The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire, at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Habsburg Spain. The wars were dominated by land campaigns in Hungary, including Transylvania and Vojvodina and central Serbia. By the 16th century, the Ottomans had become a serious threat to the European powers, with Ottoman ships sweeping away Venetian possessions in the Aegean and Ionian seas and Ottoman-supported Barbary pirates seizing Spanish possessions in the Maghreb; the Protestant Reformation, the French–Habsburg rivalry and the numerous civil conflicts of the Holy Roman Empire served as distractions to the Christians from their conflict with the Ottomans. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had to contend with the Persian Safavid Empire and to a lesser extent the Mamluk Sultanate, defeated and incorporated into the empire. Ottoman conquests in Europe made significant gains with a decisive victory at Mohács reducing around one third part of Kingdom of Hungary to the status of an Ottoman tributary.
The Peace of Westphalia and the Spanish War of Succession in the 17th and 18th centuries left the Austrian Empire as the sole firm possession of the House of Habsburg. Following the Siege of Vienna in 1683 the Habsburgs were able to assemble a large coalition of European powers known as the Holy League, allowing them to combat the Ottomans and to regain control over Hungary; the Great Turkish War ended with the decisive Holy League victory at Zenta. The wars came to an end following Austria's participation in the war of 1787-1791, which Austria fought in alliance with Russia. Intermittent tension between Austria and the Ottoman Empire continued throughout the nineteenth century, but they never again fought each other in a war and found themselves allied in World War I, in the aftermath of which both empires were dissolved. Historians have devoted most of their attention to the second siege of Vienna of 1683, depicting it as a decisive Austrian victory that saved Western civilization and began the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
However more historians have taken a broader perspective noting that the Habsburgs at the same time resisted internal separatist movements, were battling Prussia and France for control of central Europe. The key advance made by the Europeans was an effective combined arms doctrine in which the infantry and artillery, supported by the cavalry, cooperated together to be triply effective; the Ottomans were able to maintain military parity with the Habsburgs until the middle of the eighteenth century. Historian Gunther E. Rothenberg has emphasized the non-combat dimension of the conflict, whereby the Habsburgs built up military communities that protected their borders and produced a steady flow of well-trained, motivated soldiers. While the Habsburgs were the Kings of Hungary and Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, the wars between the Hungarians and the Ottomans included other Dynasties as well; the Ottoman Wars in Europe attracted support from the West, where the advancing and powerful Islamic state was seen as a threat to Christendom in Europe.
The Crusades of Nicopolis and of Varna marked the most determined attempts by Europe to halt the Turkic advance into Central Europe and the Balkans. For a while the Ottomans were too busy trying to put down Balkan rebels such as Vlad Dracula. However, the defeat of these and other rebellious vassal states opened up Central Europe to Ottoman invasion; the Kingdom of Hungary now bordered its vassals. After King Louis II of Hungary was killed at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, his widow Queen Mary fled to her brother the Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand I. Ferdinand's claim to the throne of Hungary was further strengthened by his marriage to Anne, the sister of King Louis II and the only family member claimant to the throne of the shattered Kingdom. Ferdinand I was elected King of Bohemia, at the Diet of Pozsony he and his wife were elected King and Queen of Hungary; this clashed with the Turkish objective of placing the puppet John Szapolyai on the throne, thus setting the stage for a conflict between the two powers.
The Austrian lands were in miserable economic and financial conditions, thus Ferdinand introduced the so-called Turkish Tax, despite of that huge Austrian sacrifices, he was not able to collect enough money to pay the expenses of the defense costs of the Austrian lands. His annual revenues only allowed him to hire 5.000 mercenaries for two months, thus Ferdinand asked help from his brother Emperor Charles V, started to borrowing money from rich bankers like the Fugger family. Ferdinand I attacked Hungary, a state weakened by civil conflict, in 1527, in an attempt to drive out John Szapolyai and enforce his authority there. John was unable to prevent Ferdinand's campaigning, which led to the capture of Buda and several other key settlements along the Danube. Despite this, the Ottoman sultan was slow to react and only came to the aid of his vassal when he launched an army of about 120,000 men on 10 May 1529; the Austrian branch of Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars.
