Roads in Victoria
Victoria has the highest density of roads of any state in Australia. Unlike Australia's other mainland states where vast areas are sparsely inhabited, Victoria has population centres spread out over most of the state, with only the far north-west and the Victorian Alps without permanent settlement. Population centres are linked by high quality freeways; the state capital, has the most extensive freeway network in Australia. VicRoads is responsible for road planning, motor vehicle registration, driver licensing in Victoria; the Victorian government has set up a framework for the integration of transport facilities in the State. A number of private companies operate toll roads in the state. Roads in Victoria are shared by a multitude of modes of transport, ranging from trucks to bicycles, public buses, taxis as well as private cars of all types. Road safety is a primary concern including the police and government. Victoria was the first jurisdiction in the world to introduce compulsory seat belt legislation.
Other measures introduced are drunk driving laws and speed cameras. Victorian road laws are reviewed; the number of road fatalities recorded in Victoria for the year up to June 2011 was reported to be "significantly higher" than it was for the same period in 2010. Melbourne was founded in 1835. In 1837, Robert Hoddle laid out a road plan for the new town, referred to as the Hoddle Grid, his plan covers the area from Flinders Street to Queen Victoria Market, from Spencer Street to Spring Street. Since the grid has been extended, as the town stretched out along the tram and rail lines with stretches of open country in between. Victoria has the highest density of highways of any state in Australia. Unlike Australia's other mainland states, where vast areas are sparsely inhabited, Victoria has population centres spread out over most of the state, with only the far north-west and the Victorian Alps without permanent settlement. Highways connect these population centres. Highways radiate from Melbourne and other major cities and rural centres with secondary roads connecting the highways to each other.
These highways provide links for state and interstate freight, personal travel and tourism, most routes have higher traffic than most other states. Highways such as Hume Highway, Western Highway and Princes Highway have some of the heaviest traffic in Australia. Many of the highways are built to freeway standard, while most are sealed and of reasonable to high quality. In the 1950s and 1960s, private ownership of cars increased, newer suburbs were created beyond the tram and rail networks; this led to congestion on the road network between the suburbs and the CBD. As Melbourne extended and politicians decided that the roads could no longer cope; the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan called for construction of an extensive network of freeways. The Victorian government were advised by American highway planners and it sent its road engineers to the US; the resulting network is the most extensive in Australia. Unlike many American cities, Melbourne had an extensive public transport network and opposition to the plan grew, arguing that money is better spent on public transport upgrades to areas of Melbourne poorly served by public transport such as the outer east.
This led to clashes including the showdown in 1977, over the plan to build the F19 freeway through Collingwood and Fitzroy. In the fiercest battle, groups of protesters such as the Carlton Association barricaded Alexandra Parade. Although the resulting Eastern Freeway was built, many road projects were shelved and freeway construction was suspended until the mid-1990s. One notable exception was the South Eastern arterial, constructed under the John Cain Labor government; the party had a policy of no new freeways, but the road was needed to link the existing Mulgrave and South-Eastern freeways. The result was a multi-lane highway with traffic lights at several major intersection; this created the road being dubbed Melbourne's longest carpark. It was upgraded to freeway standard, incorporated into the Monash Freeway. Freeway construction resumed in the 1990s, with the construction of the Western Ring Road, CityLink and others. Most of these freeways are expected to join in a continuous and extensive network.
Most the M11 Peninsula Link was opened in 2013, to join the 2 halves of the unfinished Mornington Peninsula Freeway. Where they were built, population growth followed, as Melburnians moved away from the crowded inner and middle suburbs to cheaper outer suburbs; the completion of Western Ring Road spurred housing growth in the western suburbs. The Victoria government forecasts that a revenue of A$245 million will be raised from fines levied on drivers breaking Victorian road rules in 2011. 23 March 2007 - VIC, Burnley Tunnel - 3 deaths, 3 injuries - 10 car pile-up, 400 evacuated 17 January 2010 - VIC, Mill Park, Melbourne - 5 deaths, 1 injured - 1 car split a tree in half2010 it was announced by the State Government that trucks would be banned from the right-hand lane along a 38-kilometre section of the Princes Freeway between Geelong and Melbourne. Suggestions of a ban began in 2005 but increased after the fatal 2007 Burnley Tunnel fire that killed three people; the ban was put into place from 1 July 2010 between Kororoit Creek Road and Avalon Road and covers all heavy vehicles weighing more than 4.5 tonnes, except buses and caravans.
