Joaquín del Pino
Joaquín del Pino Sánchez de Rojas Romero y Negrete, was a Spanish military engineer and politician, who held various positions in the South American colonial administration. At the age of 18, he became a cadet in the regiment fixed Oran. Being a sub-official, he studied mathematics and in February 1752 he moved to the Corps of Engineers; that same year he collaborated with Ampurdán mapping to perform roads. In 1753, he was commissioned to supervision of the fortifications of the castle of Montjuic in Barcelona; when working there in 1760 was promoted to captain in 1762, before the suspension of work was aimed at repairing the shore batteries of Castile in the war with Portugal. The following year he married Maria Ignacia Rameri, from San Sebastian. In 1769, he returned to be used for cartographic work, collaborating with the French in the lifting of military maps of Aldudes, between Navarre and France. Promoted to lieutenant colonel the following year was sent to Montevideo at the request of viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo in 1771 to repair the ramparts of the citadel.
He remained in South America until his death. He was governor of Montevideo from 1773 to 1790, president of the Audiencia of Chile from 1790 and 1795 and the Audiencia of Charcas between 1795 and 1799, he was entrusted with the government of Chile, serving from 1799 to 1801. In the latter year, by a certificate issued on 14 July 1800 in Madrid, was appointed viceroy of Río de la Plata, assuming the post on 20 May. Enlightened ruler, but true to the metropolis, carried out numerous public works, including the port expansion, construction of the Buenos Aires Recova entrusted to Juan Bautista Sigismund, who became the author of the Church of the Convent San Lorenzo and efficient administration promoted the construction of brick kilns and the building of shipyards in Corrientes and Assumption, to replace the foreign ships, which prohibited land, temporarily ending the export of raw hides common to that time. Limited the movement of foreigners, fearing the establishment of republican ideas of the French Revolution, closed the first newspaper published in Buenos Aires, The Telegraph Commercial.
In 1801 gave the first tasks of responsibility to Santiago de Liniers, appointing him governor of Misiones. He tried to take advantage of the situation to regain the Seven Peoples Missions East overrun by the Portuguese in Brazil since the beginning of the year, taking the Luso-Hispanic war as an excuse. On July 6, 1802 he would be removed from office for it, naming as his replacement for Antonio Amar, but the relay was suspended in view of his age. Seventy, he fell ill in April 1804, died ten days leaving Rafael de Sobremonte as his appointed successor. A few years her daughter, Juana del Pino be married with the future president Bernardino Rivadavia. Bernardino Rivadavia Santiago de Liniers
Treaty of Madrid (13 January 1750)
The Spanish–Portuguese treaty of 1750 or Treaty of Madrid was a document signed in the Spanish capital by Ferdinand VI of Spain and John V of Portugal on 13 January 1750, to end armed conflict over a border dispute between the Spanish and Portuguese empires in South America in the vicinity of the Uruguay River, an area known as the Banda Oriental. The treaty established borders between the Spanish and Portuguese empires, ceding much of what is today's country of Brazil to the Portuguese. See Spanish–Portuguese War Political: Treaties of Tordesillas and ZaragozaEarlier treaties such as the Treaty of Tordesillas and the Treaty of Zaragoza authored by both countries, as mediated by Pope Alexander VI, stipulated that the Portuguese empire in South America could extend no farther west than 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands. Had these treaties remained unchanged, the Spanish would have held both what is today the city of São Paulo and all land to the west and south. Thus, Brazil would be only a fraction of its present-day size.
Territorial: discovery of gold in Mato Grosso in 1695. New captaincies created by the Portuguese beyond Brazil's previously-established boundaries: Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina To strike a balance between the boundary claims of Spain and Portugal by allotting the greater part of the Amazon basin to the latter country and that of the Rio de la Plata to the former To secure the undisputed sovereignty of the gold and diamond districts of Goias and Mato Grosso for the Portuguese Crown To secure Brazil's frontier by the retention of the Rio Grande do Sul and the acquisition of the Spanish Jesuit missions on the left bank of the river Uruguay To secure the western frontier of Brazil and river communication with Maranhao-Para by ensuring that navigation on the rivers Tocantins and Madeira remain in Portuguese hands To stop the westward advance of the Portuguese, who had encroached on much of what was theoretically Spanish territory though it consisted of virgin jungle To transfer to Spain the Portuguese colony of Sacramento, which had functioned as a backdoor for the illegal Anglo-Portuguese trade with the Viceroyalty of Peru and which rendered the Spanish city of Buenos Aires dangerously exposed to foreign invasion To undermine the Anglo-Portuguese alliance, thus to facilitate a union between the two Iberian powers in South America against English aggression and ambition 1722 map of French cartographer Guillaume de Lisle 1749 map of Alexandre de Gusmão: Mappa das Cortes, or Mapa de las Cortes Philippines & Moluccas under Spanish sovereignty The original was in both Portuguese and Spanish.