During the Ottoman wars the territory of former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. T
Colonization is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. Colonization refers to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts, plantations, while colonialism to the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories". Colonization was linked to the spread of tens of millions from Western European states all over the world. In many settled colonies, Western European settlers formed a large majority of the population after killing or driving away indigenous peoples. Examples include the Americas and New Zealand; these colonies were called'neo-Europes'. In other places, Western European settlers formed minority groups, which used more advanced weaponry to dominate the people living in their places of settlement; when Britain started to settle in Australia, New Zealand and various other smaller islands, they regarded the landmasses as terra nullius, meaning'empty land' in Latin. Due to the absence of European farming techniques, the land was deemed unaltered by man and therefore treated as uninhabited, despite the presence of indigenous populations.
In the 19th century and ideas such as Mexico's general Colonization Law and the United States' Manifest destiny encouraged further colonization of the Americas started in the 15th century. The term colonization is derived from the Latin words colere, colonus by extension "to inhabit". Someone who engages in colonization, i.e. the agent noun, is referred to as a colonizer, while the person who gets colonized, i.e. the object of the agent noun or absolutive, is referred to as a colonizee, colonisee or the colonised. In ancient times, maritime nations such as the city-states of Greece and Phoenicia established colonies to farm what they believed was uninhabited land. Land suitable for farming was occupied by migratory'barbarian tribes' who lived by hunting and gathering. To ancient Greeks and Phoenicians, these lands were regarded as vacant. However, this did not mean that conflict did not exist between the colonizers and local/native peoples. Greeks and Phoenicians established colonies with the intent of regulating and expanding trade throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Another period of colonization in ancient times was during the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire conquered large parts of North Africa and West Asia. In North Africa and West Asia, the Romans conquered what they regarded as'civilized' peoples; as they moved north into Europe, they encountered rural peoples/tribes with little in the way of cities. In these areas, waves of Roman colonization followed the conquest of the areas. Many of the current cities throughout Europe began as Roman colonies, such as Cologne, Germany called Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium by the Romans, the British capital city of London, which the Romans founded as Londinium; the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire saw the large-scale movement of people in Eastern Europe and Asia. This is seen as beginning with nomadic horsemen from Asia moving into the richer pasture land to the west, thus forcing the local peoples there to move further west and so on until the Goths were forced to cross into the Roman Empire, resulting in continuous war with Rome which played a major role in the fall of the Roman Empire.
During this period there were the large-scale movements of peoples establishing new colonies all over western Europe. The events of this time saw the development of many of the modern day nations of Europe like the Franks in France and Germany and the Anglo-Saxons in England. In West Asia, during Sassanid Empire, some Persians established colonies in Oman; the Arabs established colonies in Northern Africa and the Levant, remain the dominant majority to this day. The Vikings of Scandinavia carried out a large-scale colonization; the Vikings are best known as raiders, setting out from their original homelands in Denmark, southern Norway and southern Sweden, to pillage the coastlines of northern Europe. In time, the Vikings began trading, established colonies; the Vikings discovered Iceland and established colonies before moving onto Greenland, where they held some colonies. The Vikings launched an unsuccessful attempt at colonizing an area they called Vinland, at a site now known as L'Anse aux Meadows and Labrador, on the eastern coastline of Canada.