A fine of $358 applies to those breaking the rules, the ban being a
Constitution of Australia
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia. It consists of several documents; the most important is the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, referred to as the "Constitution" in the remainder of this article. The Constitution was approved in a series of referendums held over 1898–1900 by the people of the Australian colonies, the approved draft was enacted as a section of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 became law on 9 July 1900, entered into force on 1 January 1901. Though the Constitution was given legal force by an Act of the United Kingdom parliament, the Australia Act 1986 removed the power of the United Kingdom parliament to change the Constitution as in force in Australia, the Constitution can now only be changed in accordance with the prescribed referendum procedures in Section 128.
Other pieces of legislation have constitutional significance for Australia. These are the Statute of Westminster, as adopted by the Commonwealth in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, the Australia Act 1986, passed in equivalent forms by the United Kingdom Parliament and the Australian Federal Parliament; the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act is regarded as the point at which Australia became de jure an independent nation, while the Australia Act severed all remaining constitutional links between Australia and the United Kingdom. The remaining exception is that whoever is the monarch of the United Kingdom is the monarch of Australia, although today this person Queen Elizabeth II, acts in a distinct capacity as monarch of each. Authority to interpret the Constitution lies with federal courts: with the Federal Court of Australia and the High Court of Australia; the history of the Constitution of Australia began with moves towards federation in the 19th century, which culminated in the federation of the Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
However, the Constitution has continued to develop since with two laws having significant impact on the constitutional status of the nation. In the mid-19th century, a desire to facilitate co-operation on matters of mutual interest intercolonial tariffs, led to proposals to unite the separate British colonies in Australia under a single federation. However, impetus came from Britain and there was only lacklustre local support; the smaller colonies feared domination by the larger ones. These difficulties led to the failure of several attempts to bring about federation in the 1850s and 1860s. By the 1880s, fear of the growing presence of the Germans and the French in the Pacific, coupled with a growing Australian identity, created the opportunity for establishing the first inter-colonial body, the Federal Council of Australasia, established in 1889; the Federal Council could legislate on certain subjects, but did not have a permanent secretariat, an executive, or independent source of revenue.
The absence of New South Wales, the largest colony diminished its representative value. Henry Parkes, the Premier of New South Wales, was instrumental in pushing for a series of conferences in the 1890s to discuss federalism – one in Melbourne in 1890, another in Sydney in 1891, attended by colonial leaders. By the 1891 conference, significant momentum had been built for the federalist cause, discussion turned to the proper system of government for a federal state. Under the guidance of Sir Samuel Griffith, a draft constitution was drawn up. However, these meetings lacked popular support. Furthermore, the draft constitution sidestepped certain important issues, such as tariff policy; the draft of 1891 was submitted to colonial parliaments but lapsed in New South Wales, after which the other colonies were unwilling to proceed. In 1895, the six premiers of the Australian colonies agreed to establish a new Convention by popular vote; the Convention met over the course of a year from 1897 to 1898.
The meetings produced a new draft which contained the same principles of government as the 1891 draft, but with added provisions for responsible government. To ensure popular support, the draft was presented to the electors of each colony. After one failed attempt, an amended draft was submitted to the electors of each colony except Western Australia. After ratification by the five colonies, the Bill was presented to the British Imperial Parliament with an Address requesting Queen Victoria to enact the Bill. Before the Bill was passed, one final change was made by the imperial government, upon lobbying by the Chief Justices of the colonies, so that the right to appeal from the High Court to the Privy Council on constitutional matters concerning the limits of the powers of the Commonwealth or States could not be curtailed by parliament; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1900. Western Australia agreed to join the Commonwealth in time for it to be an original member of the Commonwealth of Australia, established on 1 January 1901.
