Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the cultural hub of the Mauricie region; the settlement was founded by French colonists on July 4, 1634, as the second permanent settlement in New France, after Quebec City in 1608. The city's name, French for three rivers, is named for the fact the Saint-Maurice River has three mouths at the Saint Lawrence River. In the English language this city was known as Three Rivers. Since the late 20th century, when there has been more recognition of Quebec and French speakers, French was made an official language, the city is referred to as Trois-Rivières in both English and French; the anglicized name still appears in many areas of the town, bearing witness to the influence of English settlers in the town.
The city's inhabitants are known as Trifluviens. Trois-Rivières is the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Trois-Rivières, its geographical code is 371. Together with the regional county municipality of Les Chenaux, it forms the census division of Francheville; the municipalities within Les Chenaux and the former municipalities that were amalgamated into Trois-Rivières constituted the regional county municipality of Francheville. Trois-Rivières is the seat of the judicial district of the same name; the Trois-Rivières metropolitan area includes the city of Bécancour, situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River across the Laviolette Bridge; the name of Trois-Rivières, which dates from the end of the 16th century, was used by French explorers in reference to the three channels in the Saint-Maurice River formed at its mouth with the Saint Lawrence, as it is divided by two islands and Saint-Quentin island. The city occupies a location known to the French since 1535, when Jacques Cartier, in a trip along the St. Lawrence, stopped to plant a cross on Saint-Quentin island.
But the Three Rivers name is used for the first time in 1599 by Sieur François Gravé Du Pont, a geographer under Champlain, whose records confirmed the name in 1603. As Sieur Gravé Du Pont sailed upriver toward Montreal, he saw what appeared to be three separate tributaries, he did not know two large islands divide the course of the Saint-Maurice River in three parts where the latter flows into the St. Lawrence River. For thousands of years, the area that would become known as Trois-Rivières was frequented by Indigenous peoples; the historic Algonquin and Abenaki peoples used it as a summer stopping place. They would fish and hunt here, as well as gather nuts; the area was rich in resources. The French explorer Jacques Cartier described the site while on his second journey to the New World in 1535; the name "Trois-Rivières", was not given until 1599, by Captain Dupont-Gravé, first appeared on maps of the area dated 1601. In 1603, while surveying the Saint-Lawrence River, Samuel de Champlain recommended establishing a permanent settlement in the area.
Such a village was started on July 1634, by the Sieur de Laviolette. Additional inhabitants of the early city of Trois-Rivières include: Quentin Moral, Sieur de St. Quentin; the city was the second to be founded in New France. Given its strategic location, it played an important role in the colony and in the fur trade with First Nations peoples; the settlement became the seat of a regional government in 1665. Ursuline nuns first arrived at the settlement in 1697, where they founded the first school and helped local missionaries to Christianize the local Aboriginals and developing class of Métis. French sovereignty in Trois-Rivières continued until 1760, when the city was captured as part of the British conquest of Canada during the Seven Years' War. Sixteen years on June 8, 1776, it was the theatre of the Battle of Trois-Rivières during the American Revolutionary War. Trois-Rivières continued to grow in importance throughout this period and beyond. In 1792 it was designated as the seat of a judicial district.