"Colonialism" in this context refers to Western European countries' colonization of lands in the Americas, Africa and Oceania. Most of these countries had a period of complete power in world trade at some stage in the period from 1500 to 1900. Beginning in the late 19th century, Imperial Japan engaged in settler colonization, most notably in Hokkaido and Korea; some reports characterize Chinese activities in Tibet as colonization. While many European colonization schemes focused on shorter-term exploitation of economic opportunities or addressed specific goals, a tradition developed of careful long-term social and economic planning for both parties, but more on the colonizing countries themselves, based on elaborate theory-building (note James Oglethorpe
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in England's Thirteen American Colonies. It was fought between France and England for control of the American continent, while the War of the Spanish Succession was fought in Europe; the war involved numerous American Indian tribes allied with each nation, Spain was allied with France. It is known as the Third Indian War or in France as the Second Intercolonial War, it was fought on three fronts: Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina attacked one another, the English forces engaged the French based at Mobile, Alabama in a proxy war involving allied Indians on both sides. The southern war did not result in significant territorial changes, but it had the effect of nearly wiping out the Indian population of Spanish Florida, including parts of southern Georgia, destroying the network of Spanish missions in Florida; the English colonies of New England fought against French and Indian forces based in Acadia and Canada.
Quebec City was targeted by British expeditions, the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710. The French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, most famously the raid on Deerfield in 1704. English colonists based at St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of economically destructive raids on settlements; the French captured St. John's in 1709, but the British reoccupied it after the French abandoned it; the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713, following a preliminary peace in 1712. France ceded the territories of Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to Britain while retaining Cape Breton Island and other islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; some terms were ambiguous in the treaty, concerns of various Indian tribes were not included, thereby setting the stage for future conflicts.
War broke out in 1701 following the death of King Charles II over who should succeed him to the Spanish throne. The war at first was restricted to a few powers in Europe, but it widened in May 1702 when England declared war on Spain and France; the hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers. This dis-harmony was most pronounced along the northern and southwestern frontiers of the English colonies, which stretched from the Province of Carolina in the south to the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the north, with additional colonial settlements or trading outposts on Newfoundland and at Hudson Bay; the total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. The population centers of these colonies were concentrated along the coast, with small settlements inland, sometimes reaching as far as the Appalachian Mountains. Most European colonists knew little of the interior of the continent, to the west of the Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes.
This area was dominated by Indian tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area. Spanish missionaries in La Florida had established a network of missions to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Roman Catholicism; the Spanish population was small, the Indian population to whom they ministered has been estimated to number 20,000. French explorers had located the mouth of the Mississippi River, near which they established a small colonial presence in 1699 at Fort Maurepas. From there they began to establish trade routes into the interior, establishing friendly relations with the Choctaw, a large tribe whose enemies included the British-allied Chickasaw. All of these populations had suffered to some degree from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases such as smallpox by early explorers and traders; the arrival of the French in the south threatened existing trade links that Carolina colonists had established into the interior, creating tension among all three powers.
France and Spain, allies in this conflict, had been on opposite sides of the ended Nine Years' War. Conflicting territorial claims between Carolina and Florida south of the Savannah River were overlaid by animosity over religious divisions between the Roman Catholic Spanish and the Protestant English along the coast. To the north, the conflict held a strong economic component in addition to territorial disputes. Newfoundland was the site of a British colony based at St. John's, the French colonial base was at Plaisance, with both sides holding a number of smaller permanent settlements; the island had many seasonal settlements used by fishermen from Europe. These colonists numbered fewer than 2,000 English and 1,000 French permanent settlers who competed with one another for the fisheries of the Grand Banks, which were used by fishermen from Acadia and Massachusetts; the border area between Acadia and New England remained uncertain despite battles along the border throughout King William's War.
New France defined the border of Acadia as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. There were Catholic missions at Norridgewock and Penobscot and a French settlement in Penobscot Bay near the site of modern Castine, which had all been bases for attacks on New England settlers migrating toward Acadia dur
The Italian Wars referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of Renaissance conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved most of the Italian states as well as France, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and the Ottoman Empire. An Italic League that ensured peace in the peninsula for 50 years had collapsed in 1492 with the death of Lorenzo De Medici, key figure of the bloc and ruler of Florence. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded the Italian Peninsula and occupied the Kingdom of Naples on the ground of a dynastic claim. However, he was forced to leave the occupied territories after a northern Italian alliance won a tactical victory against him at the Battle of Fornovo. In an attempt to avoid the mistakes of his predecessor, Louis XII annexed the Duchy of Milan in the north of Italy and signed an agreement with Ferdinand of Aragon to share the Kingdom of Naples. Ferdinand of Aragon turned on Louis XII and expelled French forces from the South after the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano.