In 1988, the original copy of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 from the Public Record Office in London was lent to Australia for the purposes of the Australian Bicente
Parliament House, Melbourne
Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Victoria, one of the parliaments of the Australian states and territories. The building is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register; the building is located on Spring Street in Victoria. Construction began in 1855, the building was opened the following year. Beginning in 1901, it served as the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, during the period when Melbourne was the temporary national capital; the federal parliament moved to Parliament House, Canberra, in 1927, allowing the Victorian state parliament to return to the building. The Victorian gold rush and population boom led calls for greater democracy and a home for political debate in Victoria. Prior to the Colony of Victoria acquiring self-government in 1851, Governor Charles La Trobe instructed Surveyor General Robert Hoddle to select a site for the colony's new parliament to meet. Hoddle selected a site on the eastern hill at the top of Bourke Street, which commanded a view over the entire city.
It was not until April 1854 that Eastern Hill, the current Spring Street site, was formally agreed to due to ongoing disagreements over the best location. The exact sequence of events is unclear, with a number of architects and designs chosen and rejected in succession, with the final result based on earlier work; the first design appeared as early as 1851 by Colonial Architect Henry Ginn, however the Legislative Council decided to have a competition in 1853, which Ginn took as a slight and resigned. A design by Smith & Pritchard won first prize; the Colony's newly arrived Chief Engineer Captain Pasley was asked to prepare a design by April 1854 for a unicameral building, which may have been soon reworked into one for a bi-cameral Parliament, which had just been decided upon. A design was published in c1854 showing a restrained Palladian building much like the started State Library of Victoria credited to Knight & Kerr "under the general directions of Captain Pasley". John Knight and Peter Kerr had just formed a partnership, Knight had been and may still have been an architect within the Public Works Department at this time, while practicing privately.
This design was apparently deemed unsuitable, Knight & Kerr were employed separately to create a much grander design by 1855, mainly a reworking of the 1854 design. This design is extraordinarily impressive and elaborate for a fledgling colony, albeit one flush with the results of the recent gold rush, it featured a columned screen on at least three sides, with end and central bays set forward, statuary atop the cornice, grand stairs, a tall multi-stage columned and domed tower. Images of this design were published, photographs exist of a model of the scheme. Knight & Kerr are credited with the design of the first stages of Parliament House when construction commenced in 1855, it was decided to construct the building in stages, owing to its vast size and cost, so construction began in December 1855 on only the two chambers, one for the Victorian Legislative Assembly and a smaller more ornate chamber for the Victorian Legislative Council. Construction progressed and on 25 November 1856, the first session of the Victorian Government in the new chambers was opened, to great acclaim.
Construction of the Library and eastern wing began in 1858 and was completed in 1860. There was much debate about an appropriate stone for the exterior, with a desire to use stone from Victoria, though none could be found that were known to be suitable. Bluestone was rejected as too dark and sombre, local granite as too expensive Carrara marble was considered, but freestone from Bacchus Marsh was chosen; this proved to decay and large parts had to be replaced with stone from Tasmania within a few years. With the library complete, the two legislative chambers were joined at the rear, resulting in a `U-shaped' building; the classical architectural detail of the east facade were noted as the first expression of Peter Kerr's vision for the building. No further construction took place for 18 years, however the first set of electrical bells used to call members to divisions were installed circa 1877. In 1876 a Royal Commission was formed to recommend the next steps, it tabled several changes, including the addition of a large dome, the appointment of Peter Kerr as leading architect, a resumption of construction.