In 1852, the Roman Catholic church made. In 1816, Captain A. G. Douglas, a former adjutant at the British military college at Great Marlow, recommended a military college for Catholic and Protestant boys be established at Trois-Rivières, he proposed it operate in a disused government house and he would be superintendent. Douglas' college was intended as a boarding school to educate the young sons of officers, amongst others, in Latin, English language, French Language, Geography and Mathematics; this preceded the founding of the Royal Military College of Canada in 1876. In 1908, the greater part of the city of Trois-Rivières was destroyed by a fire. Among the surviving buildings were the Ursuline Monastery and the De Tonnancour Manor; as a result of the destruction, a major redesign and renovation of the city was undertaken, including the widening and renewal
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The 10,311 km2 island accounts for 18.7% of Nova Scotia's total area. Although the island is physically separated from the Nova Scotia peninsula by the Strait of Canso, the 1,385 m long rock-fill Canso Causeway connects it to mainland Nova Scotia; the island is east-northeast of the mainland with its northern and western coasts fronting on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The eastern and southern coasts front the Atlantic Ocean, its landmass slopes upward from south to north. One of the world's larger salt water lakes, Bras d'Or, dominates the island's centre; the island is divided into four of Nova Scotia's eighteen counties: Cape Breton, Inverness and Victoria. Their total population at the 2016 census numbered 132,010 "Cape Bretoners". Cape Breton Island has experienced a decline in population of 2.9% since the 2011 census. 75% of the island's population is in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality which includes all of Cape Breton County and is referred to as Industrial Cape Breton, given the history of coal mining and steel manufacturing in this area, Nova Scotia's industrial heartland throughout the 20th century.
The island has five reserves of the Mi'kmaq Nation: Eskasoni, Wagmatcook and Potlotek/Chapel Island. Eskasoni is the largest in both land area, its name may derive from Capbreton near Bayonne, or more from Cape and the word Breton, the French demonym for Bretagne, the French historical region. Cape Breton Island's first residents were Archaic maritime natives, ancestors of the Mi'kmaq; these peoples and their progeny inhabited the island for several thousand years and continue to live there to this day. Their traditional lifestyle centred around hunting and fishing because of the unfavourable agricultural conditions of their maritime home; this ocean-centric lifestyle did, make them among the first indigenous peoples to discover European explorers and sailors fishing in the St Lawrence Estuary. John Cabot visited the island in 1497. However, European histories and maps of the period are of too poor quality to be sure whether Cabot first visited Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island; this discovery is commemorated by Cape Breton's Cabot Trail, by the Cabot's Landing Historic Site & Provincial Park, near the village of Dingwall.
The local Mi'kmaq peoples began trading with European fishermen when the fishermen began landing in their territories as early as the 1520s. In about 1521–22, the Portuguese under João Álvares Fagundes established a fishing colony on the island; as many as two hundred settlers lived in a village, the name of, not known, located according to some historians at what is now Ingonish on the island's northeastern peninsula. These fishermen did not maintain a permanent settlement; this Portuguese colony's fate is unknown, but it is mentioned as late as 1570. During the Anglo-French War of 1627 to 1629, under Charles I, the Kirkes took Quebec City; these claims, larger European ideals of native conquest were the first time the island was incorporated as European territory, though it would be several decades that treaties would be signed. These Scottish triumphs, which left Cape Sable as the only major French holding in North America, did not last. Charles I's haste to make peace with France on the terms most beneficial to him meant the new North American gains would be bargained away in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which established which European power had claim over the territories, but did not in fact establish that Europeans had any claim to begin with.
The French defeated the Scots at Baleine, established the first European settlements on Île Royale: present day Englishtown and St. Peter's; these settlements lasted only one generation, until Nicolas Denys left in 1659. The island did not have any European settlers for another fifty years before those communities along with Louisbourg were re-established in 1713, after which point European settlement was permanently established on the island. Known as "Île Royale" to the French, the island saw active settlement by France. After the French ceded their claims to Newfoundland and the Acadian mainland to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the French relocated the population of Plaisance, Newfoundland, to Île Royale and the French garrison was established in the central eastern part at Sainte Anne; as the harbour at Sainte Anne experienced icing problems, it was decided to build a much larger fortification at Louisbourg to improve defences at the entrance to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and to defend France's fishing fleet on the Grand Banks.
