The Territory of Iowa was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1838, until December 28, 1846, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Iowa. The remainder of the territory would have no organized territorial government until the Minnesota Territory was organized on March 3, 1849. Most of the area in the territory was part of the Louisiana Purchase and was a part of the Missouri Territory; when Missouri became a state in 1821, this area became unorganized territory. The area was closed to white settlers until the 1830s, it was attached to the Michigan Territory on June 28, 1834. At an extra session of the Sixth Legislative Assembly of Michigan held in September, 1834, the Iowa District was divided into two counties by running a line due west from the lower end of Rock Island in the Mississippi River; the territory north of this line was named Dubuque County, all south of it was Demoine County. When Michigan became a state in 1836 the area became the Iowa District of western Wisconsin Territory—the region west of the Mississippi River.
The original boundaries of the territory, as established in 1838, included Minnesota and parts of the Dakotas, covering about 194,000 square miles of land. Burlington was the stop-gap capital; when Iowa became a state on December 28, 1846, no provision was made for official organization of the remainder of the territory. Morgan L. Martin, the Wisconsin territorial delegate to congress, pushed through a bill to organize a territory of Minnesota which would encompass this land. While the bill passed in the house, it did not pass the senate. In the following session a bill by Stephen A. Douglas was introduced in the senate but did not pass; the situation was resolved when Minnesota Territory was organized on March 3, 1849, the day before the close of congress. Territorial officers of Iowa Territory from 1838–1846. Robert Lucas, appointed 1838. John Chambers, appointed 1841. James Clarke, appointed 1845. William B. Conway, appointed 1838. James Clarke, appointed 1839. O. H. W. Stull, appointed 1841. Samuel J. Burr, appointed 1843.
Jesse Williams, appointed 1845. Jesse Williams, appointed 1840. William L. Gilbert, appointed 1843. Robert M. Secrest, appointed 1845. Thornton Bayless, appointed 1839. Morgan Reno, appointed 1840. William W. Chapman 25th and 26th Congresses, 1838–1840 Francis Gehon, irregularly "elected" in 1839, but never served as delegate Augustus C. Dodge, in the 27th, 28th, 29th Congresses, 1840–1846 Historic regions of the United States History of Iowa Territorial evolution of the United States Territory of France that encompassed land that became part of the Territory of Iowa: Louisiane, 1682–1764 and 1803 Territory of Spain that would be returned to France: Luisiana, 1764–1803 Territory of the United Kingdom that encompassed land that became part of the Territory of Iowa: Rupert's Land, 1670–1870 U. S. territories that encompassed land that became part of the Territory of Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, 1803–1804 District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812 Territory of Missouri, 1812–1821 Territory of Michigan, 1805–1837 Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–1848 U.
S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Iowa: Territory of Minnesota, 1849–1858 Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 U. S. states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Iowa: State of Iowa, 1846 State of Minnesota, 1858 State of North Dakota, 1889 State of South Dakota, 1889 Template:Coord missing:United States
Iowa State Auditor
The Iowa State Auditor is the State Auditor of the Government of Iowa, United States. The office's mission is to "serve as the taxpayers' watchdog" by "ensuring that government officials use taxpayer dollars for the intended purposes to benefit the public"; the office is provided for by the Constitution of Iowa, which requires that the Auditor be elected every four years with the rest of the state's executive branch, in midterm elections. The State Auditor is annually required to make a complete audit of the financial accounts of every department of the Government of Iowa; the office supervised by the Auditor of State includes three divisions: Administration, Financial Audit, Performance Investigation
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Iowa State Capitol
The Iowa State Capitol called the Iowa Statehouse, is in Iowa's capital city, Des Moines. As the seat of the Iowa General Assembly, the building houses the Iowa Senate, Iowa House of Representatives, the Office of the Governor, the Offices of the Attorney General, Auditor and Secretary of State; the building includes a chamber for the Iowa Supreme Court, although court activities take place in the neighboring Iowa Supreme Court building. The building was constructed between 1871 and 1886, is the only five-domed capitol in the country. Located at East 9th Street and Grand Avenue, the Capitol is set atop a hill and offers a panoramic view of the city's downtown and the West Capitol Terrace. Various monuments and memorials are to its sides and front, including the Soldiers and Sailors' Monument and the Lincoln and Tad statue. Not long after achieving statehood, Iowa recognized that the Capitol should be moved farther west than Iowa City, the 1st General Assembly, in 1846, authorized a commission to select a location.
