The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the Soviets; the February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, the capital of Russia at that time. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government, dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy; the army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Tsar Nicholas's abdication. The Soviets, which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.
The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the left-leaning urban middle class. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin who campaigned for an immediate end to the war, land to the peasants, bread to the workers; when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control.
In the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the now supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist republic, practicing Soviet democracy on a national and international scale; the promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was honored promptly with the Bolshevik leaders signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Cheka was established which functioned as a revolutionary security service that sought to weed out and punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on similar events during the French Revolution.
Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there was a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land; the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. A council of workers called. While the 1905 Revolution was crushed, the leaders of the St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to 1917.
The 1905 Revolution led to the creation of a Duma, that would form the Provisional Government following February 1917. The outbreak of World War I prompted general outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family. While the nation was engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of defeats and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion; the Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in 1915. This proved to be disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia; this led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against th
Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign Polish state. Until the November Uprising in 1831, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Tsars of Russia. Thereafter, the state was forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century. In 1915, during World War I, it was replaced by the Central Powers with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland, which continued to exist until Poland regained independence in 1918. Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years; the territory, with its native population, was split between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire. An equivalent to Congress Poland within the Austrian Empire was the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria commonly referred to as "Austrian Poland"; the area incorporated into Prussia and subsequently the German Empire had little autonomy and was a province within Prussia - the Province of Posen.
The Kingdom of Poland enjoyed considerable political autonomy as guaranteed by the liberal constitution. However, its rulers, the Russian Emperors disregarded any restrictions on their power, it was, little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The autonomy was curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 and 1863, as the country became governed by namiestniks, divided into guberniya, thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction. The capital was located in Warsaw, which towards the beginning of the 20th century became the Russian Empire's third-largest city after St. Petersburg and Moscow; the moderately multicultural population of Congress Poland was estimated at 9,402,253 inhabitants in 1897. It was composed of Poles, Polish Jews, ethnic Germans and an insignificant Russian minority; the predominant religion was Roman Catholicism and the official language used within the state was Polish until the January Uprising when Russian became co-official. Yiddish and German were spoken by its native speakers.
The territory of Congress Poland corresponds to modern-day Kalisz Region and the Lublin, Łódź, Masovian and Holy Cross Voivodeships of Poland as well as southwestern Lithuania and part of Grodno District of Belarus. Although the official name of the state was the Kingdom of Poland, in order to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it is sometimes referred to as "Congress Poland"; the Kingdom of Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French client state, at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 when the great powers reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The Kingdom was created on part of the Polish territory, partitioned by Russia and Prussia replacing, after Napoleon's defeat, the Duchy of Warsaw, set up by Napoleon in 1807. After Napoleon's 1812 defeat, the fate of the Duchy of Warsaw was dependent on Russia. Prussia insisted on the Duchy being eliminated, but after Russian troops reached Paris in 1812, Tsar Alexander I intended to annex to the Duchy the Lithuanian-Belarusian lands, now controlled by the Tsardom, which used to be a part of the First Polish Republic and to unite thus created Polish country with Russia.
Both Austria and England did not approve of that idea, Austria issuing a memorandum on returning to the 1795 resolutions, this idea supported by England under George IV and Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson and the English delegate to the Congress, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, so in effect the Tsar, after the so-called Hundred Days, established the Kingdom of Poland and the 1815 Congress of Vienna approved. After the Congress, Russia gained a larger share of Poland and, after crushing an insurrection in 1831, the Congress Kingdom's autonomy was abolished and Poles faced confiscation of property, forced military service, the closure of their own universities; the Congress was important enough in the creation of the state to cause the new country to be named for it. The Kingdom lost its status as a sovereign state in 1831 and the administrative divisions were reorganized, it was sufficiently distinct that its name remained in official Russian use, although in the years of Russian rule it was replaced with the Privislinsky Krai.
Following the defeat of the November Uprising its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished as part of increased Russification to be more integrated with the Russian Empire. However after this formalized annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in 1915 during World War I; the Kingdom had an area of 128,500 km2 and a population of 3.3 million. The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which had a population of 10 million and an area of 1 million km2, its population reached 6.1 million by 1870 and 10 million by 1900. Most of the ethnic Poles in the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom, although some areas outside it contained a Polish majority; the Kingdom of Poland re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
The Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the Polish King. His title as chief of Poland in Russian, was Tsar, similar to usage in
Administrative divisions of Ukraine (1918–1925)
Administrative divisions of Ukraine in 1918–1925 was inherited from the Russian Empire and was based on the system of gubernias divided into powiats and volosts. New administrative reform was adopted by the Central Council of Ukraine on March 4, 1918, which saw restructuring the subdivision of Ukraine based on a new system of lands and abolishing system of gubernias and powiats. Implementation of the new system was never realized and after the Skoropadsky's coup-d'etat on April 29, 1918, was abandoned; the system of gubernias was abolished in 1925 and was replaced with okruhas. Ukraine was divided into two okruhas and three cities with special status. Chernihiv Governorate Katerynoslav Governorate Kiev Governorate Kharkiv Governorate Kherson Governorate Podolia Governorate Poltava Governorate Volhynia GovernorateIn November 1918 was reestablished Kholm Governorate, creation of which however was never realized. In 1919 it was occupied by the Polish Army and in 1920 transferred to the Second Polish Republic after the Warsaw Treaty.