The French built the Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1734, the first lighthouse in Canada and one of the first in North America. In addition to Cape Breton Island, the French colony of Île Royale included Île Saint-Jean, today called Prince Edward Island, Les Î
Jean de Lauson
Jean de Lauzon or de Lauson was the Governor of New France from 1651 to 1657, one of the most challenging times for the new colony. A prominent lawyer in France, in 1613 Lauzon was appointed a counsellor in the Parliament, he served in several government positions, including president of the Grand Conseil, intendant of Provence of Guyenne, of Dauphiné. He had been developing interests in the colony of New France, he became the director of the Compagnie des Cent-Associés. Lauzon used his influence within the company to obtain his sons in the colony. By 1640, the Lauzons had become the biggest landowners in the colony, their properties included the Island of Île d'Orléans. Lauzon was appointed as governor in 1651, he moved with his three sons – including François, the eldest, a member of Parliament for Bordeaux – to the colony. His wife had earlier died in France. All three sons married into other founding families of the colony after having been set up with various lands and positions within the area.
The establishment of Lauzon's family in the colony was intended to inspire confidence amongst the settlers and encourage agriculture in addition to the fur trade. He was the first governor to pursue this type of policy. In 1653, Lauzon negotiated a peace treaty with the Mohawk, an Iroquois nation based in what is now New York, it reduced the threat to the colony for some years. Afterward, he accorded to himself the monopoly on the fur trade; the king responded by ordering the fur trade to be reopened to all colonists. Lauzon returned to France, he died in 1666 in Paris. One of his descendents, Marie-Catherine-Antoinette de Lauson, married Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, who served as Governor of Canada. Lauzon, Quebec was named in his honour in 1867. Jean de Lauson, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, retrieved on 27 May 2007 Catholic Encyclopedia "Jean de Lauzon", L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia, Marianopolis College, retrieved on 27 May 2007
History of Mobile, Alabama
Mobile was founded as the capital of colonial French Louisiana in 1702 and remained a part of New France for over 60 years. During 1720, when France warred with Spain, Mobile was on the battlefront, so the capital moved west to Biloxi. In 1763, Britain took control of the colony following their victory in the Seven Years War. Following the American Revolutionary War, Mobile did not become a part of the United States, as it was part of territory captured by Spain from Great Britain in 1780. Mobile first became a part of the United States in 1813, when it was captured by American forces and added to the Mississippi Territory later re-zoned into the Alabama Territory in August 1817. On December 14, 1819, Mobile became part of the new 22nd state, one of the earlier states of the U. S. Forty-one years Alabama left the Union and joined the Confederate States of America in 1861, it returned in 1865 after the American Civil War. Mobile had spent decades as French British Spanish American, spanning 160 years, up to the Civil War.
Spanish explorers were sailing into the area of Mobile Bay as early as 1500, with the bay being marked on early Spanish maps as the Bahía del Espíritu Santo. The area was explored in more detail in 1516 by Diego de Miruelo and in 1519 by Alonso Álvarez de Pineda. In 1528, Pánfilo de Narváez traveled through what was the Mobile Bay area, encountering Native Americans who fled and burned their towns at the approach of the expedition; this response was a prelude to the journeys of Hernando de Soto, more than eleven years later. Hernando de Soto explored the area of Mobile Bay and beyond in 1540, finding the area inhabited by a Muscogee Native American people. During this expedition, his forces destroyed the fortified town of Mauvila spelled Maubila, from which the name Mobile was derived; the battle with Chief Tuscaloosa and his warriors took place somewhere north of the current site of Mobile. The next large expedition was that of Tristán de Luna y Arellano, in his unsuccessful attempt to establish a permanent colony for Spain, nearby at Pensacola in 1559-1561.
