Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571
Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 was a chartered flight that crashed on a glacier at an elevation of 3,570 metres in the remote Andes. Among the 45 people on board, 28 survived the initial crash. Facing starvation and death, the survivors reluctantly resorted to cannibalism. After 72 days on the glacier, 16 people were rescued; the flight carrying 19 members of a rugby team, family and friends originated in Montevideo and was headed for Santiago, Chile. While crossing the Andes, the inexperienced co-pilot, in command mistakenly believed they had reached Curicó, despite instrument readings indicating otherwise, he turned north and began to descend towards what he thought was Pudahuel Airport. Instead, the aircraft struck the mountain, shearing off the rear of the fuselage; the forward part of the fuselage careered down a steep slope like a toboggan and came to rest on a glacier. Three crew members and more than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash, several others succumbed to cold and injuries.
On the tenth day after the crash, the survivors learned from a transistor radio that the search had been called off. Faced with starvation and death, those still alive agreed that should they die, the others might consume their bodies in order to live. With no choice, the survivors ate the bodies of their dead friends. Seventeen days after the crash, 27 remained alive when an avalanche filled the rear of the broken fuselage they were using as shelter, killing eight more survivors; the survivors had no source of heat in the harsh conditions. They decided. Sixty days after the crash, passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, lacking mountaineering gear of any kind, climbed from the glacier at 3,570 metres to the 4,670 metres peak blocking their way west. Over 10 days they trekked about 38 miles seeking help; the first person they saw was Chilean arriero Sergio Catalán, who gave them food and rode for ten hours to alert authorities. The story of the passengers' survival after 72 days drew international attention.
The remaining 16 survivors were rescued on 23 December 1972, more than two months after the crash. The survivors were concerned about what the public and family members of the dead might think about their acts of eating the dead. There was an initial public backlash, but after they explained the pact the survivors made to sacrifice their flesh if they died to help the others survive, the outcry diminished and the families were more understanding; the incident was known as the Andes flight disaster and, in the Hispanic world, as El Milagro de los Andes. Members of the amateur Old Christians Club rugby union team from Montevideo, were scheduled to play a match against the Old Boys Club, an English rugby team in Santiago, Chile. Club president Daniel Juan chartered an Uruguayan Air Force twin turboprop Fairchild FH-227D to fly the team over the Andes to Santiago; the aircraft carried 5 crew members. Colonel Julio César Ferradas was an experienced Air Force pilot who had a total of 5,117 flying hours.
He was accompanied by co-pilot Lieutenant-Colonel Dante Héctor Lagurara. There were 10 extra seats and the team members invited a few friends and family members to accompany them; when someone cancelled at the last minute, Graziela Mariana bought the seat so she could attend her oldest daughter's wedding. The aircraft departed Carrasco International Airport on 12 October 1972, but a storm front over the Andes forced them to stop overnight in Mendoza, Argentina. Although there is a direct route from Mendoza to Santiago 200 kilometres to the west, the high mountains require flight levels of 25,000 to 26,000 feet close to the FH-227D's maximum operational ceiling of 28,000 feet. Given that the FH-227 aircraft was loaded, this route would have required the pilot to carefully calculate fuel consumption and to avoid the mountains. Instead, it was customary for this type of aircraft to fly a longer 600 kilometres, 90-minute U-shaped route from Mendoza south to Malargüe using the A7 airway. From there aircraft flew west via the G-17 airway, crossing Planchón Pass, to the Chilean town of Curicó, from there north to Santiago.
The weather on 13 October affected the flight. On that morning, conditions over the Andes had not improved but changes were expected by the early afternoon; the pilot took off at 2:18 PM on Friday 13 October from Mendoza. He flew south from Mendoza towards Malargüe at flight level 180. Lagurara radioed the Malargüe airport with their position and told them they would reach 2,515 metres high Planchón Pass at 3:21 PM; the pass is the hand-off point for air traffic control from one side of the Andes to the other. At the pass, controllers in Mendoza transfer flight tracking to Pudahuel air traffic control in Santiago, Chile. Once across the mountains in Chile, south of Curicó, aircraft turn north and initiate descent into Pudahuel Airport in Santiago. Pilot Ferradas had flown across the Andes 29 times. On this flight he was training co-pilot Lagurara, pilot in command; as they flew through the Andes, clouds obscured the mountains. The aircraft FAU 571 had only 792 airframe hours; the aircraft was regarded by some pilots as underpowered, had been nicknamed by them as the "lead-sled."Given the cloud cover, the pilots were flying under instrument meteorological conditions at an altitude of 18,000 feet, could not visually confirm their location.