After a series of alliances and betrayals, the Papacy decided to side against French control of Milan and supported Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and heir of Aragon territories in Italy. Following the battles of Bicocca and Pavia, France lost its control of Milan to the Habsburgs. However, mutinous German Protestant troops of Charles V sacked Rome in 1527: this event was a turning point in the development of the European Wars of Religion and caused Charles V to focus on the growth of Protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire. King Henry II of France took advantage of the situation and tried to establish supremacy in Italy by invading Corsica and Tuscany. However, his conquest of Corsica was reversed by the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria and his troops in Tuscany were defeated at the Battle of Scannagallo by the Florentines and the Imperials. With the abdication of Charles V, Philip II of Spain inherited the Italian possessions; the last significant confrontation, the Battle of St Quentin, was won by Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy for the Spanish and international forces: this led the restoration of the French-occupied Piedmont to the House of Savoy.
In 1559, the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was signed. The political map of Italy was affected by the end of the wars: Naples and Milan had been confirmed to remain under Spanish control. In a jousting tournament held to celebrate the peace treaty, Henry II of France was killed by a lance: the instability that followed his death led to the French Wars of Religion. Following the Wars in Lombardy between Venice and Milan, which ended in 1454, Northern Italy had been at peace during the reigns of Cosimo de' Medici and Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, with the notable exception of the War of Ferrara in 1482–1484. Charles VIII of France improved relations with other European rulers in the run up to the First Italian War by negotiating a series of treaties: in 1493, France negotiated the Treaty of Senlis with the Holy Roman Empire. Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice, encouraged Charles VIII of France to invade Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext.
When Ferdinand I of Naples died in 1494, Charles VIII invaded the peninsula with a French Army of twenty-five thousand men hoping to use Naples as a base for a crusade against the Ottoman Turks. For several months, French forces moved through Italy unopposed, since the condottieri armies of the Italian city-states were unable to resist them. Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Pisa on November 8, 1494, Florence on November 17, 1494, Rome on December 31, 1494. Upon reaching the city of Monte San Giovanni in the Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII sent envoys to the town and the castle located there to seek a surrender of the Neapolitan garrison; the garrison mutilated the envoys and sent the bodies back to the French lines. This enraged the French army so that they reduced the castle in the town with blistering artillery fire on February 9, 1495 and stormed the fort, killing everyone inside; this event was called the sack of Naples. News of the French Army's sack of Naples provoked a reaction among the city-states of Northern Italy and the League of Venice was formed on March 31, 1495.
The League was formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, Milan and the Holy Roman Empire. On the League consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Mantua and the Republic of Venice; this coalition cut Charles' army off from returning to France. After establishing a pro-French government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the small town of Fornovo he met the League army; the Battle of Fornovo was fought on July 6, 1495, after an hour the League's army was forced back across the Taro river while the French continued marching to Asti, leaving their carriages and provisions behind. Francesco Guicciardini wrote that both parties strove to present themselves as the victors in that battle, but the eventual consensus was for a French victory, because the French repelled their enemies across the river and succeeded in moving forward, the
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
War of Jenkins' Ear
The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Britain and Spain lasting from 1739 to 1748, with major operations ended by 1742. Its unusual name, coined by Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, a captain of a British merchant ship. There is no evidence that supports the stories that the severed ear was exhibited before the British Parliament; the seeds of conflict began with the separation of an ear from Jenkins following the boarding of his vessel by Spanish coast guards in 1731, eight years before the war began. Popular response to the incident was tepid until several years when opposition politicians and the British South Sea Company hoped to spur outrage against Spain, believing that a victorious war would improve Britain’s trading opportunities in the Caribbean. Ostensibly providing the impetus to war against the Spanish Empire was a desire to pressure the Spanish not to renege on the lucrative asiento contract, which gave British slavers permission to sell slaves in Spanish America.