Although Spain's presence in the area had been sporadic, the French, under Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville from his base at Fort Maurepas, established a settlement on the Mobile River in 1702. The settlement known as Fort Louis de la Louisiane, was first established at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff as the first capital of the French colony of Louisiana, it was founded under the direction of d'Iberville by his brother, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, to establish control over France's Louisiana claims with Bienville having been made governor of French Louisiana in 1701. Mobile's Roman Catholic parish was established on 20 July 1703, by Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, Bishop of Quebec; the parish was the first established on the Gulf Coast of the United States. The year 1704 saw the arrival of 23 women, known to history as "casquette girls" to the colony aboard the Pélican, along with yellow fever introduced to the ship in Havana. Though most of the "casquette girls" recovered, a large number of the existing colonists and the neighboring Native Americans died from the illness.
This early period saw the arrival of the first African slaves aboard a French supply ship from Saint-Domingue. The population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years, growing to 279 persons by 1708 yet descending to 178 persons two years due to disease; these additional outbreaks of disease and a series of floods caused Bienville to order the town relocated several miles downriver to its present location at the confluence of the Mobile River and Mobile Bay in 1711. This site had been settled five years prior by Charles Rochon, Gilbert Dardenne, Pierre LeBœuf and Claude Parant. A new earth and palisade Fort Louis was constructed at the new site during this time; the colony was an economic loss, so in 1712, Antoine Crozat took over administration of the colony by royal charter for 15 years, pledging a share of profits to the King. The colony boasted a population of 400 persons. In 1713 a new governor was appointed by Crozat, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, founder of Detroit.
He did not last long, due to allegations of mismanagement and a lack of growth in the colony, he was recalled to France in 1716. Bienville again took the helm as governor, serving the office for less than a year until the new governor, Jean-Michel de Lepinay, arrived from France. Lepinay, did not last long either, due to Crozat's relinquishing control of the colony in 1717; the administration shifted to his Company of the Indies. Bienville found himself once again governor of Louisiana. In 1719, France warred with Spain, Mobile was on the battlefront, so Bienville decided to move the capital to Old Biloxi, further west; the capital of Louisiana was moved to Biloxi, in 1720, leaving Mobile relegated to the role of military and trading outpost. In 1723 the construction of a new brick fort with a stone foundation began and it was renamed Fort Condé in honor of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon and prince of Condé. Mobile would maintain the role of major trade center with the Native Americans throughout the French period, leading to the universal use of Mobilian Jargon as the simplified trade language with the Native Americans from present-day Florida to Texas.
Mobile became a part of the "14th British colony," British West Florida, in 1763, when the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the French and Indian War. The treaty ceded the Mobile area to Great Britain, under British rule the colony flourished as West Florida; the British renamed Fort Condé as Fort Charlotte after the queen consort and re-energized the
Port-Royal National Historic Site
Port-Royal National Historic Site is a National Historic Site located on the north bank of the Annapolis Basin in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia. The site is the location of the Habitation at Port-Royal; the Habitation at Port-Royal was established by France in 1605 and was that nation's first settlement in North America. Port-Royal served as the capital of Acadia until its destruction by British military forces in 1613. France relocated the settlement and capital 8 km upstream and to the south bank of the Annapolis River; the relocated settlement kept the same name "Port-Royal" and served as the capital of Acadia for the majority of the 17th century until the British conquest of the colony in 1710, at which time the settlement was renamed Annapolis Royal. On May 25, 1925, the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board recognized the original Habitation at Port-Royal in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia for its heritage significance, the Minister of the Interior designated it Port-Royal National Historic Site.
In the 1930s the approximate site of the original Habitation was located in the community and the results of archaeological excavations fed public interest in the period of the original French settlement. This interest had been increasing since the publication of Quietly My Captain Waits, an historical novel by the Canadian novelist Evelyn Eaton set in Port-Royal in the early 17th century. In the early 1900s, chiefly under the leadership of Harriet Taber Richardson, a native of Cambridge and summer resident of the nearby town of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotian preservationists and historians began lobbying the Government of Canada to build a replica of the Habitation which stood from 1605 until its destruction in 1613; the government agreed, after much persuasion. Construction took place from 1939-1941 and was based on a duplicate set of plans for the original Habitation, discovered in France; this was the first National Historic Site. Today, this replica serves as the cornerstone of Port-Royal National Historic Site, coupled with nearby Fort Anne National Historic Site in Annapolis Royal, continues to commemorate this important historic region for visitors.