The treaty consists of a lengthy preamble, 26 articles. The Treaty of Madrid was based on the principles of Uti possidetis, ita possideatis from Roman law and “natural boundaries”, stating in the preamble: “each party must stay with what it now holds” and “the boundaries of the two Domains... are the sources and courses of the most notable rivers and mountains”, thereby authorizing the Portuguese to retain the lands they had occupied at the expense of the Empire of Spain. The treaty stipulated that Spain would receive the Sacramento Colony and Portugal the Misiones Orientales; these were seven independent Jesuit missions of the upper Uruguay River. Treaty of Torsedillas abrogated Definition of the boundaryThe treaty sensibly sought to follow geographic features in fixing the boundary: it moved westward from a point on the Atlantic coast south of Rio Grande do Sul northward irregularly following parts of the Uruguay, Iguaçu, Paraná, Guapore and Javari Rivers, north of the Amazon, ran from the middle Negro to the watershed between the Amazon and Orinoco basins and along the Guiana watershed to the Atlantic.
MappingSoon after signing it, two commissions for demarcation were created. The Northern, chaired by the State Governor of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, in the South headed on the Portuguese side by the Governor of Rio de Janeiro; the Treaty of Madrid was significant because it defined the modern boundaries of Brazil. However, the resistance of the Jesuits to surrendering their missions and the refusal of the Guarani to be forcibly relocated led to the nullification of the treaty by the subsequent Treaty of El Pardo, signed by both countries in 1761; the opposition by the Guarani led to the Guarani War of 1756. The terms of the Treaty of Madrid, with a few exceptions, were re-established in the First Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, that treaty was again negated in 1801. Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery Spanish missions in South America Geographic Map of the Captaincy of Mato Grosso is a map that features details about the Treaty of Madrid, from c. 1800
Banda Oriental, or more Banda Oriental del Uruguay, was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay. It was the easternmost territory of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. After decades of disputes over the territories, the 1777 First Treaty of San Ildefonso settled the division between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire: the southern part was to be held by the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and the northern territories by the Portuguese Capitania de São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul; the Banda Oriental was not a separate administrative unit until the de facto creation of the Provincia Oriental by José Gervasio Artigas in 1813 and the subsequent decree of the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata of 7 March 1814, which formally established the Gobernación Intendencia Oriental del Río de la Plata, making it a constituent part of the United Provinces of South America.
Before the arrival of the Spanish and the Portuguese, several tribes of indigenous people were living in this area as nomads. The principal ones were the Chanás, the Guayanas and the Guaraníes. Juan Díaz de Solís discovered this territory in 1516. During the conquest of the Río de la Plata area by the "Adelantados", the main concern was to reach the interior in search of precious metals, so this region remained ignored; the first ephemeral Spanish attempts to start populated centres in this territory happened between 1527 and 1577. These were the Fortín de San Lázaro and the Puerto de San Salvador by Sebastián Gaboto, the Real de San Juan and the Real de San Gabriel y Ciudad de San Salvador by Juan Ortiz de Zárate. In 1542 the Crown of Castile established the Viceroyalty of Peru, a colonial administrative district that contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima; the Banda Oriental was therefore under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru from 1542 up to 1776.
Although the Treaty of Tordesillas limited the Portuguese colonies to the east of the 46th meridian, in practice, the Portuguese were free to advance in most of the territory, not colonized by the Spanish, which included most of the Banda Oriental. In the early 17th century the territory was called Banda Charrúa Otra Banda, Banda Oriental; the name was extended to encompass Entre Ríos, to describe the territories in those latitudes that lead to the Mar del Nord. The area north of the Banda Oriental was the territory called by the Guaraní word Mbiaza or Ibiazá, rendered in Spanish as La Vera. In 1618, during the governance of Hernando Arias de Saavedra, the Banda Oriental was integrated into the Spanish colonial Governorate of the Río de la Plata. Following the recommendation of the King of Spain, Hernandarias introduced a large amount of cattle in the Banda Oriental, an act which has played a decisive role in the future of the economy of the area. Starting around 1626, fathers of the Franciscan order attempted to establish reductions south of Río Negro.