In 1847, the town of Monroe City, in Jasper County was selected as the new location of the capitol and platted out, but the 1848 Legislature decided not to move the capitol from Iowa City. In 1854, the General Assembly decreed a location “within two miles of the Raccoon fork of the Des Moines River.” The exact spot was chosen when Wilson Alexander Scott gave the state nine and one-half acres where the Capitol now stands. Final legislative approval for the construction of a permanent statehouse was given on April 8, 1870. A three-story brick building served as a temporary Capitol and was in use for 30 years until destroyed by fires, but in the meantime, the permanent Capitol was being built. In 1870, the General Assembly established a Capitol commission to employ an architect, choose a plan for a building, proceed with the work, but only by using funds available without increasing the tax rate. John C. Cochrane and Alfred H. Piquenard were designated as architects, a cornerstone was laid on November 23, 1871.
However, much of the original stone deteriorated through waterlogging and severe weather and had to be replaced. The cornerstone was relaid on September 29, 1873. Although the building could not be constructed for $1.5 million as planned, the Cochrane and Piquenard design was retained and modifications were undertaken. Cochrane resigned in 1872, but Piquenard continued until his death in 1876, he was succeeded by two of his assistants, Mifflin E. Bell and W. F. Hackney. Bell redesigned the dome. Hackney was the only architect; the capitol building was dedicated on January 17, 1884, it was completed sometime in 1886. The building commission made its final report on June 29, 1886, with a total cost of $2,873,294.59. The audit showed. On January 4, 1904, a fire was started; the fire swept through the areas that housed the Supreme Iowa House of Representatives. A major restoration was performed and documented, with the addition of electrical lighting, a telephone system. Little information is available about.
However, Elmer Garnsey created the ceiling artwork in the House Chamber. These earlier efforts to preserve the Capitol dealt with maintaining and upgrading its interior, it was not until 1965, when the dome was regilded, that legislators made significant investments in preserving the building's exterior. By the early 1980s, the exterior of the Capitol had noticeably deteriorated. Sandstone pieces had begun falling from the building, prompting the installation of steel canopies at all entrances of the building to protect pedestrians. Decorative stone, whose deterioration had first been documented as early as the start of the 20th century, had eroded. Work on the exterior restoration was completed in nine phases. Phase 9 work began in the spring of 1998, the entire project was completed in the fall of 2001, at a cost of $41 million. While its primary use is as the house of the legislative branch of Iowa government, the Capitol functions as a living museum and state and international cultural facility.
Since 1987, the World Food Prize laureate award ceremony is held annually in October in the House of Representatives chamber of the statehouse. The ceremony rivals that of the Nobel Prize; each year, world-class performers take the stage to honor the World Food Prize Laureate. Past performers have included Ray Charles, John Denver, Noa to name a few. Following the ceremony, the celebration continues at a laureate award dinner held in the Capitol rotunda; the architectural design of the Capitol, rectangular in form, with great windows and high ceilings, follows the traditional pattern of 19th-century planning for public buildings. A modified and refined Renaissance style gives the impression of strength and dignity combined with utility; the building measures 364 feet from north to south and 247 feet from east to west. The exterior of the building is of stone with elaborate columns and handsomely designed cornices and capitals. Iowa stone is the foundation for the many porticoes of the building.
The building is brick with limestone from Iowa, Minnesota and Illinois. The substructure is of dark Iowa stone topped by a heavy course of wari-colored granite cut from glacial boulders gathered from the Iowa prairie; the superstructure, or main part of the building, is of bluff colored sandstone from quarries along th
Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Iowa. It is the county seat of Polk County. A small part of the city extends into Warren County, it was incorporated on September 22, 1851, as Fort Des Moines, shortened to "Des Moines" in 1857. It is on and named after the Des Moines River, adapted from the early French name, Rivière des Moines, meaning "River of the Monks"; the city's population was 217,521 as of the 2017 population estimate. The five-county metropolitan area is ranked 89th in terms of population in the United States with 634,725 residents according to the 2016 estimate by the United States Census Bureau, is the second largest metropolitan area in the state after that of Omaha, which includes three counties in southwest Iowa. Des Moines is a major center of the U. S. insurance industry, has a sizable financial services and publishing business base. The city was credited as the "number one spot for U. S. insurance companies" in a Business Wire article and named the third-largest "insurance capital" of the world.