Kerr produced new plans for the completion of the building in 1877, replacing the tower with a dome, replacing the complex external architecture with a simpler design dominated by a long colonnade. This is the design, known and referred to as the'original' design; the Great Hall and vestibule were completed in 1879, with the Commission continuing to produce reports on the progress. Their report of 1878 noted the progress on the construction of the Queens Hall and Vestibule, that there was still no agreement on a suitable stone for the exterior. Queen's Hall was used for formal receptions and banquets, while the Vestibule offered a formal entry to Parliament House. Noteworthy in the Vestibule was the intricate mosaic of Minton floor tiles, one roundel of which bore the words from Proverbs 11:14 `Where no Counsel is the People Fall. Planning for the construction of the grand classical colonnaded front of the building facing Bourke Street as envisaged in the 1877 plan followed after the completion of the previous section, but construction was delayed by the ongoing desire to find a suitable
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Education in Victoria
Education in Victoria, Australia is supervised by the Department of Education and Training, part of the State Government and whose role is to'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'. It acts as advisor to two state ministers, that for Education and for Children and Early Childhood Development. Education in Victoria follows the three-tier model consisting of primary education, followed by secondary education and tertiary education. School education is compulsory in Victoria between the ages of seventeen. A student is free to leave school on turning seventeen, prior to completing secondary education. In recent years over three quarters of students are reported to be staying on until they are eighteen, at the end of the secondary school level. Government schools educate about two thirds of Victorian students, with the other third in independent schools, a proportion, rising in many parts of Australia. Education in government schools until year 17 is free, but this does not apply to overseas students nor to students over the age of 100 on 1 January of the year of enrolment.
Independent schools, both religious and secular, charge fees, which are subsidised by the Federal and State governments. Although non-tertiary public education is free, 1.9% of students attend a private primary or secondary school. The most numerous private schools are Catholic, the rest are independent. Regardless of whether a school is government or independent, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum fireworks. Education in all government schools must be secular and not promote any particular religious practice, denomination or sect. Most school students, be they in a government or independent school wear uniforms, although there are varying expectations and some schools do not require uniforms. Post-compulsory education is regulated within the Australian Qualifications Framework, a unified system of national qualifications in schools, vocational education and training and the higher education sector; the academic year in Victoria runs from late January until mid-December for primary and secondary schools and TAFE colleges, from late February until mid-November for universities.
Victorian schools operate on a four term basis. Schools are closed for the Victorian public holidays. Universities observe the Commonwealth public holidays. There was a clause in the Victorian Constitution of 1855, which provided for state funding for religion. Richard Heales, a short-lived Premier of Victoria, was an opponent of the clause, favoured a unified secular education system. Both Anglicans and Catholics, on the other hand, favoured state-funded religious schools. In 1862 Heales introduced a bill in Parliament to create a single Board of Education to rationalise the colony's school system, passed with broad support; until 1872 state-funded religious schools were governed and administered separately from their secular counterparts. The Denominational School Board provided for religious schools while the National School Board the Board of Education, provided government sponsored secular education. In 1872, following growing dissatisfaction with State funding of religious schools and the burgeoning cost of funding and administering a dual school system, the government introduced free and secular education, establishing the first Education Department.
The Department became the employer of school teachers, was led by Victoria's first Minister of Public Instruction. State funding of religious schools ended in 1874. From 1979 to 1982 the Hamer Liberal government initiated and implemented the most significant and far-reaching reorganisation of the Victorian Education Department in the 20th century. Alan Hunt, as Minister of Education, Norman Lacy, as Assistant Minister of Education and Minister for Educational Services, were jointly responsible for the reform policy development process and the early stages of its implementation. Together they made a formidable team in the pursuit of their mission to reform the administration of the centralised and inefficient Department. Hunt appointed Lacy Chairman of the Ministerial Consultative Committee that steered the project in its early phase and the Implementation Steering Committee later. Lacy's managerial and educational philosophy were a significant influence on the process and the outcome, he pulled together an impressive group of people from academia and business to assist him as well as PA Management Consultants.