While some reports state the pilot incorrectly estimated his position using dea
Governor of Michoacán
According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo, the exercise of the Ejectivo Power of this Mexican organization, it is deposited in a single individual, that denominates Constitutional Governor of the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo and, elect for a period of 6 years without any possibility of re-election. The governmental period begins day of February 15 of the year of the election and finishes on February 14 after having passed six years; the state of Michoacán was created in 1824, being one of the original states of the federation, thus throughout its historical life has happened through all sitemas of government effective in Mexico, as much the federal system as the central system, reason the denomination of the organization has varied between state and department. The individuals that have occupied the Governorship of the State of Michacán, in their different denominations, have been the following ones:: Enrique Ramírez Aviña: Lázaro Cárdenas: Dámaso Cárdenas del Río: Lázaro Cárdenas: Gabino Vázquez: Lázaro Cárdenas: Benigno Serrato: Rafael Sánchez Tapia: Rafael Ordorica: Gildardo Magaña: Arnulfo Avila: Conrado Magaña: Félix Ireta Viveros: José María Mendoza Pardo: Daniel T. Rentería: Dámaso Cárdenas del Río: David Franco Rodríguez: Agustín Arriaga: Carlos Gálvez Betancourt: Servando Chávez Hernández: Carlos Torres Manzo: Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas: Luis Martínez Villicaña: Genovevo Figueroa Zamudio: Eduardo Villaseñor Peña: Ausencio Chávez Hernández: Víctor Manuel Tinoco: Lázaro Cárdenas Batel: Leonel Godoy: Fausto Vallejo: Salvador Jara Guerrero: Silvano Aureoles Conejo List of Mexican governors List of governors of Michoacán
Governor of Morelos
Governors of Morelos, created as a state of Mexico in 1869. List of Mexican state governors
Governor of Quintana Roo
Governors of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo since statehood in 1975: Governors of the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana RooNote: In 2001 Mario E. Villanueva was sentenced to prison due to corruption involving Mexican drug war during his time as governor, the length of his sentence has been extended multiple times as more of his past crimes emerged after his capture. Note: In June 5, 2017, he was the third ex-governor from the PRI, to be sentenced in 2017 following the captures of Tomas Yarrington and Javier Duarte. Pre-statehood Political Chiefs of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo1902 – 1903: José María de la Vega 1903 – 1911: Ignacio A. Bravo 1911 – 1912: Manuel Sánchez Rivera 1912: Rafael Egealiz 1912 – 1913: Alfredo Cámara Vales 1913: Isidro Escobar Garrido 1913: Alfonso Carrera Carbó 1913: Víctor M. Morón 1913: Arturo Garcilazo Juárez 1913 – 1915: Annexed to Yucatán 1915 – 1916: Carlos Plank 1916 – 1917: Carlos A. VidalGovernors of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo1917 – 1918: Carlos A. Vidal 1918 – 1921: Octaviano Solís Aguirre 1921: Pascual Coral Heredia 1921 – 1923: Librado Abitia 1923: Camilo E. Félix 1923 – 1924: Anastasio Rojas 1924: Librado Abitia 1924 – 1925: Enrique Barocio Barrios 1925: Amado Aguirre Santiago 1925: Enrique Barocio Barrios 1925 – 1926: Candelario Garza 1926: Malrubio de la Chapa 1926 – 1927: Antonio Ancona Albertos 1927 – 1930: José Siurob 1930 – 1931: Arturo Campillo Seyde 1931: J. Félix Bañuelos 1931 – 1935: Annexed to Yucatán and Campeche 1935 – 1940: Rafael E. Melgar 1940 – 1944: Gabriel R. Guevara 1944 – 1959: Margarito Ramírez 1959 – 1964: Aarón Merino Fernández 1965 – 1967: Rufo Figueroa Figueroa 1967 – 1970: Javier Rojo Gómez 1971 – 1974: David Gustavo Gutiérrez List of Mexican state governors Quintana Roo Territory
Governor of Campeche