The war resulted in heavy British casualties in North America. After 1742, the war was subsumed by the wider War of the Austrian Succession, which involved most of the powers of Europe. Peace arrived with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. From the British perspective, the war was notable because it was the first time that a regiment of colonial American troops was raised and placed "on the Establishment" – made a part of the regular British Army – and sent to fight outside North America. At the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht gave Britain a thirty-year asiento, or contract-right, to supply an unlimited number of slaves to the Spanish colonies, 500 tons of goods per year; this provided British traders and smugglers potential inroads into the traditionally closed markets in Spanish America. But Britain and Spain were at war during this period, fighting one another in the War of the Quadruple Alliance, the Blockade of Porto Bello and the Anglo-Spanish War.
In the Treaty of Seville, following the Anglo-Spanish War, Britain had accorded Spanish warships a "Visitation Right", the right to stop British traders and check them for smuggled cargo to verify that the asiento was being respected. Over time, the Spanish became suspicious British traders were abusing the contract and began to board ships and confiscate their cargoes. After strained relations between 1727 and 1732, the situation improved between 1732 and 1737, when Sir Robert Walpole supported Spain during the War of the Polish Succession, but the causes of the problems remained and, when the opposition against Walpole grew, so did anti-Spanish sentiment among the British public. Walpole gave in to the pressure and approved the sending of troops to the West Indies and a squadron to Gibraltar under Admiral Nicholas Haddock, provoking an immediate Spanish reaction. Spain asked for financial compensation, in turn the British demanded annulment of the Visitation Right. In response, King Philip V of Spain annulled the asiento and had all British ships in Spanish harbours confiscated.
The Convention of Pardo, an attempt to mediate the dispute, broke down. On 14 August, Britain recalled its ambassador to Spain and declared war on 23 October 1739. Despite the Pacte de Famille, France remained neutral. Walpole was reluctant to declare war and remarked of the jubilation in Britain "they are ringing their bells, soon they will be wringing their hands"; the incident that gave its name to the war had occurred in 1731, off the coast of Florida, when the British brig Rebecca was boarded by the Spanish patrol boat La Isabela, commanded by the guarda costa Juan de León Fandiño. After boarding, Fandiño cut off the left ear of the Rebecca's captain, Robert Jenkins, whom he accused of smuggling. Fandiño told Jenkins, "Go, tell your King that I will do the same, if he dares to do the same." In March 1738, Jenkins was ordered to testify before Parliament to repeat his story before a committee of the House of Commons. According to some accounts, he produced the severed ear as part of his presentation, although no detailed record of the hearing exists.
The incident was considered alongside various other cases of "Spanish Depredations upon the British Subjects", was perceived as an insult to Britain's honour and a clear casus belli. The conflict was named by essayist and historian Thomas Carlyle, in 1858, one hundred and ten years after hostilities ended. Carlyle mentioned the ear in several passages of his History of Friedrich II, most notably in Book XI, chapter VI, where he refers to "the War of Jenkins's Ear". Following Jenkins' testimony and petitions from other West Indies merchants, the opposition in Parliament voted on 28 March 1738 to send "an Address" to the King, asking his Majesty to seek redress from Spain. More than one year all diplomatic means having been exhausted, on 10 July 1739 King George II authorised the Admiralty Board to seek maritime reprisals against Spain. On 20 July, Vice Admiral Edward Vernon and a fleet of warships departed Britain, bound for the West Indies, to attack Spanish ships and "possessions". War was not declared against Spain until Saturday, 23 October 1739, one day after the attack on La Guaira, the principal port of the Province of Venezuela, controlled by the Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas.
After arriving at the island of Antigua in early October 1739, Vice Admiral Edward Vernon sent three ships under the command of Captain Thomas Waterhouse to intercept Spanish merchant ships that made the route between L