In January 1919 the West Ukrainian People's Republic joined the Ukrainian People's Republic with the Unification Act as the Western Oblast of the Ukrainian People's Republic, while de facto being completely occupied by Poland. Chernihiv Governorate included Homiel county, ceded from the Mogilev Governorate; some part of Kursk Governorate were ceded to Chernihiv Governorate, while others to Kharkiv Governorate. Kharkiv Governorate received some counties of Voronezh Governorate. With reestablishment of the Soviet regime some transformations took place. There were created following gubernias: Kremenchuk Governorate Donets Governorate Odessa Governorate Zaporizhia GovernorateVolhynia Governorate was lost after the Peace of Riga. From parts of the Odessa Governorate was created the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Polissya Okruha Tavria OkruhaTaurida Okruha was created after the liberation of Ukraine from the Soviet occupation in 1918 when the Crimean peninsula was administered by the Crimean Regional Government, while continental part of the Taurida Governorate became the Tuarida Okruha.
Polissya Okruha was created in August 1918 from the southern counties of the Minsk Governorate. Both okruhas were liquidated with the new invasion of the Soviet forces in 1920. More systematic division of okruhas was created in the Soviet Ukraine in 1923 when okruhas were at first a subdivision of gubernias and after the liquidation of gubernias in 1925, okruhas became the prime subdivision of the republic. Kiev Odesa Mykolaiv Huban, R. History of establishment of the modern administrative division system of Ukraine. "Justian". Jurist Magazine, 2009 Administrative division of the Ukrainian lands. Institute of History of Ukraine. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Mykhailo Hrushevsky - creator of the system of democratic elections in Ukraine. Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Administrative-territorial reform in the Ukrainian SSR. Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia
Smolensk Governorate, or the Government of Smolensk, was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, the Russian SFSR, which existed, with interruptions, between 1708 and 1929. Smolensk Governorate, together with seven other governorates, was established on December 29, 1708, by Tsar Peter the Great's edict; as with the rest of the governorates, neither the borders nor internal subdivisions of Smolensk Governorate were defined. On July 28, 1713, Smolensk Governorate was abolished and its territory was divided between Moscow and Riga Governorates. Smolensk Province was created as a result; the governorate was re-established in 1726, Smolensk Province was re-incorporated into the Governorate. In 1775, it was included, along with parts of Moscow and Belgorod Governorates, into Smolensk Viceroyalty; the governorate was again restored in 1796. After the October Revolution, Smolensk Governorate was base of independent Western Oblast/Western Commune, Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus, Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, incorporated into the Russian SFSR.
On January 14, 1929, Smolensk Governorate was abolished and its territory was included into Western Oblast. Smolensk Governorate, together with seven other governorates, was established on December 29, 1708, by Tsar Peter the Great's edict; as with the rest of the governorates, neither the borders nor internal subdivisions of Smolensk Governorate were defined. At the time of establishment, the following thirty cities were included into Smolensk Governorate, In 1713, when Smolensk Governorate was abolished and merged into Riga Governorate, the following five uyezds were established in the area formally occupied by the governorate, Belsky Uyezd. After Smolensk Governorate was re-established in 1726, it was subdivided into these five uyezds. In 1775, Smolensk Viceroyalty was subdivided into 12 uyezds, which remained when it was transformed back to a governorate in 1802, Belsky Uyezd. Population by mother tongue according to the Imperial census of 1897. According to the Imperial census of 1897. Голубовский П.
В. История Смоленской земли до начала XV столетия
Governor-general or governor general, in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm. Governors-general have previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as French Indochina. In modern usage, the term governor-general originated in those British colonies which became self-governing within the British Empire. Before World War I, the title was used only in federated colonies in which each of the constituent colonies of these federated colonies had a governor, namely Canada and the Union of South Africa. In these cases, the Crown's representative in the federated Dominion was given the superior title of governor-general; the first exception to this rule was New Zealand, granted Dominion status in 1907, but it was not until 28 June 1917 that Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was appointed the first Governor-General of New Zealand.