Governors of the state of Campeche, since statehood: Pablo García Montilla 1862 – 1870 Tomás Anzar Barbachano 1870 Salvador Donde 1870 – 1871 Joaquín Baranda Quijano 1871 – 1877 Juan B. Zamudio 1877 Marcelino Castilla 1877 – 1880 Prudencio Pérez Rosado 1880 Arturo Shiels 1880 – 1883 Joaquín Baranda Quijano 1883 Juan Montalvo 1883 – 1887 José Trinidad Ferrer 1887 – 1888 Onecíforo Durán 1888 Joaquín Kerlegand 1888 – 1891 Leocadio Preve 1891 – 1895 Juan Montalvo 1895 – 1898 Carlos Gutiérrez Mac-Gregor 1898 – 1902 José Castellot 1902 Luis García Mézquita 1902 – 1905 José A. Ruz 1905 Tomás Aznar y Cano 1905 – 1907 José García Gual 1910 – 1911 Gustavo Suzarte Campos 1911 Román Sabas Flores 1911 Urbano Espinosa 1911 Manuel Castilla Brito 1911 – 1913 Felipe Bueno 1913 Manuel Rojas Moranos 1913 Manuel Rivera 1913 – 1914 Eduardo Hurtado Aubry 1914 Joaquín Mucel Acereto 1914 – 1919 Enrique Arias Solís 1919 – 1920 Eduardo Arceo Zumárraga 1920 Gonzalo Sales Guerrero 1920 – 1921 Eduardo Arceo Zumárraga 1921 Enrique Gómez Briceño 1921 Guillermo Ferrer Vega 1921 Ramón Félix Flores 1921 – 1923 Ángel Castillo Lanz 1923 – 1927 Silvestre Pavón Silva 1927 – 1928 Pedro Tello Andueza 1928 Ramiro Bojórquez Castillo 1928 – 1931 Fausto Bojórquez Castillo 1931 Benjamín Romero Esquivel 1931 – 1935 Eduardo Mena Córdova 1935 – 1939 Héctor Pérez Martínez 1939 – 1943 Eduardo Lavalle Urbina 1943 – 1949 Manuel López Hernández 1949 – 1955 Alberto Trueba Urbina 1955 – 1961 José Ortiz Avila 1961 – 1967 Carlos Sansores Pérez 1967 – 1963 Carlos Pérez Cámara 1973 Rafael Rodríguez Barrera 1973 – 1979 Eugenio Echeverría Castellot 1979 – 1985 Abelardo Carrillo Zavala 1985 – 1991 Jorge Salomón Azar García 1991 – 1997 José Antonio González Curi 1997 – 2003 Jorge Carlos Hurtado Valdez 2003 – 2009 Fernando Ortega Bernés 2009 – 2015 Alejandro Moreno Cárdenas 2015 – present Congress of Campeche
Governor of Querétaro
The Governor of Querétaro is the chief executive of the Mexican state of Querétaro. According to the Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Queretaro, the exercise of executive power of the Mexican state, is deposited in one individual, it called the Constitutional Governor is elected for a period of six years no re-eligible for any reason; the governmental period begins on October 1 of the year of the election and ends on September 30 after six years have elapsed. Queretaro state was created in 1824, one of the original states of the federation, thus throughout its historical life has passed by all systems of governance found in Mexico, both federal system as the central system, so the name of the organization has varied between been and department. Individuals who have held the governorship of the state of Queretaro, in its various denominations, were as follows:: Miguel Torres: Juan José García Rebollo: José Joaquín Calvo: José Manuel Septién, Juan José Pastor y Andrés Quintanar: Andrés Quintanar: José María Diez Marina: José Rafael Canalizo: Ramón Covarrubias: Manuel López de Ecala: José Rafael Canalizo: José Antonio Mejía: Lino Ramírez: José Rafael Canalizo: Ramón Covarrubias: Sabás Antonio Domínguez: José Francisco Figueroa: Sabás Antonio Domínguez: José Francisco Figueroa: Julián Juvera: Sabás Antonio Domínguez: Julián Juvera: Héctor Flores: Sabás Antonio Domínguez: Manuel María Lombardini: José Antonio del Razo: Francisco Berdusco: Francisco de Paula Mesa: Juan Manuel Fernández de Jaúregui: José Antonio Urrutia: Ramón María Loreto Canal de Samaniego: José Guerra González: José María Herrera y Lozada: Pánfilo Barasorda: Ángel Cabrera Merino - 1856): Francisco Díez Marina Silvestre Méndez: Sabino Flores: José María Arteaga: Manuel Montes Navarrete: José María Arteaga: Francisco Berdusco: Octaviano Muñoz Ledo: Tomás Mejía: Cayetano Montoya (1860: Manuel María Escobar y Rivera: José María Arteaga: Pedro M. Rioseco (1860: Silvestre Méndez: Silvestre Méndez: Zeferino Macías: Ignacio Echegaray: José Linares: José María Arteaga: Desiderio