Some of them were short-lived missions like the San Francisco de los Olivares de los Charrúas, the San Antonio de los Chanáes and the San Juan de Céspedes. In contrast, the one of Santo Domingo Soriano, founded with Charrúas and Chanáes in Entre Ríos, Argentina, in 1664, was moved on the Isle of Vizcaíno, on the mouth of Río Negro and in 1718 it was moved again at its present location in the modern Soriano Department. Another notable development came from the reductions of the Compañía de Jesús further north the Uruguay River, where indigenous Guaraníes and Tapes were being kidnapped from the missions by the bandeirantes to be used as slaves in the coffee plantations of São Paulo. To prevent this, in 1631, father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya migrated with 12,000 Guaraníes further east, in the modern State of Paraná of Brazil, while in 1636, father Nicolás del Techo migrated with another 12,000 Tapes towards the modern Rio Grande do Sul, which constituted the north part of the Banda Oriental of the times.
Although Spain claimed the territory of the Banda Oriental, based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, it did not belong to the Spanish Crown during the 17th century. The Portuguese, being able to advance without resistance in the sparsely populated territory, founded the city Colonia del Sacramento on the banks of Rio de la Plata, across from Buenos Aires, in 1680. Apart from being seen as an evidence that the Portuguese intended to occupy all of the territory, this port in the mouth of the Uruguay River permitted the Portuguese ships to carry out illegal trade evading Spanish taxation. Spain took the city twice, in 1681 and in 1705, but had to give it back by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713; the following years saw an expansion of the Portuguese settlements around Colonia del Sacramento, until 1723, when Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. As a reaction, on 22 January 1724 a Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Governor of Río de la Plata, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, who forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and founded and fortified Montevideo.
The Spanish started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were called by the locals "guanches", "guanchos" or "canarios". In this way Montev
Nicolás Rodríguez Peña
Nicolás Rodriguez Peña was an Argentine politician. Born in Buenos Aires in April 1775, he worked in commerce which allowed him to amass a considerable fortune. Among his several successful businesses, he had a soap factory partnership with Hipólito Vieytes, a center of conspirators during the revolution against Spanish rule. In 1805 he was a member of the "Independence Lodge", a masonic lodge, along with other prominent revolutionary patriots such as Juan José Castelli and Manuel Belgrano; this group used to meet in his ranch situated in what today is Rodriguez Peña square in Buenos Aires. He was a member of the local militia in the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, after taking part as promoter and financier of the May Revolution, he collaborated in the formation of the Primera Junta. Was secretary to Castelli, went with him in the liberation army's expedition to Córdoba, where he authorized the death by firing squad of the previous viceroy Santiago de Liniers. After fighting at the Battle of Suipacha he entered Upper Peru, where he was for a short time governor of La Paz.
Returning to Buenos Aires in February, he took the place of Mariano Moreno at the First Junta. He was confined to San Juan Province. Rodriguez Peña returned the same year to Buenos Aires, returning to commerce once again, he joined the Logia Lautaro, directed by Carlos María de Alvear. Due to the revolution of October 1812, he was elected member of the Second Triumvirate, a government just created by the Constitutional Congress; when the Triumvirate was dissolved, the Supreme Director, Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, selected him to preside the State Council. He was assigned as a colonel in the army. In 1814 he was named first governor delegate of the Eastern Province, a post he held for only a short time. After the fall of Director Alvear, he was charged and exiled, was allowed to live in San Juan. In 1816 he went back to Buenos Aires, but the new Supreme Director, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, forced him to return to exile in San Juan where he helped José de San Martín organize the Army of the Andes for the crossing into Chile.
