the authority. However, in fulfillment of a campaign promise made in West Virginia, President John F. Kennedy's first Executive Order called for expanded food distribution and, on February 2, 1961, he announced that food stamp pilot programs would be initiated; the pilot programs would retain the requirement that the food stamps be purchased, but eliminated the concept of special stamps for surplus foods. A Department spokesman indicated. Of the program, US Representative Leonor K. Sullivan of Missouri asserted, "...the Department of Agriculture seemed bent on outlining a possible food stamp plan of such scope and magnitude, involving some 25 million persons, as to make the whole idea seem ridiculous and tear food stamp plans to smithereens." The Food Stamp Act of 1964 appropriated $75 million to 350,000 individuals in 40 counties and three cities.
The measure drew overwhelming support from House Democrats, 90 percent from urban areas, 96 percent from the suburbs, 87 percent from rural areas. Republican lawmakers opposed the initial measure: only 12 percent of urban Republicans, 11 percent from the suburbs, 5 percent from rural areas voted affirmatively. President Lyndon B. Johnson hailed food stamps as "a realistic and responsible step toward the fuller and wiser use of an agricultural abundance". Rooted in congressional logrolling, the act was part of a larger appropriation that raised price supports for cotton and wheat. Rural lawmakers supported the program so that their urban colleagues would not dismantle farm subsidies. Food stamps, along with Medicaid/Medicare, Head Start, the Job Corps, were foremost among the growing anti-poverty programs. President Johnson called for a permanent food-stamp program on January 31, 1964, as part of his "War on Poverty" platform introduced at the State of the Union a few weeks earlier. Ag
Government of Los Angeles County
The Government of Los Angeles County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Los Angeles. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments, such as the Government of Los Angeles County; the County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services. In addition the County serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas, it is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor, numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the chief executive officer. Some chartered cities such as Los Angeles and Inglewood provide municipal services such as police, libraries and recreation, zoning. Other cities arrange to have the County provide all of these services under contract.
In addition, several entities of the government of California have jurisdiction coterminous with Los Angeles County, such as the Los Angeles Superior Court Los Angeles County is the most populous county in the United States, the largest municipal government in the nation. If the County were a state, it would be the 9th most populous state in the United States, in between Georgia and North Carolina; the County has an annual budget of over $28.2 billion, equal to combined budgets of Indiana and Delaware. The county government employs over 100,000 people, making it larger than the government workforces of most US states. Under its foundational Charter, the five-member elected Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the county legislature; the board operates in a legislative and quasi-judicial capacity. As a legislative authority, it can pass ordinances for the unincorporated areas; as an executive body, it can tell the county departments what to do, how to do it. As a quasi-judicial body, the Board is the final venue of appeal in the local planning process, holds public hearings on various agenda items.
These were the board members as of 5 December 2016: Hilda Solis, district 1 Mark Ridley-Thomas, district 2 Sheila Kuehl, district 3 Janice Hahn, district 4 Kathryn Barger, district 5A local nickname sometimes used for the board is the "five little kings." In addition to the board of supervisors, there are several elected officers that form the Government of Los Angeles County that are required by the California Constitution and California law and authorized under the Charter. The Los Angeles County Sheriff provides general-service law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County, serving as the equivalent of the county police for unincorporated areas of the county as well as incorporated cities within the county that have contracted with the agency for law enforcement. Of the 88 cities in Los Angeles County, 40 are just such "contract cities," in an arrangement pioneered in 1954 by the city of Lakewood and known as the Lakewood Plan; the Los Angeles County District Attorney prosecutes all felony crimes that occur anywhere within Los Angeles County, any misdemeanor crimes that occur within the unincorporated areas of the county, for any city that has abdicated this responsibility to the county.
The City of Los Angeles, for example, has its own city attorney to handle most misdemeanor crimes and infractions the occurred within the City of Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Assessor is the assessor responsible for discovering all taxable property in Los Angeles County except for state-assessed property and inventorying and listing all the taxable property, valuing the property, enrolling the property on the local assessment roll; the Chief Executive Officer known the chief administrative officer, assists the board of supervisors in handling the mounting administrative details of the county and coordinating between departments. From 2007 to 2015, the CEO had direct supervision over 31 of the 37 departments while the other departments did not report to the CEO. Prior to 2007 and from 2015 and following, the CEO provides an strategic coordination and support role. Departments submit recommendations and action items directly to the Board offices without CEO input required, are fired and hired directly by the board, with the CEO providing administrative support in negotiating department head salaries and facilitating communications between departments when necessary.
Board offices felt that the CEO added bureaucracy and that the additional deputy and assistant CEOs added little value. Other tasks given to the CEO include preparation and control of the annual budget in consultation with departments, providing leadership and direction for Board-sponsored initiatives and priorities and advocacy of state and federal legislation; the CEO's office administers the risk management and insurance programs, facilitates departments addressing unincorporated area issues and international protocol issues, manages the County's employee relations program and compensation/classification systems, represents the board in labor negotiations, monitors cable television com