de Samaniego: Manuel Gutiérrez de Salceda y Gómez: José Antonio Septién y Villaseñor: Manuel Domínguez y Quintanar: Julio M. Cervantes: Miguel Eguiluz: Margarito Mena: Julio M. Cervantes: Leandro Múzquiz: Juan N. Rubio: Julio M. Cervantes: José Francisco Bustamante: Julio M. Cervantes: José Francisco Bustamante: Ignacio Castro: Benito Santos Zenea: Francisco Villaseñor: Francisco Villaseñor: Luis G. Lanchazo: Francisco Villaseñor: León Covarrubias Acevedo: Carlos M. Rubio: Francisco A. Vélez: Carlos Castilla: Francisco Villaseñor: Francisco A. Vélez: Antonio Ruiz: Antonio Gayón: Luis Castañeda José María Rivera Olvera: José María Esquivel: Francisco González de Cosío: Rafael Olvera Ledesma: Timoteo Fernández de Jáuregui: Alfonso M. Veraza: Timoteo Fernández de Jáuregui: Alfonso M. Veraza: Alfonso M. Veraza: José Vázquez Marroquín: José Vázquez Marroquín: Francisco González de Cosío: José Vázquez Marroquín: José Vázquez Marroquín: José María Esquivel: José Vázquez MarroquínThis is a list of the governors of the Mexican state of Querétaro since 1911: 1911 Adolfo de la Isla 1911 Alfonso M. Veraza 1911 José Antonio Septién 1911 Carlos M. Loyola 1913-1914 Joaquín F. Chicarro 1914 José Antonio Septién 1914 Francisco Murguía 1914 Federico Montes 1914-1915 Teodoro Elizondo 1915 Gustavo M. Bravo 1915 José Siurob Ramírez 1915-1917 Federico Montes 1916-1917 Emilio Salinas 1917 Ernesto Perrusquía 1919-1920 Salvador Argain Domínguez 1920 Fernando N. Villarreal 1920 Rómulo de la Torre 1920 José M. Truchuelo 1923 Francisco Ramírez Luque 1923 Fernando Ávalos 1923 Joaquín de la Peña 1924-1925 Julián Malo Juvera 1925 Alfonso Ballesteros Ríos 1925 Agustín Herrera Pérez 1925-1927 Constantino Llaca Nieto 1927 Fernando Díaz Ramírez 1927-1929 Abraham Araujo 1929 Ángel Vázquez Mellado 1929-1931 Ramón Anaya 1931 Antonio Pérez Alcocer 1931-1935 Saturnino Osornio 1935-1939 Ramón Rodríguez Familiar 1939-1943 Noradino Rubio 1943-1949 Agapito Pozo 1949 Eduardo Luque Loyola 1949-1955 Octavio Mondragón Guerra 1955-1961 Juan C.
Gorraéz 1961-1967 Manuel González Cosío 1967-1973 Juventino Castro Sánchez 1973-1979 Antonio Calzada Urquiza 1979-1985 Rafael Camacho Guzmán 1985-1991 Mariano Palacios Alcocer 1991-1997 Enrique Burgos García 1997-2003 Ignacio Loyola Vera 2003-2009 Francisco Garrido Patrón 2009-2015 José Eduardo Calzada Rovirosa 2015 Jorge López Portillo Tostado 2015-present Francisco Domínguez Servién List of Mexican state governors Politics of Mexico
Francisco Labastida Ochoa is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party, who became the first presidential candidate of his party to lose a presidential election, which he did in the 2000 presidential election to Vicente Fox. Labastida was born to Dr. Eduardo Labastida Kofahl, his wife, Dr. Teresa Uriarte, was director of UNAM's Institute of Aesthetics Research, his great-grandfather fought on the side of Former Mexican President Benito Juárez in the War of Reform, his grandfather was Governor of Sinaloa as well as federal deputy. Just like his grandfather, Labastida served as governor of Sinaloa, defeating Manuel Clouthier of the National Action Party. During and after his tenure as governor, Labastida was accused of protecting Sinaloan drug traffickers and overlooking their criminal activities. Labastida was Secretary of Energy during the administration of Miguel de la Madrid, he was Secretary of Agriculture and Secretary of the Interior during the administration of Ernesto Zedillo.
After losing the 2000 presidential election, he served as president of the Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo de México. In the 2006 general election, he was elected to the Senate for the PRI. Las Razones de la Política Planeación para el Desarrollo National Order of Merit Grand Officer, of the government of France The Great Cross of Brazil Medal of the Mexican Supreme Court 2000 Campaign site at the Wayback Machine