After the Battle of Chacabuco he self-exiled himself in Santiago de Chile, where he remained until his death in December 1853. His remains were interred in La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last to be organized and the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America. The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that extended over the Río de la Plata Basin the present-day territories of Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay, extending inland from the Atlantic Coast; the colony of Spanish Guinea depended administratively on the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. Buenos Aires, located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento, was chosen as the capital. Considered one of the late Bourbon Reforms, the organization of this viceroyalty was motivated on both commercial grounds, as well as on security concerns brought about by the growing interest of competing foreign powers in the area; the Spanish Crown wanted to protect its territory against the Kingdom of Portugal. But these Enlightenment reforms proved counterproductive, or too late, to quell the colonies' demands.
The entire history of this Viceroyalty was marked by growing domestic unrest and political instability. Between 1780 and 1782, the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II inspired a violent Aymara-led revolt across the Upper Peru highlands, demonstrating the great resentment against colonial authorities by both the mestizo and indigenous populations. Twenty-five years the Criollos, native-born people of the colony defended against two successive British attempts to conquer Buenos Aires and Montevideo; this enhanced their sense of power at a time when Spanish troops were unable to help. In 1809, the Criollo elite revolted against colonial authorities at La Paz and Chuquisaca, establishing revolutionary governments, juntas. Although short-lived, these provided a theoretical basis for the legitimacy of the locally based governments, which proved decisive at the 1810 May Revolution events deposing Viceroy Cisneros at Buenos Aires; the revolution spread except for Paraguay and Upper Peru. Meanwhile, the Governor of Montevideo Francisco Javier de Elío, appointed as a new Viceroy by the Cortes of Cádiz in 1811, declared the Buenos Aires Junta seditious.
However, after being defeated at Las Piedras, he retained control only of Colonia del Sacramento and Montevideo. He departed by ship to Spain on 18 November and resigned as Viceroy in January 1812. By 1814, as the revolutionary patriots entered Montevideo, following a two-year-long siege, the Viceroyalty was finished as government of the region. In 1680, Manuel Lobo, Portuguese governor of Rio de Janeiro, created the Department of Colonia and founded Colónia do Sacramento; the fort was developed as the department's capital. Lobo's chief objective was to secure the Portuguese expansion of Brazil beyond the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which had defined areas of influence in the Americas between the Iberian nations. From 1580 to 1640, Spain had controlled Portugal and thus all of its territories in America. In 1681 José de Garro attacked and seized the new fort for Spain. On 7 May 1681, under the Provisional Treaty of Lisbon, it was ceded to Portugal; the Viceroyalty of Peru was requiring all commerce to go through the port of Lima, on the Pacific Ocean.
This policy failed to develop the potential of Buenos Aires as an Atlantic port, adding months to the transport of goods and commodities in each direction. It resulted in encouraging widespread contraband activities in the eastern region in Asunción, Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Under these conditions, Viceroy Manuel de Amat y Junyent issued a decree for the former Governor of the Río de la Plata Pedro Antonio de Cevallos to found the new viceroyalty in August 1776; the ruling was resisted by the elite of Lima. The Cabildo of the Captaincy General of Chile requested the King be excluded from the new viceroyalty, accepted; the Cuyo region, with its main city Mendoza, was split from the Captaincy General of Chile. Leaders in Santiago resented this action as the Cuyo region had been settled by Spanish colonists from Chile; the Portuguese prime minister Marquis of Pombal encouraged the occupation of territory, awarded to the Spanish in the Treaty of Paris, following the British defeat of France in the Seven Years' War.
King Charles III reacted to the advantageous conditions: France was bound to be an ally as a guarantor of the treaty, Great Britain, due to its own colonial problems with revolution in the Thirteen Colonies in North America, maintained neutrality on the issues between Portugal and Spain. Pedro de Cevallos conquered Colonia del Sacramento and the Santa Catarina islands after a siege of three days, gaining the First Treaty of San Ildefonso. With it, the Portuguese left the Banda Oriental for Spain. In exchange Spain ceded them the area of Rio Grande do Sul. Cevallos ended his military actions at this point and started working with government, but he was soon replaced by Juan José Vertiz y Salcedo; the viceroyalty was tasked with promoting local production of linen and hemp as export commodity crops, to supply the Spanish cloth industries that the Bourbons sought to favor. The conditions imposed by Spain on
Carlos María de Alvear
Carlos María de Alvear, was an Argentine soldier and statesman, Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1815. He was born Santo Ángel in the northern part of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate to a Spanish nobleman father, Diego de Alvear y Ponce de León, a criollo mother, María Balbastro and baptised Carlos Antonio del Santo Ángel Guardián, his birthplace Santo Ángel was, at that time, part of Misiones Province, but belongs to the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. While travelling in Spain, Alvear's brothers and mother died in an incident that took place on October 5, 1804, when English frigates opened fire on the Spanish ship, transporting them; this incident was a preamble to the Battle of Trafalgar and the consequent war between both countries. The English took Alvear and his father, together with other survivors, as prisoners to England, where Diego de Alvear would marry an Irish woman. Honouring his mother, Carlos de Alvear adopted the name of Carlos María de Alvear.