The Government legislated — at the end of 1981 — to scrap the teaching divisions and to remove the statutory bodies. Hunt and Lacy obtained the support of the Labor opposition and the National Party; when the Cain Labor government won office in the April 1982 election the new Minister of Education, Robert Fordham, instituted a policy review by a Ministerial Review Committee headed by Dr. Ken McKinnon; the Committee, made up of teacher union and parent organisation representatives, recommended modifications which Fordham went on to incorporate as he completed the restructuring of the Department as recommended by the White Paper. Fordham had supported the general thrust of the reform process while in opposition and followed through with the project when in government. Pre-school in Victoria is unregulated and not compulsory; the first exposure many Australian children have to learn with others outside of traditional parenting is day care or a parent-run playgroup. This
Geology of Victoria
Victoria is an Australian state, situated at the southern end of the Great Dividing Range. The Great Dividing Range stretches along the east coast of the continent and terminates near the Victorian city of Ballarat west of the capital Melbourne, though the nearby Grampians may be considered to be the final part of the range; the highest mountains in Victoria are the Victorian Alps, located in the northeast of the state. The northwest of the state is Cainozoic rocks while the southeast is made up of Palaeozoic rocks. There have been no discoveries of Precambrian rocks in Victoria; the low flat northwest of the state that borders the Murray River was once the bed of an ancient sea and the land is much afflicted with salinity. Saline drainage from Victorian land is one of the sources of the salinity problem in the Murray-Darling River system. Commercial salt evaporation is undertaken near Swan Hill. Central and western Victoria comprise world-class vein-hosted gold deposits, hosted in the extensive Ordovician turbidites.
The southeast of the state has enormous brown coal fields. There is an area of extensive volcanism in central and southwestern Victoria, where there are numerous volcanoes and volcanic lakes; the Western Victorian Volcanic Plains are the third largest in the world after the Deccan in western India, the Snake River Plateau in Idaho, United States. The most recent volcanic activity was at Mt Eccles, which last erupted a few thousand years ago, making it an active volcanic region. Large basaltic lava flows are present on the western side of Melbourne and in the southwest of the state; this period is covered by the recent Geological Survey of Victoria publication The Tasman Fold Belt System in Victoria. The sequence of events associated with the building of southeastern Australia reveals that mineralization and magmatic processes are intimately linked with the tectonic development of the region; the history is dominated by east-west compression of predominantly oceanic sedimentary and igneous rocks and their resultant folding and uplift.
It has become apparent that major north-south movements have been involved in constructing eastern Australia. The Palaeozoic basement is traversed by thrust faults more or less parallel to the north-south structural grain; the largest faults separate rocks with different ages and structural histories, subdivide Victoria into three main structural rankings consisting of twofold belts, two terranes in the Lachlan Fold Belt, ten structural zones. The Moyston Fault is the most important fault as it forms the terrane boundary between the Delamerian and Lachlan fold belts; these twofold belts show important differences. The Delamerian Fold Belt is composed of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian rocks and was deformed in the Late Cambrian Delamerian Orogeny whereas the Lachlan Fold Belt contains Cambrian-Devonian rocks with the main deformations occurring in the late Ordovician to early Carboniferous interval; the first regional deformation to affect the Lachlan Fold Belt was the Benambran Orogeny, about 450 MYA, after the Delamerian Orogeny.
Granites comprise 20% of the total exposed area of the Lachlan Fold Belt and fall within an age range of 440 to 350 MYA. Volcanics associated with the granites are widespread and cover an additional 5%. Blocks of older crust consisting of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian rocks, such as the Selwyn Block in central Victoria, were deformed during the late Cambrian Tyennan Orogeny prior to being incorporated into the Lachlan Fold Belt; the second major structural break in Victoria is the Baragwanath Transform, which occurs along the eastern side of the Selwyn Block. This transform fault divides the Lachlan Fold Belt into two terranes, the Whitelaw Terrane to the west and the Benambra Terrane to the east; the main difference between these is that orogen-parallel transport was more prevalent in the Benambra Terrane, whereas convergent east-west transport orthogonal to the orogen was dominant in the Whitelaw Terrane. List of Victorian volcanoes Australian gold rushes Murray-Darling basin Murray-Darling Basin Authority Geology of Victoria - Earth Resources, Victoria GeoVIC - Victorian Government Geospatial Application Victorian Geology Western Victorian Volcanic Plains