Another non-federal state, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King's representative retaining the title of governor throughout this time. Since 2016, the title governor-general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered to become governor-general upon independence, as the nature of the office became an independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the governor-general acts as the monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a head of state; the only other nation which uses the governor-general designation is Iran, which has no connection with any monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a governor general, appointed by the Minister of the Interior; until the 1920s, governors-general were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British government, who acted as agents of the British government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch.
As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The governor-general could be instructed by the colonial secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; the monarch or imperial government could overrule any governor-general, though this could be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London. The governor-general was usually the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the governor-general's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one; the governors-general are entitled to wear a unique uniform, not worn today. If of the rank of major general, equivalent or above, they were entitled to wear that military uniform. Following the Imperial Conference, subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the governor-general began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions.
As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to that country's national affairs, so too did the governor-general become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: "...it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty's Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government." These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.
In other words, the political reality of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire with a governor-general answerable to the sovereign became clear. British interference in the Dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was displayed. Canada and New Zealand were not controlled by the United Kingdom; the monarch of these countries is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority; the governor-general, however, is still appointed by the monarch and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is vested in the monarc
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Voronezh Governorate was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, the early Russian SFSR, which existed from 1708 until 1779 and from 1796 until 1928. Its seat was located in Voronezh since 1725; the governorate was located in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire. In 1928, the governorate was abolished, its area was included into newly established Central Black Earth Oblast. Azov Governorate, together with seven other governorates, was established on December 29, 1708, by Tsar Peter the Great's edict; as with the rest of the governorates, neither the borders nor internal subdivisions of Azov Governorate were defined. The governorate bordered Kiev Governorate in the west, Moscow Governorate in the north, Kazan Governorate in the east; the areas south of the governorate were controlled by the Ottoman Empire, the southern border was not defined. Formally, Azov was the seat of the governorate, but in practice, the seat of the governor was located in Tambov until 1715 and in Voronezh after 1715.
In 1725, the governorate was renamed Voronezh Governorate. At the time of establishment, the following seventy-eight towns were included in Azov Governorate, Andreyevy Lozy. In 1711, the town of Azov was ceded to Turkey. In terms of the modern political division, Azov Governorate comprised the areas of what is Rostov Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Tambov Oblast, parts of Kursk Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, Tula Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Ryazan Oblast, Penza Oblast, Saratov Oblast, the Republic of Mordovia, as well as eastern areas of Ukraine, including parts of Kharkiv, Donetsk Oblast, Luhansk Oblast. On June 9, 1719, the governorate was divided into provinces: Bakhmut, Tambov and Yelets; the uyezds were transformed into districts. In 1725, Azov Governorate was renamed into Voronezh Governorate; the administration of the governorate was performed by a governor. The governors of First Azov Governorate were 1711–1719 Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin, Governor general. By that time, the governorate was divided into five provinces, defined as sets of the towns.
The following towns were a part of Bakhmut Province, Bakhmut. Shatsk Province,Kadom. In 1727, these towns were transferred into Bakhmut Province. During the 18th century, some of these towns were abolished, a number of others were mentioned as towns in sources. In 1765, Bakhmut Province was transferred into Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1775, the provinces were abolished, the governorate was subdivided into uyezds. At that time, the governorate consisted of Dankovsky, Insarsky, Kasimovsky, Korotoyaksky, Lebedyansky, Narovchatsky, Ryazhsky, Tambovsky, Userdsky, Verkhnelomovsky, Voronezhsky and Yeletsky Uyezds. In the following years, the administrative reforms continued, governorates were abolished in favor of vice-royalties. In 1778, some areas of Voronezh Governorate were transferred to Ryazan and Oryol Viceroyalties, in 1779 Valuysky Uyezd was transferred to Voronezh Governorate. In 1779, the governorate was abolished, Tambov and Voronezh Viceroyalty, followed in 1780 by Penza Viceroyalty, were established.
In 1796, by Decree of Tsar Pavel I, Voronezh Viceroyalty was abolished, Voronezh Governorate was established. It consisted of nine uyezds, Bobrovsky, Nizhnedevitsky, Valuysky, Voronezhsky and Zemlyansky. In 1802, Bogucharsky and Starobelsky Uyezds of Slobodsko-Ukrainian Governorate and Novokhopyorsky Uyezd of Saratov Governorate were transferred to Voronezh Governorate. In 1824, Starobelsky Uyezd was returned to Slobodsko-Ukrainian Governorate. In 1923, after a s