Today, the replica of the Habitation is considered a milestone in the national heritage movement. Operated by Parks Canada, it is open to the public as a unit of the national park system, staffed by historical interpreters in period costumes, is a major tourist attraction. Costumed interpreters provide demonstrations of such historic early 17th-century activities as farming, cooking, fur trading and Mi'kmaq life. Port-Royal was founded after the French nobleman Pierre Du Gua de Monts who spent a disastrous winter in Île-Saint-Croix, he was accompanied by Samuel de Champlain, Louis Hébert and Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just. They decided to move their settlement to the north shore of present-day Annapolis Basin, a sheltered bay on the south shore of the Bay of Fundy, recorded by Champlain earlier in the spring of 1605 during a coastal reconnaissance. Champlain would note in his journals; as such, he would name the Royal Port. Poutrincourt asked King Henri IV to become the owner of the Seigneurie which encompassed the settlement.
Nestled against the North Mountain range, they set about constructing a log stockade fortification called a "habitation." With assistance from members of the Mi'kmaq Nation and a local chief named Membertou, coupled with the more temperate climate of the fertile Annapolis Valley, the settlement prospered. Mindful of the disastrous winter of 1603–04 at the Île-Saint-Croix settlement, Champlain established l'Ordre de Bon Temps as a social club ostensibly to promote better nutrition and to get settlers through the winter of 1606–07. Supper every few days became a feast with a festive air supplemented by performances and alcohol and was attended by the prominent men of the colony and their Mi'kmaq neighbours while the Mi'kmaq women and poorer settlers looked on and were offered scraps. Marc Lescarbot's "The Theatre of Neptune in New France", the first work of theater written and performed in North America, was performed on November 14, 1606, it was arguably the catalyst for the Order of Good Cheer.
In 1607, Dugua had his fur trade monopoly revoked by the Government of France, forcing settlers to return to France that fall. The Habitation was left in the care of Membertou and the local Mi'kmaq until 1610 when Sieur de Poutrincourt, another French nobleman, returned with a small expedition to Port-Royal. Poutrincourt converted Membertou and local Mi'kmaq to Catholicism, hoping to gain financial assistance from the government; as a result, Jesuits became financial partners with Poutrincourt, although this caused division within the community. In May, 1613 the Jesuits moved on to the Penobscot River valley and in July, the settlement was attacked by Samuel Argall of Virginia. Argall returned in November that same year and burned the Habitation to the ground while settlers were away nearby. Poutrincourt returned from France in spring 1614 to find Port-Royal in ruins and settlers living with the Mi'kmaq. Poutrincourt gave his holdings to his son and returned to France. Poutrincourt's son bequeathed the settlement to Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour upon his own death in 1623.
History of Newfoundland and Labrador
The first brief European contact with Newfoundland and Labrador came about 1000 AD when the Vikings settled in L'Anse aux Meadows. Around 1500, European explorers and fishermen from England, Netherlands and Spain began exploration. Fishing expeditions came seasonally. Catholic-Protestant religious tensions were high but mellowed after 1860; the British colony voted against joining Canada in 1869 and became an independent dominion in the early 20th century. Fishing was always the dominant industry, but the economy collapsed in the Great Depression of the 1930s and the people voluntarily relinquished their independence to become a British colony again. Prosperity and self-confidence returned during the Second World War, after intense debate the people voted to join Canada in 1949. Poverty and emigration have remained significant themes in Newfoundland history, despite efforts to modernize after 1949. Most efforts failed, the sudden collapse of the cod fishing industry was a terrific blow in the 1990s.