Notwithstanding the fate of his mother and brothers at the hands of the English, 15-year-old Carlos was educated in the English culture, adopting, in his adult age, what some would see as a position partial to English interests. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. Alvear was one of the few professional military officers to participate of the Argentine War of Independence on the side of the revolutionaries, having served in the Spanish Army during the Napoleonic Wars, he became an active Freemason. While in Cadiz, he founded the Sociedad de los Caballeros Racionales, a masonic secret society, made up of South Americans. José de San Martín, with whom Alvear would always have a conflictive and contradictory relationship, would also become a member of this secret society, he returned to Buenos Aires on board the English frigate George Canning, in which were travelling San Martín, Juan Matías Zapiola, Francisco Chilavert and other soldiers. Upon his arrival, Alvear was named Lieutenant Coronel of the young Argentine army.
He led the action against the Royal army under Gaspar Vigodet in Montevideo, replacing José Rondeau and making the Oriental leader José Gervasio Artigas an enemy. Alvear was a leader of the constituent Assembly of the year 1813 and, goaded by political ambition, succeeded in establishing an Unitarian form of government, having his uncle Gervasio Antonio de Posadas named Supreme Director. In early 1814, Alvear was appointed commander in chief of the forces defending the capital. A few months he replaced General José Rondeau as commander in chief of the army besieging Montevideo, the last bastion of Spanish power in the River Plate, defended by 5,000 troops. In late June 1814, as news that Ferdinand VII had recovered the crown of Spain, Alvear managed to force the surrender of the Spanish troops in Montevideo, it was the biggest victory for the cause of independence since 1810. He was the most successful general of the revolution, he returned to Buenos Aires to claim his laurels but a revolt forced him back to the Banda Oriental.
After a quick and decisive campaign, his forces defeated the caudillos. At the end of 1814 Alvear was named commander of the Army of the North, but he lacked of support from Posadas, his unpopularity among the troops, other disagreements—including a project for a constitutional monarchy that he sent to Europe to be negotiated by Manuel Belgrano, fiercely opposed by the League of Free Peoples—made him return to Buenos Aires. On January 9, 1815, at 25 years of age, he was chosen to replace his uncle Posadas as Supreme Director. Having neither the support of the troops nor sufficient influence on the people of the hinterland provinces, Director Alvear attempted to come to an alliance with Artigas, to whom he offered the independence of the Banda Oriental. In exchange, Artigas would withdraw his army from the Argentine Littoral, but Artigas declined the offer, Alvear sent troops to occupy the area. At this time he was in correspondence with the British ambassador in Rio de Janeiro, in order to ask for a British intervention.
Following a mutiny among his troops, under pressure from the Cabildo, Alvear resigned on April 15, left the country. He was in exile in Rio de Janeiro until 1818. In May of that year, he moved to Montevideo where he joined his friend, the Chilean Jose Miguel Carrera exiled due to political differences with San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins. Alvear returned to Argentina in 1822 thanks to an amnesty law. At the end of 1823, Bernardino Rivadavia named him minister plenipotentiary to the United States. Before going to Washington, Alvear stopped in London and managed to get an interview with George Canning, Britain's Foreign Secretary. Weeks after this interview, the British cabinet formally recognized the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. In 1825 Alvear was sent by the Buenos Aires government to Bolivia to meet with Simón Bolivar; the real objective of this mission was to seek Bolivar's support in the looming war with the Empire of Brazil, over the Banda Oriental. Alvear had a project of his own: the creation of big republic in South America comprising Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay.
He asked Bolivar to be its first president. The Venezuelan leader was sympathetic to this project but dissensions in Gran Colombia forced him to abandon it. To neutralize Alvear's political ambitions, newly elected President Bernardino Rivadavia appointed him his Minister of War and Navy in early 1826. In a short period of time, an