The city is the headquarters for the Principal Financial Group, the Meredith Corporation, Ruan Transportation, EMC Insurance Companies, Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield. Other major corporations such as Wells Fargo, Voya Financial, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, ACE Limited, Monsanto, DuPont Pioneer have large operations in or near the metropolitan area. In recent years, Hewlett Packard, Facebook have built data-processing and logistical facilities in the Des Moines area. Forbes ranked Des Moines as the "Best Place for Business" in both 2010 and 2013. In 2014, NBC ranked Des Moines as the "Wealthiest City in America" according to its criteria. Des Moines is an important city in U. S. presidential politics. Many presidential candidates set up campaign headquarters in Des Moines. A 2007 article in The New York Times said, "If you have any desire to witness presidential candidates in the most close-up and intimate of settings, there is arguably no better place to go than Des Moines." Des Moines takes its name from Fort Des Moines, named for the Des Moines River.
This was adopted from the name given by French colonists. "Des Moines" translates to either "from the monks" or "of the monks". The historian Virgil Vogel claimed that the name was derived from Moingona, an Algonquian clan name, which means "Loon"; some historians and researchers lacking linguistic or Algonquianist training concluded that Moingona meant "people by the portage" or something similar, a reference to the Des Moines Rapids. This was where the earliest known encounters between the European explorers took place. One popular interpretation of "Des Moines" ignores Vogel's research, concludes that it refers to a group of French Trappist monks, who in the 17th century lived in huts built on top of what is now known as the ancient Monks Mound at Cahokia, the major center of Mississippian culture, which developed in what is present-day Illinois, east of the Mississippi River and the city of St. Louis; this was some 200 miles from the Des Moines River. Based on archeological evidence, the junction of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers has attracted humans for at least 7,000 years.
Several prehistoric occupation areas have been identified by archeologists in downtown Des Moines. Discovered in December 2010, the "Palace" is an expansive, 7,000-year-old site found during excavations prior to construction of the new wastewater treatment plant in southeastern Des Moines, it contains numerous graves. More than 6,000 artifacts were found at this site. State of Iowa archaeologist John Doershuk was assisted by University of Iowa archaeologists at this dig. At least three Late Prehistoric villages, dating from about AD 1300 to 1700, stood in or near what developed as downtown Des Moines. In addition, 15 to 18 prehistoric American Indian mounds were observed in this area by early settlers. All have been destroyed during development of the city. Des Moines traces its origins to May 1843, when Captain James Allen supervised the construction of a fort on the site where the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers merge. Allen wanted to use the name Fort Raccoon. S. War Department preferred Fort Des Moines.
The fort was built to control the Sauk and Meskwaki Indians, whom the government had moved to the area from their traditional lands in eastern Iowa. The fort was abandoned in 1846 after the Sauk and Meskwaki were removed from the state and shifted to the Indian Territory; the Sauk and Meskwaki did not fare well in Des Moines. The illegal whiskey trade, combined with the destruction of traditional lifeways, led to severe problems for their society. One newspaper reported: "It is a fact that the location of Fort Des Moines among the Sac and Fox Indians for the last two years, had corrupted them more and lowered them deeper in the scale of vice and degradation, than all their intercourse with the whites for the ten years previous". After official removal, the Meskwaki continued to return to Des Moines until around 1857. Archaeological excavations have shown that many fort-related features survived under what is now Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway and First Street. Soldiers stationed at Fort Des Moines opened the first coal mines in the area, mining coal from the riverbank for the fort's blacksmith.
Settlers occupied nearby areas. On May 25, 1846, the state legislature designated Fort Des Moines as the seat of Polk County. Arozina Perkins, a school teacher who spent the winter of 1850–1851 in the