The oil boom in the' 00's has revived the economy. Over the second half of the 20th century, the historic cultural and political tensions between British Protestants and Irish Catholics faded, a new spirit of a unified Newfoundland identity has emerged through songs and popular culture. Human habitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back about 9000 years to the people of the Maritime Archaic Tradition, they were displaced by people of the Dorset Culture the L'nu, or Mi'kmaq and by the Innu and Inuit in Labrador and the Beothuks on the island. The first European contact with North America was that of the medieval Norsemen settlers arriving via Greenland. For several years after 1000 CE they lived in a village on the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula, known today as L'Anse aux Meadows. Remnants and artifacts of the occupation can still be seen at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the island was inhabited by the Beothuks and by Mi'kmaq. From the late 15th Century, European explorers like John Cabot, João Fernandes Lavrador, Gaspar Corte-Real, Jacques Cartier and others began exploration.
John Cabot, commissioned by King Henry VII of England, landed on the North East coast of North America in 1497. The exact location of his landing is unknown but the 500th anniversary of his landing was commemorated in Bonavista, Newfoundland; the 1497 voyage has generated much debate among historians, with various points in Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, most identified as the landing place. Fishing vessels with Basque, Portuguese and Spanish crews started to make seasonal expeditions. Basque vessels had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundland's coasts since the beginning of the 16th century, their crews used the natural harbour at Placentia. French fishers began to use the area. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, provided with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, landed in St John's in August 1583, formally took possession of the island. From 1616, English Proprietary Governors were appointed, to establish colonial settlements on the island. John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove.
Other settlements were Bristol's Hope, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638. Explorers soon realized that the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic. By 1620, 300 fishing boats worked the Grand Bank, they sold it to Spain and Portugal. Heavy investment by Sir George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, in the 1620s in wharves and fishing stations failed to pay off. French raids hurt the business, the weather was terrible, so he redirected his attention to his other colony in Maryland. After Calvert left small-scale entrepreneurs such as Sir David Kirke made good use of the facilities. Kirke became the first governor in 1639. A triangular trade with New England, the West Indies, Europe gave Newfoundland an important economic role. By the 1670s there were another 4500 in the summer months. Newfoundland cod formed one leg of a triangular trade that sent cod to Spain and the Mediterranean, wine, olive oil, cork to England.
Dutch ships were active 1620–1660 in what was called the "sack trade." A ship of 250 tons could earn 14% profit on the Newfoundland to Spain leg, about the same on goods it took from Spain to England. The Atlantic was risky. Before 1700 the "admiral" system provided the government; the first captain arriving in a particular bay was in charge of allocating suitable shoreline sites for curing fish. The system faded away after 1700. Fishing-boat captains competed to arrive first from Europe in an attempt to become the admiral; this led to "bye-boat" fishing: local, small-boat crews fished certain areas in the summer, claimed a strip of land as their own, sold their catches to the migratory fishers. Bye-boat fishing thus became dominant, giving the island a semi-permanent population, proved more profitable than migratory fishing; the fishing admirals system ended in 1729, when the Royal Navy sent in its officers to govern during the fishing season. In 1655, France appointed a governor at Plaisance, as Placentia was known in French, thus starting the F
Charles de Montmagny
Charles Jacques Huault de Montmagny was governor of New France from 1636 to 1648. He was the first person to bear the title of Governor of New France. Montmagny was able to negotiate a peace treaty with the Iroquois at Trois-Rivières in 1645, his name'Montmagny' translated into the Iroquoian languages as "Onontio", a title which the Iroquois Confederacy used for all subsequent Governors of Quebec. Late in his life he was commissioned by the Knights Hospitaller to oversee the Hospitaller colonies in the Caribbean, his presence there was ineffective, since he was bogged down in power struggles with the sitting governor, Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy. Montmagny died on Saint Christopher on 4 July 1657. Montmagny, former Montmagny |former electoral district of Montmagny]] and Montmagny Regional County Municipality are named after him. Laurent Bermen Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online